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last contribution to medical literature, Louisiana, now Tulane University. The "Gilbertus Anglicus, a Study in Thirteenth outbreak of the Civil War interrupted his Century Medicine.” Dr. Handerson's article course. Dr. Handerson enlisted in the was originally designed for publication in Confederate Army, in which he finally the Cleveland Medical Journal, which un- achieved the rank of major. During the last fortunately ceased to exist before it could year of the Rebellion he was a prisoner of appear in its columns. The article was in war. When it was over he resumed his type at that time. Shortly after Dr. Hander- career as a medical student at the College of son died and the editors of the Journal, Physicians and Surgeons of New York, with the consent of his family, turned it over graduating in 1867. From that date until to the Council of the Cleveland Medical 1885 he practiced his profession in New Library, who, recognizing its value, have York City, then going to Cleveland, Ohio, given it to the profession in its present form. where he remained until his death, which To those who are aware of the erudition, took place on April 23, 1918. During the last critical ability, and accuracy of all of the two years of his life Dr. Handerson was totalauthor's previous work, this scholarly study ly blind. From a very early period Dr. Hanof the “Compendium Medicinal” of Gilbert derson was deeply interested in the history of England, the earliest complete work on of his profession. In 1883 he published general medicine by an English author, The “School of Salernum," an historical will be most welcome. Reviewing all the data sketch of medieval medicine, which is one available and adding materially to it, on of the best studies of the subject in English, the disputed points, as to the exact period but his magnum opus was his translation of of the life of Gilbert and the date at which Baas' “History of Medicine,” which appearhis book was written, Handerson concludes ed in 1888. This is really much more than a that he was born about 1180, and that his translation, as the section dealing with the book was written circa 1240. The contents history of medicine in this country was of the Compendium are carefully reviewed really written by Dr. Handerson, and his and analyzed and the chief editions de- notes on and revision of the German text scribed. It is curious that the Compendium add greatly to the value of the work. It is was held in such esteem by subsequent this book which is probably referred to generations, that a printed edition of it more often than any other by medical appeared as late as 1608. Dr. Handerson's men in the United States, when seeking study will be found an invaluable addendum light on matters connected with the history to the previous studies by Dr. J. F. Payne of medicine. Dr. Handerson was a pioneer on this extremely interesting Father of worker in medical history in this country, English Medicine, and is stimulating as and his work has never received sufficient illustrating the method to be employed in recognition. The posthumous tribute of the such research. A word as to Dr. Handerson Cleveland Medical Library Association is himself is due, largely because of the ex- most just, and we can imagine no other cessive modesty with which he was wont offering to his memory which would have to obscure his light. He was born in Ohio in been more appreciated by Dr. Handerson 1837 and began his medical studies at the himself. Medical Department of the University of

FRANCIS R. PACKARD

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CURRIE'S “JOURNAL” DR. JAMES CURRIE's manuscript “Jour- The other letters sold related chiefly nal," sold, with many letters, at Sotheby's to Burns and his friends, many of which July 24th, 1918, has interest for were used by Currie in writing the life of American readers. He is remembered as the the poet. There were three letters from first editor of the collected works of Burns, Benjamin Rush, in one of which he begs to and as an early student of thermometry and inform his friend, Dr. Currie, that "peace, hydro-therapy.

order, and plenty continue to pervade every As an apprentice lad at Cabin Point, part of the United States.” It is satisfactory Virginia (1771-1776), his Tory principles to know that the most important of these were the cause of much trouble. After many documents were secured by the Public difficulties, fully narrated in his “Life” Library, Liverpool. (1831), he escaped. The “Journal,” which A few years ago a valuable group of with many letters was bought by the Public Burns' manuscripts, which had belonged Library, Liverpool, is the diary of a voyage to Dr. Currie, were sold by the Liverpool from Nixonton, N. C., to the Island of St. Athenæum, to which they had been preMartin, between September 19th and sented by his son. There was a public October 29th, 1776. It is not of much protest, but fortunately the purchaser, a interest except as illustrating the careful citizen of Philadelphia, gave them to the self-education of a Scotch lad, and the Burns Library, Kilmarnock. horrid discomforts of a sea-voyage in those Currie had deservedly a most successful days. Much more interesting in the same career in Liverpool. His “Life” is well volume is the manuscript of a letter which worth reading, and the two volumes of his Currie wrote in defense of the Scotch in Medical Reports on the Effects of Water," Virginia, and which appeared in Pinkney's 1797, are full of original observations on the Gazette on the 22d and 24th of March, 1775. clinical use of the thermometer. In this For fifty years the Glasgow merchants had study he was far in advance of his conthe lion's share in the tobacco trade of the temporaries, who looked askance at his colony, and their agents were slow in researches; so much so that the German joining the newly formed continental asso- translator quoted them in illustration of the ciation, which made them unpopular, and backward state of English Medicine! Weir led to abusive attacks. Currie writes in Mitchell, who had a great admiration for defense of his countrymen, posing as a Currie, called my attention to his works, resident of forty odd years. It is a remark- which he regarded as among the most able letter for a young man of nineteen, valuable in English medical literature. full of good sense and well expressed.

