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It was a principle among the ancients, that acute diseases are from Heaven, and chronical from ourselves; the dart of death, indeed, falls from Heaven, but we poison it from our own misconduct: to die is the fate of man; but to die with lingering anguish is generally his folly.

more of immortality in human souls than can be included under August Weismann's theory of the immortality of the germplasm of animals and plants. Whether or not this 'something more' is quite as much as a personal 'immortality of souls' is a question which should not really affect us. One can understand the possibility of a kind of reward or punishment, and of continued physical activity after the death of the body, without being absolutely convinced of personal immortality.”

As an introduction to the literature of subjects with which we have to deal daily, the work should go in the bedside library of every physician.

May I end with a personal note? Friends have associated my name in a kind way with a good many books, but I have never before had a dedication which illustrates the curiosa felicitas of the scholar-student.

WILLIAM OSLER.

Numerous references are given to the extensive lore dealing with the evil eyetalismans, amulets, and charms, and to the cramp-rings, on which Raymond Crawfurd has written so learnedly. In the appositeness and fecundity of his quotations Parkes Weber reminds one of Robert Burton, and nowhere in literature is to be found such a collection as that given in this section on the satires, sayings, and epigrams relating to physicians and their art. He quotes a delicious one which I picked up many years ago from the Spectator: Wise Arruns, asked “How long will Caius live?Replied, “Three days the fatal sisters give": And Arruns knew the prophet's art. But lo! Stronger than gods above or gods below, Euschemon comes: his healing art he tries, And in a single day poor Caius dies. The author turns out to be the well-known scholar, the Rev. A. J. Church.

Part 3, dealing with the aspects of death in coins, medals, and tokens, is one of the longest, and of extraordinary fullness. IIlustrations are given of coins from the fifth century B.C. down to the medals struck in Germany for the sinking of the Lusitania,

To many the book will be a revelation; while the learned author disclaims an attempt to make an exhaustive treatise on the iconography of death, or a complete anthology of poetry and epigrams relating to it, he has made by far the most important contribution in English on the subject. The author's new preface is preceded by an original poem on the mystery of pain and death, on which his own views are worth quoting.

The balance of evidence (which, however, everyone will and must admit, is mainly of a subjective kind) seems to me to point to there being something

BENJAMIN RUSH AND HIS SERVICES TO AMERICAN

EDUCATION. By Harry G. Good, Ph.D., Professor of Education, Bluffton College. X+219 pages. Price $1.60 net. Berne, Indiana: Witness Press. 1918.

There have been so many studies of the American Sydenham's career and labors written from the medical point of view, that it is refreshing and timely to find him depicted from another standpoint, and when the task is performed by so well fitted an expert as Professor Good, we may be sure it will be well done. Rush is, of course, well known as a teacher of medicine, but the fact that he wrote often and well on educational topics not pertaining to his profession, and his instrumentality in the foundation of Dickinson College, is not familiar to many. In a very complete bibliography of his writings appended to this book, those on educational subjects form a conspicuous part, as do his articles advocating the abolition of slavery, prohibition and penal reform. We of the

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profession know with what vigor he was been as close and as long as with St. wont to enunciate his very pronounced Bartholomew's Hospital. Dr. Moore has views on medical subjects, and he carried been recognized for many years not only no less vehemence into his publication on as an eminent physician, but as a most other matters. Professor Good bestows learned medical historian of high scholarship much praise on the enlightened and advanced and literary attainments and especially opinions which Rush held in educational equipped for mediæval studies. Personally matters. Rush showed no less aggressiveness he has earned the respect and affection of and determination when he came to the generations of students and younger workpractical application of his ideas in the ers, not only by his learning and clinical foundation of a college. Good describes how skill, but by geniality of character and an it was principally due to his initiative, unrivaled power as a raconteur. This truly determination, and influence with his con- monumental work by Dr. Moore undoubttemporaries that Dickinson College came edly marks an epoch in the history of into being and was given the impetus which medicine. The preparation has been a in subsequent generations has raised it labor of love of thirty years' duration and from small beginnings to an excellent rank it is now presented by its author to the among the smaller colleges of the United Hospital where so much of his life has been States. The book only serves to add to spent. It is a gift in which any institution the great desire of those who are interested might well glory. in Rush, that some day an adequate In attempting to deal with a document of biography of the great man will be written, this order the reviewer is in a serious one which will explain the obscure political difficulty; to summarize it is impossible, secrets which are interwoven with his to criticise it seems impertinent, to praise history as a public man and throw some it would be superfluous. He will, therefore, light on his transactions during the critical not attempt any of these, but will devote period of the foundation of the United himself rather to some attempt to place the States.

work in what appears to him its rightful FRANCIS R. PACKARD position in the literature of Medical History.

