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as the accuser. The members of the appears to us, on the whole, honourable administration took different sides; for to the justice, moderation, and discernin that age all questions were open ment of the Commons. They had inquestions, except such as were brought deed no great temptation to do wrong. forward by the Government, or such as They would have been very bad judges implied censure on the Government. of an accusation brought against JenThurlow, the Attorney General, was kinson or against Wilkes. But the among the assailants. Wedderburne, question respecting Clive was not a the Solicitor General, strongly attached party question ; and the House accordto Clive, defended his friend with ex- ingly acted with the good sense and traordinary force of argument and good feeling which may always be exlanguage. It is a curious circumstance pected from an assembly of English that, some years later, Thurlow was gentlemen, not blinded by faction. the most conspicuous champion of The equitable and temperate proWarren Hastings, while Wedderburne ceedings of the British Parliament were was among the most unrelenting per- set off to the greatest advantage by a secutors of that great though not fault-foil. The wretched government of less statesman. Clive spoke in his own Lewis the Fifteenth had murdered, defence at less length and with less art directly or indirectly, almost every than in the preceding year, but with Frenchman who had served his country much energy and pathos. He recounted with distinction in the East. Labourhis great actions and his wrongs ; and, donnais was flung into the Bastile, after bidding his hearers remember, and, after years of suffering, left it that they were about to decide not only only to die. Dupleix, stripped of his on his honour but on their own, he re- immense fortune, and broken-hearted tired from the House.
by humiliating attendance in anteThe Commons resolved that acqui- chambers, sank into an obscure grave. sitions made by the arms of the State Lally was dragged to the common belong to the State alone, and that it is place of execution with a gag between illegal in the servants of the State to his lips. The Commons of England, appropriate such acquisitions to them on the other hand, treated their living selves. They resolved that this whole- captain with that discriminating justice some rule appeared to have been sys- which is seldom shown except to the tematically violated by the English dead. They laid down sound general functionaries in Bengal. On a sub- principles; they delicately pointed out sequent day they went a step farther, where he had deviated from those and resolved that Clive had, by means principles ; and they tempered the of the power which he possessed as gentle censure with liberal eulogy. commander of the British forces in The contrast struck Voltaire, always India, obtained large sums from Meer partial to England, and always eager Jaffier. Here the Commons stopped. to expose the abuses of the ParliaThey had voted the major and minor ments of France. Indeed he seems, of Burgoyne's syllogism ; but they at this time, to have meditated a hisshrank from drawing the logical con- tory of the conquest of Bengal. He clusion. When it was moved that mentioned his design to Dr. Moore, Lord Clive had abused his powers, and when that amusing writer visited him set an evil example to the servants of at Ferney. Wedderburne took great the public, the previous question was interest in the matter, and pressed put and carried. At length, long after Clive to furnish materials. Had the the sun had risen on an animated de- plan been carried into execution, we bate, Wedderburne moved that Lord have no doubt that Voltaire would Clive had at the same time rendered have produced a book containing much great and meritorious services to his lively and picturesque narrative, many country; and this motion passed with just and humane sentiments poignantly out a division.
