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Barton lays down in succeeding sections exact rules governing the duties of surgeons' mates, and devotes a section to a discussion of the expediency of giving surgeons proper military rank. Rationing and diet for seamen is reviewed at length and Barton presents a revised ration "for promoting and preserving health and morals of the seamen in the U. S. naval service." The section devoted to the ventilation and warming of ships emphasizes well-known principles of hygiene governing these subjects and recommends the more extensive use of windsails. He insists upon dryness of lower decks and inveighs against wet scrubbing of them in winter weather, quoting Trotter in support of his contention. The two final sections of the book deal with Barton's ideas regarding the examination of recruits, a matter in which he seems to have been a pioneer in our service, and with plans for improving the health of the men and the comfort of the sick by locating the sick bay further aft, isolating it by partitions, ventilating it "by tubes from the gun or main deck,” and furnishing wellslung cots, etc. Other points covered are the proper location of the paint room, to avoid lead poisoning; the selection of a place for laying ships up in ordinary, free from damp and marshy exhalations; the provision of bunting sashes for lower deck ports; providing boats' crews with breakfast before they are sent on shore for wood or water; exercising supervision over "bumboats” to
exclude spirituous liquors; preventing men from drinking river water, when ships are anchored in rivers; that "dancing and musick” be promoted and encouraged among the men; and finally, he closes with the statement: "The most willing cooperation of the commanders and other officers of ships, should always be afforded the sur
any of his plans for meliorating the condition of the men and promoting the convalescence and cure of the sick.” In the “Conclusion” he closes as follows: “I conceive that the country has a right to expect from every officer in the service, the result of his experience, if that can in any way lead to the interests of the nation. I therefore tender with unaffected diffidence, my mite towards the general weal.” An “Appendix” contains a list of surgeons in the navy in the year 1814. The second edition of this book was dedicated to “Daniel Parker, Esq., Adjutant and Inspector-General of the Army of the United States,” which apparently was meant to be a public acknowledgement of the patronage accorded the first edition of the book by the Army authorities, who purchased it in quantity. In fact, the Army appears to have purchased more copies than the Navy, if one can judge from the letters printed on the ing the dedication in this edition.
The "Hints for Naval Officers Cruising in the West Indies” was written and published in 1830, immediately following Barton's duty on the “Brandywine.” This small volume incorporates in book form two reports made to the Navy Department on “Ardent Spirits in the Ration of Midshipmen,” which has been referred to previously, and a “Report on the Means of Preserving the Health of Seamen Previous to a Cruise." To these are added sections dealing with “Use of Tobacco; Clothing; Sleeping; Restriction in Water; Temperance in Drinking and Eating; Miscellaneous Observations; Immunity;" and a section dealing with the natural advantages of
Pensacola as a site for a permanent naval written in a somewhat labored literary style. depot. An appendix contains several letters In the National Gazette, Philadelphia, written while on the “Brandywine,” touch- April 15, 1829, there appeared a notice of a ing mainly questions of hygiene. This work, treatise which was stated to be in course of while presenting valuable and interesting preparation by the author of the “Hints," material, and necessarily reflecting a more entitled “A History of the Navy of the mature experience in the service, does not United States.” There is no evidence that possess as great a claim to commendatory this work ever reached the stage of comnotice as the preceding, and, moreover, it is pletion.
ON THE DEATH OF DR. ROBERT LEVET
Condemn'd to Hope's delusive mine,
As on we toil from day to day,
Our social comforts drop away.
See Levet to the grave descend,
Of every friendless name the friend.
Obscurely wise and coarsely kind;
Thy praise to merit unrefined.
And hovering death prepared the blow
The power of art without the show.
His useful care was ever nigh,
And lonely want retired to die.
No petty gain disdain'd by pride;
The toil of every day supplied.
Nor made a pause, nor left a void;
The single talent well employ'd.
Unfelt, uncounted, glided by;
Though now his eightieth year was nigh.
No cold gradations of decay,
SAMUEL JOHNSON (1709-1784).
