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By FIELDING H. GARRISON, M.D.

WASHINGTON, D.C.
HROUGH the courtesy of Colonel showing that the laird himself tilled the

C. C. McCulloch, Librarian of soil.” Long Calderwood is in the south-
the Surgeon General's Office, it western county of Lanarkshire, a part of

is our privilege to reproduce an the country which had been much fought interesting photograph of the old house at over by the ancient Romans, and in later Long Calderwood, where John and William wars. Hereabouts the brave Wallace fought Hunter were born. The inscription on the and bled; in this county, Mary, Queen back of the picture is in the handwriting of Scots, was defeated at the battle of Langof the late Dr. John S. Billings and reads: side in 1568; Claverhouse was defeated by “Long Calderwood, the birthplace of John the Covenanters at Drumclog (1679) and

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and William Hunter. Rec'd from Dr. Andrew Fergus of Glasgow, Feb. 14, 1885, J. S. Billings.”

Long Calderwood, on a small estate, seven miles from Glasgow, is described by Mather, in his biography of the two Hunters, as “A good stone house of two stories, situated near the road leading from East Kilbride to Blantyre, quite like the residence of the laird of the small estate. The house has the appearance of having been all along the abode of 'bein' substantial people, and has behind it a fine large court, enclosed by farm buildings,

himself defeated them at Bothwell Brig (1679). In the eighteenth century, the historic shire was unusually productive of medical talent. Cullen, Smellie, Matthew Baillie, as well as the two Hunters, were all of them Lanarkshire men. The Lanark branch of the Hunters was an offshoot of the Hunters of Hunterston (Ayrshire), an old Norman family of the thirteenth century. As it stands, this stern, gray house, over two centuries old, is representative and typical of the old granite Scotchtheir intense love of plainness and simplicity in externalities, their dislike of the showy

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The greatest and most dangerous disease, and one that proved fatal to the greatest number, was consumption. With many persons it commenced during the winter, and of these some were confined to bed, and others bore up on foot. Most of those who were confined to bed died early in the spring; of the others the cough left not a single person, but it became milder through the summer; during the autumn all these were confined to bed, and many of them died, but in the greater number of cases the disease was long protracted. The onset was usually sudden, with frequent rigors, often continual and acute fevers; unseasonable, copious, and cold sweats throughout; great coldness, from which they had great difficulty in being restored to heat; the bowels variously constipated and again immediately loosened, especially toward the end of

each attack; . . . coughs frequent throughout, sputa copious, congested and liquid, but not brought up with much pain. By far the greatest mischief attending these and the other complaints was the aversion to food, as has been described. For neither had they any relish for drink along with their food, but continued without thirst. There was heaviness of the body, disposition to coma, in most cases swelling, which ended in dropsy; they had rigors, and were delirious towards death.

The habit of body peculiarly subject to phthisical complaints was the smooth, the whitish, that resembling the lentil; the hectic, the blue-eyed, the lymphatic, and that with the scapulæ having the appearance of wings.

HIPPOCRATES. “Epidemics." Book III, 13, 14.

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HE writings and addresses of Dr. York medicine, published an article upon D. Bryson Delavan have been “Growths and Tumors of the Throat," especially important in calling at- which represented an appropriate begin

tention to the fact that the spe- ning of serious interest in throat diseases. cial chapter in the history of medicine of In the late thirties Dr. Horace Green, here which physicians in New York have most in New York, began his epoch-making right to be proud is that of laryngology and work in the direct treatment of affections rhinology. He has shown that members of the larynx and trachea. The surest sign of the medical profession in New York, that his work was a real advance and far during the latter half of the nine- ahead of anything that had been done teenth century, revolutionized the treat- before is the fact that it met with decided ment of diseases of the nose and throat and opposition. I have often quoted Dean Swift were pioneers, not only for America, but for with regard to such incidents of opposition the medical and surgical world in this great to real advance in science which, until we modern development of medical and surgi- knew history properly, used almost to be cal practice. The story of the striking evo- attributed to religious intolerance or biglution of these specialties in New York, otry of some kind related to religion. The beginning with Horace Green and not yet incidents in question are practically always ended, for there are men still alive who due to the conservative tendencies of manhave done thoroughly original work and kind. These make them resent important very precious work in this department, is advances, when they are really new, though of the greatest interest and significance. they are so prone to welcome novelties of Unfortunately, it is not known as well as no significance. Dean Swift said, in his own it should be even by those most deeply bitter frame of mind, of course, but still interested in the practice of the specialties with an approach to truth that has made in question, but then until very recently the expression one of the oft-quoted pasphysicians generally have not been inter- sages from his works, “When a true genius ested in the history of their great profes- appears in the world you may know him by sion, though they are waking up now and this sign—that all the asses are in confedare learning how many practical, valuable eracy against him.” Dr. Green had to strughints might be secured from the history of gle on in spite of opposition, which seems medicine.