expressed, many grotesque blunders, The result of this memorable inquiry many sneers at the Mosaic chronology,
much scandal about the Catholic mis- | The disputes with America had now sionaries, and much sublime theo-phi- become so serious that an appeal to lanthropy, stolen from the New Testa-. the sword seemed inevitable; and the ment, and put into the mouths of vir Ministers were desirous to avail themtuous and philosophical Brahmins. selves of the services of Clive. Had
Clive was now secure in the enjoy- he still been what he was when he ment of his fortune and his honours. | raised the siege of Patna and annihiHe was surrounded by attached friends lated the Dutch army and navy at the and relations ; and he had not yet mouth of the Ganges, it is not impropassed the season of vigorous bodily | bable that the resistance of the coloand mental exertion. But clouds had nists would have been put down, and long been gathering over his mind, that the inevitable separation would and now settled on it in thick dark- have been deferred for a few years. ness. From early youth he had been But it was too late. His strong mind subject to fits of that strange melan- was fast sinking under many kinds of choly “which rejoiceth exceedingly suffering. On the twenty-second of and is glad when it can find the grave.” | November, 1774, he died by his own While still a writer at Madras, he had hand. He had just completed his twice attempted to destroy himself. forty-ninth year. Business and prosperity had produced in the awful close of so much prosa salutary effect on his spirits. In perity and glory, the vulgar saw only India, while he was occupied by great a confirmation of all their prejudices; affairs, in England, while wealth and and some men of real piety and genius rank had still the charm of novelty, he so far forgot the maxims both of relihad borne up against his constitu- gion and of philosophy as confidently tional misery. But he had now no- to ascribe the mournful event to the thing to do, and nothing to wish for. just vengeance of God, and to the His active spirit in an inactive situa horrors of an evil conscience. It is tion drooped and withered like a plant with very different feelings that we in an uncongenial air. The malignity contemplate the spectacle of a great with which his enemies had pursued mind ruined by the weariness of satiety, him, the indignity with which he had by the pangs of wounded honour, by been treated by the committee, the fatal diseases, and more fatal remedies. censure, lenient as it was, which the Clive committed great faults ; and House of Commons had pronounced, we have not attempted to disguise them. the knowledge that he was regarded But his faults, when weighed against by a large portion of his countrymen his merits, and viewed in connection as a cruel and perfidious tyrant, all with his temptations, do not appear to concurred to irritate and depress him. us to deprive him of his right to an In the mean time, his temper was honourable place in the estimation of tried by acute physical suffering. posterity. During his long residence in tropical From his first visit to India dates the climates, he had contracted several renown of the English arms in the painful distempers. In order to ob- East. Till he appeared, his countrytain ease he called in the help of men were despised as mere pedlars, opium; and he was gradually enslaved while the French were revered as a by this treacherous ally. To the last, people formed for victory and comhowever, his genius occasionally flashed mand. His courage and capacity disthrough the gloom. It was said that solved the charm. With the defence of he would sometimes, after sitting si- | Arcot commences that long series of lent and torpid for hours, rouse himself Oriental triumphs which closes with the to the discussion of some great ques- fall of Ghizni. Nor must we forget tion, would display in full vigour all that he was only twenty-five years old the talents of the soldier and the when he approved himself ripe for statesman, and would then sink back military command. This is a rare it into his melancholy repose.
not a singular distinction. It is true that Alexander, Condé, and Charles ! where the heaviest of all yokes, has the Twelfth, won great battles at a still been found lighter than that of any earlier age; but those princes were native dynasty, if to that gang of pubsurrounded by veteran generals of dis- lic robbers, which formerly spread tinguished skill, to whose suggestions terror through the whole plain of Benmust be attributed the victories of the gal, has succeeded a body of functionGranicus, of Rocroi, and of Narva. aries not more highly distinguished by Clive, an inexperienced youth, had yet ability and diligence than by integrity, more experience than any of those who disinterestedness, and public spirit, if served under him. He had to form we now see such men as Munro, Elhimself, to form his officers, and to phinstone, and Metcalfe, after leading form his army. The only man, as far victorious armies, after making and as we recollect, who at an equally early deposing kings, return, proud of their age ever gave equal proof of talents honourable poverty, from a land which for war, was Napoleon Bonaparte. once held out to every greedy factor the
From Clive's second visit to India hope of boundless wealth, the praise is dates the political ascendancy of the in no small measure due to Clive. His English in that country. His dexterity name stands high on the roll of conand resolution realised, in the course of querors. But it is found in a better a few months, more than all the gor- list, in the list of those who have done geous visions which had floated before and suffered much for the happiness of the imagination of Dupleix. Such an mankind. To the warrior, history will extent of cultivated territory, such an assign a place in the same rank with amount of revenue, such a multitude of Lucullus and Trajan. Nor will she subjects, was never added to the domi- deny to the reformer a share of that nion of Rome by the most successful veneration with which France cherishes proconsul. Nor were such wealthy the memory of Turgot, and with which spoils ever borne under arches of the latest generations of Hindoos will triumph, down the Sacred Way, and contemplate the statue of Lord Wilthrough the crowded Forum, to the liam Bentinck. threshold of Tarpeian Jove. The fame of those who subdued Antiochus and Tigranes grows dim when compared
VON RANKE. (OCTOBER, 1840.) with the splendour of the exploits The Ecclesiastical and Political History of which the young English adventurer the Popes of Rome, during the Sixteenth achieved at the head of an army not
and Seventeenth centuries. By LEOPOLD
RANKE, Professor in the University of equal in numbers to one half of a Ro Berlin: Translated from the German, by man legion.