A PHYSIOLOGICAL ROMANCE
lies in the extreme minutiæ and the great There has recently been republished in grasp of scientific details which are shown the “Ideal Bibliothèque” the famous story in the recital of the physiological processes by Edmond About, “L'Homme à l’Oreille involved in the story. The only book Cassée,” which will afford an evening's comparable to it in the English language is profitable amusement to the medical man the “Frankenstein” of Mary Wollstonecraft who possesses a reading acquaintance with Shelley, but the crudities and lack of the French language. It especially deserves scientific comprehension of the latter stand attention because of the almost forgotten out in glaring contrast with the story of the fact that the idea upon which it is based, marvellous career of Colonel Fougas. It is that animal organisms if desiccated could a curious reflection how frequently a man be preserved for some time and life restored of genius can write on a technical or to them by renewing their moisture, was scientific subject with a grasp which comat one time seriously advanced and main- pels the admiration of the professional tained. At present we may class it with the reader, even when the matter of his work theory of spontaneous generation and other is really pseudo-science and not the genuine exploded myths. The story relates the article. Thus a Kipling can write of the revivification of a French officer of Napo- machinery of a ship in a way that no real leon's Army, who had been nearly frozen engineer could emulate, although it is a to death, and in that condition given as a question whether Mr. Kipling has ever had corpse to a German scientist, who proceeded any practical training in the engine room of to desiccate him. The supposed mummy is a steamer. About writes of his hero as purchased by a young French traveller, though he had himself spent many arduous brought to France, and there revivified by years in the physiological laboratory. His some of his countrymen. His desiccation book must have appealed strongly to the had been produced in 1813, under the first mind of the lay public at a time when Napoleon, his restoration was accomplished everyone was speculating on the origin of in 1859 during the reign of Napoleon III. life, and before Pasteur had definitely disMany amusing episodes occur and are told proved the existence of any such thing as with all of About's wit and inimitable style; spontaneous generation. but the great interest to the medical reader
FRANCIS R. PACKARD.
Le premier Congrès indépendant de 1920. Il coïncidera avec la Kermesse et les l'Histoire de la Médecine et de la Phar- Fêtes de la ge Olympiade. macie se tiendra à Anvers du 7 au 12 août A la séance de la Société française d'
Histoire de la Médecine du 6 décembre 1. Etudes historiques sur l'Assistance publique en 1919, M. le DR TRICOT-ROYER, l'un des tous pays. Dans cet ordre d'idées, M. le Proorganisateurs de ce Congrès, a donné con
fesseur JEANSELME parlera de l'Assistance pubnaissance du programme ainsi établi pro
lique à Byzance.
2. L'iconographie médicale. visoirement:
3. La médecine monastique et collégiale en Belgique. Samedi 7 août:
4. Bibliographie de l'Histoire de la Médecine. A ce A 18 heures: Séance d'installation du Congrès. propos, M. FANIEN, directeur de la biblioA 20 heures: Réception des Congressistes à
thèque municipale de Nancy, étudiera la bibl'Hôtel de Ville. Cette réception comporte un
liographie des cuvres médicales qui ont pris raôut agrémenté d'un concert de carillon.
naissance en Lorraine. Dimancbe 8 août:
5. Le mobilier des apothicaires. A 9 heures: Séance.
6. Epigraphie médicale; continuation de l'euvre A 14 heures: Excursion sur l’Escaut avec com
commencée par le regretté professeur BLANmentaires sur les installations maritimes, par M. STRAUSS, échevin de la ville d'Anvers.
Les séances se termineront par des notices Lundi 9 août:
biographiques ou diverses contributions à A 9 heures: Séance. A 14 heures: Conférence-promenade dans l'église
l'Histoire de la Médecine; dans cet ordre collégiale Saint-Jacques, par M. l'abbé d'idées, M. le DR DORVEAUX étudiera
GOETSCHALCKX, archéologue et historien. Pilâtre de Rozier, apotbicaire; puis l'HistoA 17 h. 22: Séance.
rique de l'eau de la reine de Hongrie. M. Mardi 10 aout:
WICKESHEIMER parlera de la SphygmoA 9 heures: Séance. A 14 heures: Conférence-promenade à travers
graphie médiévale et des médecins belges les salles du Musée des Beaux-arts, par M.
qui ont étudié à l'Université de Strasbourg. Jacques EDAPPERS, homme de lettres.