So far as English writing is concerned THE HISTORY OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW's HOSPITAL. the earliest important medico-historical

By Norman Moore, M.D. 2 vols. quarto. Vol. I, author was certainly John Freind (1675– pp. xxii + 614, 41 plates. Vol. II, pp. xiv +

1728). His work “The History of Physick 992, 6 plates. London: Pearson, 1918.

from the time of Galen to the beginning The very distinguished author of these of the XVIth century chiefly with regard volumes was born in 1847 and educated at to Practice," was drafted while in prison St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, of (1722) under a charge of complicity in a which he is an Honorary Fellow. On leaving Jacobite plot, and first printed in 1725. It is the University he entered as a student of not entirely original, but is of value and St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and has been interest and may be read with profit even at closely connected with that institution for the present day, and is especially remarknearly half a century. In 1883 he was able for its date in the attempt it makes to elected Assistant Physician, in 1902 Phy- trace the continuity of ideas from age to sician and in 1911 Consulting Physician. In age. In his own century Freind was followed 1918 Dr. Moore became President of the by several of his countrymen; by Richard Royal College of Physicians of London, a Mead (1672–1754), eminent alike as bibliofoundation with which his connection has phile physician and patron of learning, who contributed the “Diseases Mentioned in and weakness of English medico-historical Sacred Writings" (1749), as well as a work work, the most important contributions in on the physicians of ancient Rome (1724), this department having been made by and on whose advice, stimulus and expense, William Munk in his “Roll of the Royal certain Arabic medical works were rendered College of Physicians of London" (ist into English; by Edward Milward (?-1757), edition 1861; 2d edition 1878), Benjamin who wrote an "Account of Alexander Ward Richardson in his “Disciples of Trallian” (1734); and by James Greive Æsculapius” (1900) and Dr. Norman Moore (?-1778), who published in 1756 an anno- himself, who has contributed a host of tated translation of Celsus that remains the admirable medical biographies to the “Dicbest in our language. The only other medico- tionary of National Biography” (1885– historical document of any importance that 1912). In this prevalent biographical tone appeared in England in the 18th century is English, and, it may be added, American the “History of the Origin of Medicine" medical scholarship, have been somewhat (1776) of John Coakley Lettsom (1744- isolated from the main current of Historical 1815), a man of remarkable attainments Research to which we may now return. who exhibited some of the newer influences The year 1776 is a landmark in the history of which we shall presently speak.

of scholarship, for there then appeared a In the meantime the prevailing biograph- volume which was not only an extraordinary ical note of British medical scholarship feat of learning, but a work of the highest and had long asserted itself. As early as the 17th most original genius. In that year Edward century Baldwin Hamey, the younger Gibbon (1737-1794), now in his fortieth (1600–1676), prepared a series of sketches of year, published the first volume of the greathis contemporaries, which remain in manu- est of all historical writings. During the script but have been much used by later twelve years preceding 1788, when the last writers. In 1715 appeared also what was volumes of “The Decline and Fall of the probably the first systematic medical bib- Roman Empire” saw the light, a revolution liography, the “Bibliographiæ Anatomicæ in historical thought and historical method Specimen" by the distinguished anatomist, had been effected comparable only to that James Douglas (1675-1742). This important of the general acceptance of evolutionary contribution undoubtedly formed the basis doctrine in the following century, to which of the well-known work on the same subject movement indeed it is related. It is not too by his friend Albrecht Haller. Numerous much to say that Gibbon's was the first other attempts at medical biography and great evolutionary historical work, that bibliography were made, but among them we evolutionary teaching is implicit in the need only refer to Edward Milward (?-1757), “Decline and Fall”; and that the evolutionwho published his “Letter to all Orders of ary school of historians was a necessary Learned Men concerning a History of the preliminary to the evolutionary school of Lives of British Physical and Chirurgical biologists. From Gibbon's date onward all Authors” in 1704, and the “Biographical historical work of permanent interest and Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain from value became instinct with his spirit; from the Revival of Literature to the time of his time onward the main duty of the Harvey,” by John Aikin (1747–1822) which historian has been the demonstration of appeared in 1780 and contained accounts of continuity, the process by which the phefifty-five authors from the time of Gilbertus nomena of each age are derived from the Anglicus to that of Glisson. From Aikin

preceding age and pass into that which onward biography has been the strength follows, and the secular interaction of forces

has riveted the attention of the ablest historical writers. As the years have gone by and as history has come more and more into line with biological teaching, a yet further phase has appeared or rather has logically developed from Gibbon's method. No longer content with relations of the deeds of kings and conquerors, nor even of statesmen and religious leaders, we seek to know how these men came to be what they were, and we look to our historians to tell us of the origin and development of our economic and social systems. Their search is thus less often among the annals and treaties of states, and more often in merchants' accounts and folk tales. Even the grandiose monuments and records of conquering things are no longer taken literally, but by means of ethnological researches and archæological exploration we read between the lines of their statements and often enough find them little else than lies. Men, we know, may be largely explained as the result of their inheritance and environment, and since the most interesting and important part of Man is the thoughts and ideas of which he is the carrier, we are beginning to write the history of thought with reference to the inheritance and environment of those ideas and thoughts. With this newer and nobler view of history in our minds let us turn to the achievements of English speaking peoples in the history of our special subject.