SARAH AUSTIN. 3 vols. 8vo. London: From Clive's third visit to India dates
1840. the purity of the administration of our It is hardly necessary for us to say that Eastern empire. When he landed in this is an excellent book excellently Calcutta in 1765, Bengal was regarded translated. The original work of Proas a place to which Englishmen were fessor Ranke is known and esteemed sent only to get rich, by any means, in wherever German literature is studied, the shortest possible time. He first and has been found interesting even in made dauntless and unsparing war on a most inaccurate and dishonest French that gigantic system of oppression, ex-version. It is, indeed, the work of a tortion, and corruption. In that war mind fitted both for minute researches he manfully put to hazard his ease, his and for large speculations. It is fame, and his splendid fortune. The written also in an admirable spirit, same sense of justice which forbids us equally remote from levity and bigotry, to conceal or extenuate the faults of his serious and earnest, yet tolerant and earlier days compels us to admit that impartial. It is, therefore, with the those faults were nobly repaired. If greatest pleasure that we now see this the reproach of the Company and of book take its place among the English its servants has been taken away, if in classics. Of the translation we need India the yoke of foreign masters, else-I only say that it is such as might be
expected from the skill, the taste, and spiritual ascendancy extends over the the scrupulous integrity of the accom-vast countries which lie between the plished lady who, as an interpreter plains of the Missouri and Cape Horn, between the mind of Germany and the countries which, a century hence, may mind of Britain, has already deserved not improbably contain a population as so well of both countries.
| large as that which now inhabits EuThe subject of this book has always rope. The members of her communion appeared to us singularly interesting. are certainly not fewer than a hundred How it was that Protestantism did so and fifty millions; and it will be diffimuch, yet did no more, how it was that cult to show that all other Christian the Church of Rome, having lost a sects united amount to a hundred and large part of Europe, not only ceased twenty millions. Nor do we see any to lose, but actually regained nearly sign which indicates that the term of half of what she had lost, is certainly her long dominion is approaching. a most curious and important question ; She saw the commencement of all the and on this question Professor Ranke governments and of all the ecclesiashas thrown far more light than any tical establishments that now exist in other person who has written on it. the world ; and we feel no assurance
There is not, and there never was on that she is not destined to see the end this earth, a work of human policy so of them all. She was great and rewell deserving of examination as the spected before the Saxon had set foot Roman Catholic Church. The history on Britain, before the Frank had passed of that Church joins together the two the Rhine, when Grecian eloquence great ages of human civilisation. No still flourished at Antioch, when idols other institution is left standing which were still worshipped in the temple of carries the mind back to the times when Mecca. And she may still exist in the smoke of sacrifice rose from the undiminished vigour when some tra
Pantheon, and when camelopards and veller from New Zealand shall, in the . tigers bounded in the Flavian amphi- midst of a vast solitude, take his stand
theatre. The proudest royal houses are on a broken arch of London Bridge to but of yesterday, when compared with sketch the ruins of St. Paul's. the line of the Supreme Pontiffs. That We often hear it said that the world line we trace back in an unbroken is constantly becoming more and more series, from the Pope who crowned enlightened, and that this enlightenNapoleon in the nineteenth century to ing must be favourable to Protesthe Pope who crowned Pepin in the tantism, and unfavourable to Cathoeighth ; and far beyond the time of licism. We wish that we could think Pepin the august dynasty extends, till so. But we see great reason to doubt it is lost in the twilight of fable. The whether this be a well founded expectrepublic of Venice came next in anti-ation. We see that during the last quity. But the republic of Venice was two hundred and fifty years the human modern when compared with the Pa- mind has been in the highest degree pacy; and the republic of Venice is active, that it has made great advances gone, and the Papacy remains. The in every branch of natural philosophy, Papacy remains, not in decay, not a that it has produced innumerable inmere antique, but full of life and youth- ventions tending to promote the conful vigour. The Catholic Church is venience of life, that medicine, surgery, still sending forth to the farthest ends chemistry, engineering, have been very of the world missionaries as zealous as greatly improved, that government, those who landed in Kent with Augus- police, and law have been improved, tin, and still confronting hostile kings though not to so great an extent as the with the same spirit with which she physical sciences. Yet we see that, confronted Attila. The number of her during these two hundred and fifty children is greater than in any former years, Protestantism has made no conage. Her acquisitions in the New quests worth speaking of. Nay, we World have more than compensated for believe that, as far as there has been a what she has lost in the Old. Her change, that change has, on the whole, been in favour of the Church of Rome. question, the question, what becomes We cannot, therefore, feel confident of man after death, we do not see that that the progress of knowledge will a highly educated European, left to his necessarily be fatal to a system which unassisted reason, is more likely to he has, to say the least, stood its ground in the right than a Blackfoot Indian. in spite of the immense progress made Not a single one of the many sciences by the human race in knowledge since in which we surpass the Blackfoot the days of Queen Elizabeth.
