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Paul's Cathedral, as well as both sides of the river, including the Tower, the Monument, Somerset House, Westminster Abbey, the Houses of Parliament, and upwards of thirty churches. A thorough restoration of the whole fabric was commenced in 1837. The old balustrades have been removed, and the steepness of the ascent much diminished.

WATERLOO BRIDGE,

West of Somerset House. This noble bridge, designated by M. Dupin, the celebrated French engineer, “a colossal monument, worthy of Sesostris and the Cæsars," and which Canova called the first structure of the kind in the world, was begun in 1811, from the plans of Mr.

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G. Dodd; but in consequence of some misunderstanding with the proprietors, that gentleman resigned the superintendence, when it was confided to Mr. Rennie. It was opened the 18th of June, 1817, on the anniversary of the battle of Waterloo, when the Prince Regent, the Duke of Wellington, and other distinguished persons were present.

The bridge is entirely built of Cornish moor stone, except the balustrades, which are of Scotch granite: it consist of nine arches, each of one hundred and twenty feet span. The piers, which are twenty feet thick, stand upon three hundred and twenty piles, driven into the bed of the river, there being one pile to every yard square. The length of the piles is about twenty feet, and the diameter about thirteen inches. At each extremity of the bridge are handsome stairs to the water. The dimensions of the structure are as follow : length of the stone work between the abutments one hundred and twenty feet; length of the road to the Surrey side, which

is supported by forty brick arches (under one of which the street is continued from Narrow-wall), twelve hundred and fifty feet; length of road supported on brick arches on the Strand side, four hundred feet; width of carriage road twenty-eight feet; and of each foot pavement seven feet: span of each arch one hundred and twenty feet; extent of water-way, in the clear, one thousand and eighty feet. The four toll-lodges are neat appropriate Doric structures, at each of which is a clever contrivance for the purpose of checking. Toll one halfpenny.

HUNGERFORD BRIDGE,

Communicating between Hungerford-market, Charingcross, and York-road, Lambeth. A light and elegant suspension bridge, for foot passengers, consisting of four broad chains, erected by Mr. Brunel, at a cost of £106,000. The total weight of the chains, consisting of two thousani six hundred links, is seven hundred and fifteen tom Toll one halfpenny.

WESTMINSTER BRIDGE.

This noble bridge, the second which was erected across the Thames, was built in 1793-50, from the designs of Mons. Labelye, a Swiss architect. It is twelve hundred and twenty-three feet in length, and forty-four feet in width; and has fourteen piers, and thirteen large and two small semicircular arches. The middle arch is seventy-six feet wide, the two next seventy-two feet, and the last fifty-two feet. It has been much admired from its simplicity and solidity ; but unfortunately for its defective foundation (it having been built in caissons), WESTMINSTER BRIDGE. although considerable sums have been spent upon its restoration, it has recently sunk so much that it has been determined to erect a new bridge near the present structure, which will then be removed.

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VAUXHALL BRIDGE Unites Lambeth to Milbank, and is of great convenience to those who pass between it and Hyde Park-corner. It was originally projected by Mr. G. Dodd; but in consequence of some misunderstanding, he was succeeded first by Mr. Rennie and afterwards by Mr. Walker, under whose direction the present elegant edifice was constructed. The first stone, on the Surrey side, was laid in September, 1813, by Prince Charles, the eldest son of the Duke of Brunswick (so soon after killed at Waterloo), and the bridge was completed in 1816, and opened in July. It consists of nine cast-iron arches, of equal span, resting on rusticated stone piers: the arches are seventyeight feet in span, and twenty-nine feet in height; and the total length is eight hundred and sixty feet. The cost was about £150,000, whis is defrayed by a toll of one penny on each foot passenger, and a graduated scale for horsemen and carriages.

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THE TUNNEL, Rotherhithe and Wapping. This extraordinary undertaking, projected and executed by Sir I. K. Brunel, was commenced in 1825, the first stone of the descent for pedestrians, on the south side of the river, near Rotherhithe Church, having been laid by W. Smith, Esq. the chairman of the company, on the 2nd of March, 1825; and after surmounting almost incredible obstacles it was completed, and opened in 1843, and by its means a

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