WILLIAM OSLER

LOCAL HISTORY The histories of local institutions which library was housed in the beautiful building have performed important functions in the which it now occupies on the Fenway. life of any community and their compilation Besides having one of the largest collections is a duty which, conscientiously performed, of medical books in the world, it also confurnishes material of the greatest value to tains a most valuable collection of medical the historian, as well as stimulating local medals, autographs, and pictures, and a pride in their continuance and welfare. number of very important medical incunab

Two books of this character have recently ula. been brought to our notice, both dealing The other book records the great achievewith institutions situated in Boston, which, ments of the Humane Society of Massachuhowever, have exercised an influence for setts during one hundred and thirty years good far beyond the local confines of that of beneficent activity. The Society was city. “The History of the Boston Medical founded in 1785 by a group of well-known Library,”? by Dr. John W. Farlow, its dis- Bostonians to whom the work of the tinguished Librarian, is of the greatest British Royal Humane Society had been interest, not only to the medical profession, described by an English traveler. Its first but also to all those concerned with library object was the resuscitation of persons work. The Boston Medical Library was drowned or suffocated, for which purpose it founded in 1805, by a group of prominent studied the various methods to be employed, medical men belonging to the Medical procured appliances useful toward that Improvement Society of that city. In 1826 end, and bestowed rewards on various it was merged in the Boston Athenæum. rescuers. One method of resuscitation which In 1875, chiefly owing to the activity and the Society especially studied and for some zeal of Dr. James R. Chadwick, it was years approved, was the use of tobacco determined by a number of physicians to fumigations in the rectum, special fumigaonce more establish a distinct medical tors being provided in convenient places library, the drawbacks to having collections where drowning accidents were frequent. of medical books merely as sections of other Circulars were drawn up for distribution public libraries such as the Athenæum and conveying instructions for resuscitation. the Boston Public Library, having become From its origin to the present day, the manifest to all. Thus was begun the Boston Society has numbered the most prominent Medical Library Association, the word citizens of Boston among its active members Association not being dropped from its title and friends. It early began to enlarge its until 1896. From its foundation it was scope by the erection of huts of refuge along successful. By the acquisition of medical dangerous points on the Massachusetts libraries belonging to individuals, either by coast wherein shipwrecked mariners would gift or bequest, and of libraries founded by find tinder and material for making a fire, other societies, such as the Medical Obser- blankets and food. These huts were the vation Society, and the Massachusetts first organized effort at establishing anyMedical Society, its growth soon assumed thing like a life saving service on our coast, phenomenal proportions. As it grew, it and they proved of the greatest value. became necessary to move its quarters from Stimulated by their success, the Society, time to time, until finally, in 1901, the

2 “The Humane Society of the Commonwealth 1 "The History of the Boston Medical Library,' of Massachusetts," an historical review, 1785-1916, by John W. Farlow, M.D., privately printed 1918. by M. A. De Wolf Howe. Boston, 1918.

92 of

which had launched the first lifeboat benefactions of the Society. It offered a known in the United States in 1807, in 1840 reward for the best collection of facts bearbegan the establishment of life-saving ing on the origin of yellow fever, hoping stations, equipped with boats and crews that if the cause might be ascertained, the to man them, at intervals on the coast of the recurrence of the disease might be averted. State. In 1869 there were no less than In 1843 it gave $500 towards the purchase of these stations in active operation. Two years a telescope for the astronomical observatory later, in 1871, the United States govern- at Harvard. It contributed liberally, from ment instituted its coast guard system, its funds, towards the establishment of the thereby obviating to a great extent the Massachusetts General Hospital and other necessity for private enterprise, so that by objects connected with the public health. 1916 the Society had decreased the number It is doubtful if any other organization in of its stations to 36. The records of some of the United States possesses so long and the heroic rescues, made by its crews, fill varied a record of useful benevolence, and pages of the book before us, and cause a preservation of its history in permanent thrill of grateful admiration towards the form is well worth while. Society which rendered them possible.

