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situations of trust and
and I expressed my decided opinion, that those restraints could not be removed without extreme hazard to our Constitution in Church and State. But as this is a subject totally uncomected with the points here discussed; I have not thought it necessary to insert that part of my Charge in the present Work,
Buckden Palace, January 1st, 1811,
E R R A TA: p. 107. (note) 1. 12. for å read on p. 113. last linc, before No man put marks of quotatien. p. 196. I. 11. after bim put marks of quotation. p. 930. (nute) 1. 19. for extrinsical read extrinsecal. P. 265. (note) I. 14. for da read ad. p. 286. 1. 6. for which is to come read which is coipe. p. 295. 1. &. for Azarius read Azarias. p. 486. 1. 23. for from you read from your. p. 530. 1, 24. (in some of the copies) for ift read gift.
R E F U T A TI ON
CHAPTER THE FIRST.
OF ORIGINAL SIN, FREE WILL, AND THE OPERATION
OF THE HOLY SPIRIT.
that a considerable change took place in the minds of our first Parents immediately after they had transgressed the prohibitory command of God, not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of Good and Evil (a); but the conciseness with which the sacred Historian has described the primitive condition of Man, and his Fall from the state in which he was created, has led to a variety of opinions respecting the effects of Adam's disobedience
upon himself and his posterity. Without entering into a detail of the numerous controversies which have arisen in the Christian Church concerning Original Sin, or attempting
to (a) Gen. c. 2. v. 17.
to explain the subtle distinctions and minute differences which we find in Writers upon this abstruse and intricate subject, we may remark, that there have been, and still are, Christians, who assert, that Adam transmitted no moral corruption to his offspring in consequence of his Fall; and who maintain, that the nature of the present race of men is not more depraved than the nature of Adam was at his first creation. On the contrary, there are others, who contend that the sin of Adam introduced into his nature such a radical impotence and depravity, that it is impossible for his descendants to make any voluntary effort towards piety or virtue, or in any respect to correct and improve their moral and religious character ; and that Faith and all the Christian graces are communicated by the sole and irresistible operation of the Spirit of God, without any endeavour for concurrence on the part of Man. The former is the position of the Socinians (a), the latter of the Calvinists. The true doctrine will be found to lie between these two extremes. The heart, tho passions, the will, and the understanding, and indeed all the faculties and powers of Adam, were greatly corrupted, perverted, and impaired by his violation of the divine command; and this
(a) Some few persons agree with the Socinians upon this point, who differ from them in all others.
sin of our first Parent has caused every individual descended from him, to be born into the world an imperfect and depraved creature. But though a propensity to evil and wickedness, universal in extent and powerful in its effects, was thus transmitted to mankind, yet all idea of distinction between right and wrong was not utterly obliterated from the human mind, or every good affection eradicatrd from the human heart. The general approbation of virtue and detestation of vice, which have universally prevailed, prove, that the moral sense was not annihilated (b); and that Man did not become by the Fall an unmixed incorrigible mass of pollution and depravity, absolutely incapable of amendment, or of knowing or discharging, by his natural powers, any part of the duty of a dependent rational being. And it will appear that the Gospel scheme of Redemption, so far from rejecting all co-operation of Man, requires human exertions as indispensably neces
sary (b) “ Peace and delight,” says Bishop Butler, " in some degree and upon some occasions, is the necessary and present effect of virtuous practice; an effect arising immediately from the constitution of our nature. are so made that well-doing as such gives us satisfaction, at least in some instances ; ill-doing as such in none." And, upon another occasion he observes, that this moral principle is capable of improvement by discipline and exercise,” Anal. of Religion, pp. 81 & 135.