do his will, "working 13 in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; oto whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

22 And I beseech you, brethren, suffer the

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That he might present it to himself a glorious Church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. Phi. ii. 15 : That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world. do. iii. 12–15 : Not as though I had already attained, either were already perfect : but I follow after, if that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended of Christ Jesus. This one thing I do, forgetting those things which are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. Let us therefore, as many as be perfect, be thus minded. Col. i. 28 : Warning every man, and teaching every man in all wisdom; that we may present every man perfect in Christ Jesus. do. iv. 12: Labouring fervently for you in prayers, that ye may stand perfect and complete in all the will of God. Tit. ji. 14: Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify to himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. HEB. v. 14: Strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, for perfect,] even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and eờil. do. vi. 1 : Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection. do. xii. 23 : To the spirits of just men made perfect. James, i. 4: Let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. 1 Pet. v. 10 : The God of all grace, who hath called us unto his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after that ye have suffered a while, make you perfect, stablish, strengthen, settle you. 2 Pet. i. 5-7: Giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue ; and to virtue knowledge ; and to knowledge temperance; and to temperance patience; and to patience godliness; and to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity. do. iii. 18 : Grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

m 2 Thes. ii. 17: Comfort your hearts, and stablish you in every good word and work.

n See on 1 Per. i. 22.
• See on Rom. xvi. 27.


word of exhortation : for I have P written a letter unto you in few words.

23 Know ye that I our brother Timothy 'is set at liberty; with whom, if he come shortly, I will see you.

24 Salute all them *that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you. 25 · Grace be with you all. Amen.

Written 14 to the Hebrews from Italy by

14 Sent. Co. Ma. Cr.

P 1 Pet. v. 12: By Silvanus, a faithful brother unto you, as I suppose, I have written briefly.

91 Thes. iii. 2: And sent Tiniotheus, our brother, and minister of God, and our fellowlabourer in the Gospel of Christ, to establish you, and to comfort you concerning your faith.

s1 Tim. vi. 12: [Thou Timothy] hast professed a good profession before many witnesses. s Ver. 7, 17.

Tit. iii. 15: All that are with me salute thee. Greet them that love us in the faith. Grace be with you all. Amen.



This epistle was written by James the Less, or Younger, so called to distinguish him from James, the son of Zebedee, and brother of John. He was the son of Alpheus, or Cleophas, who married a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus ; and the brother of Judas, or Jude. James the Just, to whom this epistle was formerly attributed, it is now clearly ascertained was the same identical person as James the Less, one of the twelve apostles. He is believed to have suffered martyrdom in the former part of A. D. 62, and to have written this epistle a short time before his death, from Jerusalem, or some part of Judea.

The design of this epistle seems to have been to animate the Jewish Christians to support, with fortitude and patience, any sufferings to which they might be exposed ; anıl to enforce the genuine doctrine and practice of the Gospel, in opposition to the errors and vices which then prevailed among them. The principal source of these errors and vices was a misinterpretation of St. Paul's doctrine of justification by faith, without the works of the law; that is, as the apostle meant it, without the observance of the rites and ceremonies of the Mosaic dispensation. Hence, some had most unwarrantably inferred, that moral duties were of trifling importance, and had, therefore, abandoned themselves to every species of licentiousness and profligacy. This epistle is written with great perspicuity and energy, and contains an excellent summary of those practical duties, and moral virtues, which are required of Christians.

Various are the opinions, why this and the six following epistles have been, from the fourth century, called Catholic, or General Epistles. Some think, because they confirm that one Catholic or General Doctrine which was delivered to the Churches by the apostles, and which may be read' with advantage every where. Others, because they were not addressed to any particular Church, but to Christians in general; or, at least, to all the Jewish Christians, wherever dispersed. Others think, that the genuineness of these epistles being at one time disputed, when they came to be more generally received, they were called Catholic or General, to denote that they were then received by the Church. However, it is certain this title was not given to them by the apostles themselves, nor the apostolic fathers, but was bestowed upon them in succeeding times.