FRANCIS R. PACKARD Many and various were the other public

PASTEUR DRAMATIZED

The great French pictorial weekly L’Illustration has recently resumed its practice of publishing as a supplement the current plays of literary worth produced in the theatres of Paris. On March ist it published in this manner “Pasteur,”a play in five acts, written by Sacha Guitry, and produced for its premier at the Vaudeville with the author's father, Lucien Guitry, in the title rôle. M. Guitry states that he was stimulated to write the play by reading the classic life of Pasteur by Valery-Radot. The action is based on facts narrated in the book, especially the inoculation of Joseph Meister, the first patient upon whom Pasteur used the antirabic virus. Many of the lines in the play are Pasteur's own utterances. The final act is the great reception in honor of his

seventieth birthday. M. Guitry has used with dramatic effect some of the vivid incidents in the great man's life, and the play gives a moving idea of his unswerving devotion to scientific truth and of the irritation caused him by the unscientific criticism of his logical methods and the absolute accuracy with which he employed them. We know of no similar dramatization of a great scientist's achievements, and the value of such a production in its effect on either professional or lay audiences must be immense. Appended are a number of criticisms by the leading French dramatic critics which are unanimous in their expressions of approbation.

FRANCIS R. PACKARD

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ASPECTS OF DEATH AND CORRELATED ASPECTS OF exhaustive iconography of death with a LIFE IN ART, EPIGRAM, AND POETRY. Contribu

complete anthology. It forms, as the author tions towards an Anthology and an Iconography

says, an "essay on the mental attitudes of the Subject. Frederick Parkes Weber, M.A.,

towards ideas of death and immortality,” M.D., F.R.C.P., F.S.A. XI +786 pages; 145 illustrations, third edition, revised and much

and the various ways these have affected enlarged. Price $7.50 net. New York: Paul B. the individual, as illustrated in epigram, Hoeber.

poetry, and the minor works of art, such as

gems, medals, jewels, etc. The byways of literature are much fre- Of the four parts into which the work is quented by doctors—to their

great

benefit. divided, the first is general and historical, With a hobby a man is reasonably secure the second an arrangement and analysis of against the whips and arrows of the most the various possible aspects of death, the outrageous fortune. Among our English third deals with medals and coins, and the brethren an avocation is more common than fourth with engraved gems, rings, and jewels, in America, and in the midst of a busy and representations in pottery. It forms an practice a man will keep a keen interest in extraordinary study on the reaction of man's literature or botany or archæology. It is mind towards the last great act; and one is interesting to note that at present the Presi- astonished at the industry and versatility dent of the Poetry Society, the President of of the author who has laid under contributhe Bibliographical Society, and of the tion the literatures of all time. Every aspect Classical Association, are physicians. of death is discussed, and he clothed the

The volume before us represents the avo- time-worn skeleton by correlating every cational studies of one of the best known of aspect with the living. London physicians, and a student of ex- Of special interest to the doctor is the long traordinary keenness. To-day Dr. Parkes section in Part 2, dealing with the medical, Weber is in medicine the successor of sanitary, and social attitudes towards death. Jonathan Hutchinson, and an anomalous It is astonishing how much medical hiscase or a new disease is sure to be illustrated

tory may be read from coins. From the fifth at once from his wide experience. This work century B.C. are Sicilian coins illustrating is an outcome of his studies in Numis- the freeing of Selinus from a pestilence, posmatics, to which subject he has made many sibly malaria, by the drainage of the neighvaluable contributions, and on which his boring marshlands. The special work by father, the late Sir Hermann Weber, was a Pfeiffer and Ruland—“Pestilentia in Numdistinguished authority.

mis"--deals with the medals and tokens The book has grown in a remarkable relating to epidemics of plague and other way: the first edition, 1910, consisted of a infectious diseases. The literary value of the series of articles reprinted with alterations work is enhanced by references from the and corrections from the Numismatic Chron- authors of every period; for example, under icle. A second enlarged and revised edition this section of the emblematic representaappeared in 1914. The present greatly en- tion of disease, Johnson's striking statement larged and rearranged edition combines an is quoted:

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