Les communications, tout ou partie, A 17 h. 72: Séance.
seront réunies en un volume qui constituera Mercredi 11 aout:
le liber memorialis du Congrès. A 9 heures: Séance. A 14 heures: Conférence-promenade, par le
Des démarches seront faites
obtenir De TRICOT-ROYER, à l'hôpital Sainte-Elisa- les réductions d'usage sur les chemins de fer beth fondé au début du xiure siècle.
des réseaux français et belges. A 17 h. 72: Séance. Jeudi 12 août:
Les Congressistes, en raison de l'emcomA 9 heures: Séance.
brement des hôtels, seront reçus, avec leur A 14 heures: Conférence-promenade au musée famille, chez les médecins d'Anvers particiPlantin, par Charles BERNARD, avocat.
pant au Congrès. Ils peuvent dès mainA 18 heures: Banquet et clôture du Congrès.
tenant indiquer le nombre de lits et de Les séances, au nombre de neuf, com- chambres qu'ils désirent voir mettre à leur prendront des communications sur les sujets disposition, en s'adressant à M. le DR TRICOTsuivants:
ROYER, 106, avenue d'Italie, Anvers.
BIOGRAPHY OF SIR WILLIAM OSLER Lady Osler has requested me to prepare are requested, and if dates are omitted it is a biography of her husband and I will be hoped that they may be supplied if possible. most grateful to anyone who chances to see If the originals are forwarded for copy this note, for any letters or personal remi- they will be promptly returned. niscences, or for information concerning
HARVEY CUSHING, M.D. others who may possibly supply letters.
Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Copies of all letters, no matter how brief,
BOOK REVIEWS BREVES APUNTES PARA LA HISTORIA DE LA MEDI- modern period begins. The story abounds in CINA; SUS PROGRESOS EN GUAYAQUIL. Por
interesting data about the local diseases, the Gabriel Pinoy Roca. Imp. y Papeleria
indigenous medical plants, the use of bezoar Sucre, Guayaquil. 1915. pp. 74.
stones, the medicine of the Incas, the founIn our summer number of 1917 (p. 217), dation, fortunes and vicissitudes of the first we called attention to the great advantage hospital and drug dispensary, and the major of having the separate medical histories of epidemics, of which smallpox and yellow different countries, states, regions, counties fever, sometimes called mal de Siam, were and cities written by the individuals best most frequent. Important landmarks are qualified for the task and their publication the establishment by Philip II of the Proas a matter of local pride. Dr. James J. tomedicate of Peru (1570), a tribunal govWalsh's five volume “History of Medicine in erning all physicians, surgeons, pharmacists New York,” just published, is a fine example and herb gatherers from Panama to Vireyof what can be done in this regard, a monu- nato, the Royal Ordinance of February 12, ment of patient research. The little book 1579, forbidding any physician, surgeon, with the above title is in the same class; pharmacist, barber or astrologer (algebrista) its modest dimensions befit the occasion of to follow his avocations without previous its production, since which time, Guayaquil examination, and the reopening of the hoshas loomed larger in medico-historical con- pital by Friar Gaspar Montero in 1618. sideration by reason of the fact that it has The paragraphs and sentences are commendbecome the starting point of the investiga- ably brief, and the whole narrative is tions of the endemic foci of yellow fever now readable. in progress under General Gorgas and his The foresight of the late William Pepper, associates of the Rockefeller Foundation. of the University of Pennsylvania, in his
The booklet was prepared for the first efforts to establish closer relations between “Equatorial Medical Congress” (Congreso the medical profession in North and South Médico Ecuatoriano), held at Guayaquil, America has been justified by the great October 9, 1915. The story begins with the progress in that direction made in recent arrival of Francisco Pizarro at Coaque, years. Many can recall the earnestness with Peru, in December, 1530, the epidemic of which he threw himself into the work of verrugas which attacked his soldiers, the organizing the first Pan-American Medical expedition of Alvarado in 1534, the experi- Congress. The labours of many research ences with paludism and the disease called workers from the United States in South Modorra, which may have been sleeping American countries have opened the eyes of sickness or encephalitis lethargica; from many of us to the splendid work which is the foundation of Guayaquil in 1537, the being or has been done by the native phynarrative proceeds, in straight, consecutive sicians of those countries in many branches order, down to the year of Peruvian inde- of medical work. South America boasts pendence (1822). The history thus covers many splendid medical colleges and hosthe colonial period; with the foundation of pitals, the staffs of which are contributing the Sociedad Medica de Guayas (1837), the largely to medical progress.