CHAP. I. 1 We are to rejoice under the cross, 5 to ask patience of God : 13 and

in our trials not to impute our weakness, or sins, unto him, 19 but rather to hearken to the word, to meditate in it, and to do thereafter : 26 otherwise men may seem, but never be truly religious... A. D. 60. JAMES, a b servant of God and of

CHAP. I. a Acts, xii. 17: But he, beckoning unto them with the hand to hold their peace, declared unto them how the Lord had brought him out of the prison. And he said, Go show these things unto James, and to the brethren. And he departed, and went into another place. 'do. xv. 13; And after they had held their peace, James answered, 'saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me. Gal. i. 19 : But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother. do. ii. 9: "And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived

the Lord Jesus Christ, to the 'twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.

2 My brethren, e count it all joy when ye fall into 'divers temptations ;

3 Knowing this, that the trying of your faith worketh 6 patience.

4 But' let patience have her perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing.

5 If any of you klack wisdom, ' let him ask

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the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship ; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision. JUDE, 1: Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called

• Tit. i. 1: Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ.

c Acts, xxvi. 7 : Unto which promise our twelve tribes, instantly serving God day and night, hope to come. For which hope's sake, king Agrippa, I am accused of the Jews.

a Acts, ii. 5 : And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven. do. viii. 1: At that time there was a great persecution against the Church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judæa. See on John, vii. 35. • See on Acts, v. 41. See on 1 Cor. x. 13.

See on Rom. xii. 12. * Luke, viii. 15 : But that on the good ground are they, which in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience.

See on Heb. xiii. 21.

*] Kings, iii, 9, 11, 12: Give therefore thy servant an un. derstanding heart to judge thy people, that I may discern between good and bad : for who is able to judge this thy so great a people? And God said unto him, Because thou hast asked this thing, and hast not asked for thyself long life; neither hast asked riches for thyself, nor hast asked the life of thine enemies ; but hast asked for thyself understanding to discern judgment; behold, I have done according to thy words : lo, I have given thee a wise and an understanding heart; so that

mof God, that giveth to all men liberally, and up braideth not; and " it shall be given him. .

6 But let him ask 'in faith, nothing wavering.3 For he that wavereth 4 is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed.5

7 For let not that man think that he shall receive any thing of the Lord.

8 A P double minded man is unstable in all his ways.

9 Let' the brother of low degree rejoice 8 in that he is exalted :

10 But the rich, in that he is made low : because 9 as the flower of the grass he shall pass ? away.

11 For the sun is no sooner risen with a burning heat, but it withereth the grass, and the flower thereof falleth, and the grace of the fashion 10 of

3 doubting. Ne. "doubteth. Wi. Co. Ma. Cr. Rh. Pu. 5 tossed of the winds, and carried away. Gen. moved and carried about by the wind. Rh. wavering minded. Co. Ma. Cr. Gen. ?But let. Ham: 8 glory. A. V. 9 vanish. Co. Ma. Gen. 10 beauty. Co. Ma. Cr. Bi. Gen.

there was none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee. Pro. ii. 3, 6: If thou criest after knowledge, and liftest up thy voice for understanding. For the Lord giveth wisdom : out of his mouth cometh knowledge and understanding.

See on Mat. vii. 7. m Pro. ii. 6 : The words above.

2 Chr. i. 11, 12 : God said to Solomon, Because this was in thy heart, and thou hast not asked riches, wealth, or honour, nor the life of thine enemies, neither yet hast asked long life; but hast asked wisdom and knowledge for thyself, that thou mayest judge my people, over whom I have made thee king: wisdom and knowledge is granted unto thee, and I will give thee riches, and wealth, and honour. See on Mat. vii. 7, 8.

• MARK, xi. 24: What things soever ye desire, when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them. 1 Tim. ii. 8: Lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.

P James, iv. 8: Purify your hearts, ye double minded. . See on JAMES, iv. 14.

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