The striking feature of Freind's work, and of Leclerc's, who preceded him, is that they seem prophetically though dimly to have perceived the attitude of the later historians, and to have devoted themselves to some extent to the demonstration of continuity. It is not, however, until we get to the very end of the 18th century, that we encounter a true medical historian of the first rank in the person of Kurt Polykarp Sprengel (1766–1833), whose "Pragmatic History of Medicine,” published at Halle between 1792 and 1813, is not only a monu

ment of historical method, but a mine of information that is hardly yet worked out. Sprengel exhibits to the full the influence of the new school. On the continent other works of similar character rapidly followed on Sprengels, but in spite of the example of our great historian of science, William Whewell (1794–1866), England had long to wait for a work of medical scholarship that did not suffer from the biographical obsession. This perhaps was owing to the suspicion in this country of the work of Auguste Comte (1798-1857),who more than any other man opposed the static aspect of history and, foreseeing its biological meaning, summed up his view in the aphorism that "an idea cannot be understood until its history is known.” His phrase would provide an admirable text for a history of medicine.

In 1844 there appeared from the pen of Francis Adams of Banchory (1796–1861) the first work of scholarship of the front rank that had been produced by an English medical writer. But his "Seven Books of Paulus Ægineta” (1844) is more than a work of scholarship, it is a true historical work "embracing” as its sub-title, not unjustly, claims, “a complete view of the knowledge possessed by the Greeks, Romans, and Arabians on all subjects connected with medicine and surgery.” This is still a standard work and remains by far the best in English on the medicine of classical antiquity. In spite of the high standard of the other works of Adams the "Extant Works of Aretæus the Cappadocian" (1846) and the “Genuine Works of Hippocrates (1849), his “Paulus Ægineta” must be considered his masterpiece. It contains much real history well arranged and indexed and is especially valuable as one of the few works of medical scholarship in which the clinical experience of the author definitely asserts itself.

The "Origin of Species” had already seen the light for five years before the most important piece of medical scholarship that

has yet appeared in English was issued the work of Dr. Norman Moore which lies from the press. This work is most curiously before us, and the “Paulus Ægineta” of not by a medical man, but by a clergy man Francis Adams. In all these three works of the Church of England. The "Leechdoms of the front rank we are inclined to think Wortcunning and Starcraft of Early that posterity will observe with regret a England” (1864-1866) of the Rev. Oswald relative absence of regard for the results of Cockayne (1807-1873) conceals under a continental scholarship, a respect in which maddening combination of misarrangement, they are excelled by several living medical perverse conservatism, vicious English, and scholars, and by at least one who is no hideous typography, a mass of learning, longer with us. The late J. F. Payne (1840– patient labor, and scientific method that 1910) was a man of wide learning and general places it, as it appears to the present writer, culture, who possessed a fine literary sense without rival as the most important and and was fully acquainted with the revolufundamental work of medical scholarship of tion that the studies of the mediæval school any English writer. The basis of the work of continental historians had accomplished had been prepared in the previous hundred in the history of medicine. Payne was years by the recovery of the Anglo-Saxon especially familiar with the great triumph language from the manuscripts by the of that school in the recovery of the Salerlabor of such men as Hickes, Kemble, nitan literature, and the use of this knowlThorpe, Wright, and Bosworth, but to the edge by him gives his reinvestigation of edifice that they had constructed Cockayne Cockayne's work a distinct historical value. made definite and permanent additions and But on the whole we may say that this his work will always be treated with respect, writer's extreme diffidence and exaggerated not only by medical historians, but by all caution prevented his actual historical concerned with the origins of the English performances from approaching within language. On account of its linguistic and measurable distance of his great powers philological value, of the originality of its and reputation, and his work must rank conception, of the thoroughness of its definitely below that of Cockayne, Adams, or scholarship, of its interest as our source book Dr. Moore. of Western barbarian medicine, and in Turning again to the volumes of Dr. spite of its absence of literary form and Moore that lie before us, we find the entire repellent presentation, we are convinced first and one-third of the second occupied that posterity will regard the work of with a detailed description of the charters Cockayne as the most important original and other material that have survived English contribution to the History of concerning the St. Bartholomew's Hospital Medicine. Cockayne's work is especially from 1123–1537. This collection is by far important since the Anglo-Saxon Leechdoms the fullest and most complete that has been contain the only considerable remnants of a attempted for any such institution. It is barbarian medical system that have survived unlikely that any future worker will find to our day from the period of the decline even gleanings in a field where the learning of the Roman Empire. These remains, and industry of Dr. Moore have garnered properly sifted, can be made to yield a fairly so long and so faithfully, and this work will accurate and adequate idea of the medicine remain permanently as a source book and a and science of the Teutonic tribes of type of what such a history should be. northern Europe.

The large number of illustrations, consisting After Cockayne the second place, as it as they do almost exclusively of beautiful appears to us, may be disputed between reproductions of charters, will, in addition,

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