Indians throws the smallest light on Indeed the argument which we are the state of the soul after the animal considering, seems to us to be founded life is extinct. In truth all the philoon an entire mistake. There are sophers, ancient and modern, who have branches of knowledge with respect to attempted, without the help of revelawhich the law of the human mind is tion, to prove the immortality of man, progress. In mathematics, when once from Plato down to Franklin, appear a proposition has been demonstrated, it to us to have failed deplorably. is never afterwards contested. Every Then, again, all the great enigmas fresh story is as solid a basis for a new which perplex the natural theologian superstructure as the original founda- are the same in all ages. The ingetion was. Here, therefore, there is a nuity of a people just emerging from constant addition to the stock of truth. barbarism is quite sufficient to propound In the inductive sciences again, the law those enigmas. The genius of Locke is progress. Every day furnishes new or Clarke is quite unable to solve them. facts, and thus brings theory nearer It is a mistake to imagine that subtle and nearer to perfection. There is no speculations touching the Divine attrichance that, either in the purely demon- butes, the origin of evil, the necessity strative, or in the purely experimental of human actions, the foundation of sciences, the world will ever go back moral obligation, imply any high deor even remain stationary. Nobody gree of intellectual culture. Such speever heard of a reaction against Tay- culations, on the contrary, are in a lor's theorem, or of a reaction against peculiar manner the delight of intelliHarvey's doctrine of the circulation of gent children and of half civilized men. the blood.
The number of boys is not small who, But with theology the case is very at fourteen, have thought enough on different. As respects natural religion, these questions to be fully entitled to -revelation being for the present alto- the praise which Voltaire gives to gether left out of the question,- it is Zadig. “Il en savait ce qu'on en a su not easy to see that a philosopher of dans tous les âges ; c'est-à-dire, fort the present day is more favourably peu de chose.” The book of Job shows situated than Thales or Simonides. He that, long before letters and arts were has before him just the same evidences known to Ionia, these vexing questions of design in the structure of the uni- were debated with no common skill and verse which the early Greeks had. We eloquence, under the tents of the say just the same ; for the discoveries Idumean Emirs; nor has human reaof modern astronomers and anatomists son, in the course of three thousand have really added nothing to the force years, discovered any satisfactory soof that argument which a reflecting lution of the riddles which perplexed mind finds in every beast, bird, insect, Eliphaz and Zophar. fish, leaf, flower, and shell. The rea | Natural theology, then, is not a prosoning by which Socrates, in Xeno- gressive science. That knowledge of phon's hearing, confuted the little our origin and of our destiny which atheist Aristodemus, is exactly the we derive from revelation is indeed reasoning of Paley's Natural Theology. of very different clearness, and of Socrates makes precisely the same use very different importance. But neither of the statues of Polycletus and the is revealed religion of the nature of a pictures of Zeuxis which Paley makes progressive science. All Divine truth of the watch. As to the other great is, according to the doctrine of the VOL. IL