lamentable to us as we look back, though Some of the details of this chapter of our generation has and doubtless will react surgery in New York must be repeated for similarly to other genuine advances. their significance to be appreciated. In 1817 We in New York had another example of Dr. Cheesman, the worthy head of a dis- the truth of Dean Swift's expression when tinguished series of generations in New sensitive Dr. O'Dwyer found himself alone,

1 This article is an extension of some remarks at the meeting of the Section on Historical Medicine of the New York Academy of Medicine, when “A Description of a Tonsilectomy Done Seven Centuries Ago" was presented.

with practically all the world in opposition In the eighties Dr. Joseph O'Dwyer to him, on the occasion of his presentation completed the series of experiments on of the subject of the intubation of the which his method of intubation is founded, larynx for diphtheria and other stenotic af- and added one of the world's great pracfections. As a matter of fact Dr. Horace tical discoveries to this specialty. Dr. Green was laying the foundation on which O’Dwyer's work was really that of a genius, O'Dwyer was to build, demonstrating clearly and he must ever be considered as one of that the larynx would tolerate foreign bod- the great men of American medicine. ies to a much greater degree than had In the meantime had come the inventions been thought possible. Both of them suf- of the Bosworth saw for bone and nasal fered, but only as did many another dis- obstructions and of the Jarvis snare for coverer in the history of medicine and sci- the removal of enlarged turbinates, and the ence from the ultraconservatism of their work of Dr. Roe, of Rochester, in the subcontemporaries, and it is well for us to re- mucous resection and correction of deformed member that such incidents are not me- septum and other nasal obstructions or diæval nor distant in history, but occur in deviations. The nasal trephine was invented our own time.

by Dr. James H. Goodwillie, and a whole Horace Green's work bore fruit, however, series of valuable instruments, modifications in spite of opposition, and by his writings of preceding less available instruments, were he laid the foundation of the great specialty. designed. Dr. Rufus P. Lincoln devised the His contemporary, Dr. Gurdon Buck, by method for the removal of retropharyngeal his studies of conditions of the larynx and fibromata through the natural passages inespecially his epoch-making paper upon stead of by an external wound, which would “Edematous Laryngitis and Its Treatment have required extensive, dangerous disby Scarification,” made an important ad- section, involving serious bleeding and many vance for all the world. Dr. Ernest Krack- risks. In 1886 Dr. Thomas French, in Brookowizer received a laryngoscope from Vienna lyn, devised a special camera for photoin 1858 and demonstrated its value. Dr. graphing the larynx, a purpose which had Horace Green predicted that the instrument been attempted often enough before, but would work a revolution in laryngology, as without any success. In 1897 Dr. Bryson it did. Already an American, Dr. Ephraim Delavan of New York recommended, inCutter, who later practiced in New York, stead of cautery, submucous puncture of had devised a laryngoscope and the devel- intumescent inferior turbinate by opment of the specialty was assured. As means of a cataract knife, some of the early as 1873 the first laryngological society vessels being divided and becoming oblitever organized was established in New erated by the resultant cicatricial tissue. York. In 1878 the American Laryngological He has also carried out numerous investiSociety was organized in the city of Buffalo, gations, among them the treatment of the main influence in it being New Yorkers. atrophic rhinitis by applications of the In 1871 the first clinic devoted exclusively galvanic current and the value of the x-ray to the diseases of the nose and throat was in the treatment of malignant tumors of established by Dr. Louis Elsberg. Dr. the larynx. Dr. Morris Asch of New George M. Lefferts, beginning May 1875, York finally developed and perfected collected a bibliography of laryngology the means of securing correction of certain until 1880, when a special journal known as deformities of the nasal septum which had the Archives of Laryngology, the first of its proved serious obstacles to any improvekind in the world, was founded.

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