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In order to give a knowledge of the different Dialects, quotations from Ionic, Doric, and Æolic writers, and Homer, are inserted, which are to be rendered into the common Attic Greek. The student will thus learn every thing of importance in each, with much more ease and pleasure, than by committing a number of rules to memory.
The lines reduced to prosaic order, and to be rem turned into Metre, are intended to form a taste for the melody of Greek poetry. And, to impress upon the mind the distinction between a poetic and prosaic style, it is recommended to exercise learners in paraphrasing, or imitating in prose, select passages of the Greek poets. This is usually called Metaphrasis. A short specimen of it is given in the last chapter. It was thought unnecessary to insert more pieces of this kind, as any poet will furnish sufficient exercises.
SINCE the first publication of the Greek Exercises, the author has been furnished with emendations and improvements, from several very eminent scholars. These, together with his own remarks, have enabled him to make the present edition much more perfect than the first. Some of the rules on Syntax have been written anew; and additional examples have been inserted in some chapters of the Exercises. In the chapter on Prosody, exercises in Pentameter, and lambic verse, have been added to the original Hexameter; and the principles of the notes on Syntax have been simplified.
He feels much gratified in thus publickly acknowledging the very kind attention of Professor Young, Glasgow University, and Professor Dalzel, Edinburgh, The continued friendship of Rev. Dr. Bruce, Belfast Academy, and Rev. Mr. Hincks, Cork, with that of many other gentlemen, who have assisted him in improving this work, demand his grateful acknowledge ments.
Remarks necessary to be observed in writing Greek.
1. The final letter is generally cut off, (except in verbs) from words ending in an sg by og Ows, or ow, when the following word begins with a vowel; as, IIxvt' theyor.
2. All words ending in ov, and verbs in e and ., take », when the following word begins with a vowel; as, Εικοσιν ανδρες.
3. N is changed into y, in compounds, before x, y, x, and into My before n, B, O, t; as Eyxpbw, our pasyw.
4. When the following word begins with an aspirated vowel, the tenuis, or intermediate consonant preceding, is changed into an aspirate; as, Ap šv.
5. Ex and ou are used before consonants, iš and oux, or oux, before vowels; as, Ez újwy, OU TOUTO.
6 The Attics use all contractions.
The order of the sentences, in each voice, in the first chapter of the Exercises, is as follows: Present, Imperfect, 1st Future, 2d Future, Ist Aorist, 2d Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect, and, in the passive, Paulo post future.
The manner of expression, in which each tense is translated in the first chapter, is retained, in general, throughout the work: but as this could not be always done, and as there are many varieties of expression, which the most literal translation could not ascertain, small English letters and figures are affixed to such Greek words as might probably be rendered improperly. After a Verb,
1 denotes Imperfect.
1st Future 2d Future. Ist Aorist. 20 Aorist. Perfect. PluperfectIndicative. Subjunctive, Optative. Infinitive. Participle.
After a Substantive, Adjective, Pronoun, or Participle,
THE * 1. HE article is used to mark a distinction or emphasis. With the infinitive it supplies the place of nouns, gerunds, and supines. With a participle, it is translated by the relative and indicative. With Mey and de it signifies partly; and it is often used for ornament; as, Αι χυλος ο τραγωδος. Aeschylus the tragedian. Κακων των πριν μνειαν εχειν. . To remember formerevils. Τα εξω. .
The things without. Εν τω Φρονείν. .
In wisdom. Ο ερχομενος.
He that cometh. Τ' ανθρωπειον γενος τη μεν αγα
Mankind are partly good, Boy τη δε φαυλον. .
and partly bad. H voxn n voxndao a toy xoo por Faith, the victory which η πισις.
overcomes the world.
ADJECTIVE AND SUBSTANTIVE.
2. An adjective agrees with its substantive, in gender, number, and case; as, Ανδρες αγαθοι. .
Good men. Ομιλιαι κακαι. .
Evil communications. Εθνεα πολλα.