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as the Turkish officials are not always to the place which Dr. Thomson has calleducated men, or instructed in the laws ed by that name. Dr. Robinson was of and regulations of their country, they the opinion that Ain Tineh, where we would be apt to involve their superiors in lunched, is the real Capernaum, but there questions with the foreign embassies. are no ruins there except those of a modThis reluctance on the part of the Turk- ern khan, and, 200 yards further south, ish government to see foreigners become some rubble work, not more than 20 feet owners of real estate, grows out of high and 20 feet square. While at Tell the fact that foreigners in the Levant are Hûm, as it is now called by the Arabs, subject to the laws of their own country, which runs out a little cape into the lake, and not to those of the country in which nearly an hour south of the inlet of the they reside. The consuls are not, as in Jordan, is covered with ruins. Pushing Christian countries, mere commercial through a thick growth of thistle and agents, but are invested with judicial mustard, higher than our heads, we rode powers, and wherever there is a consul up to a ruin about 20 feet high, not very there is also a consular court, having ancient, and evidently built from material both civil and criminal jurisdiction over found among the ruins of the old town. his countrymen. It is with the utmost Columns and capitals were mixed in with care that a conflict of laws and jurisdic- the stone of the side walls. The rock tion, under this anomalous state of things, here is all trap. We tied our horses, and can be avoided, even as regards the per- by standing on tiptoes on the highest sons and personal property of foreigners. part of the ruin we could see the Jordan To add to the complications growing out flowing into the lake, after its 15 mile of real estate, is to increase the proba- excursion from the Huleh.
With some bilities of friction and disagreement be- effort we wedged our way through the tween consuls and cadis, and disturbed jungle in search of ruins, and we were relations between the legations and the amply rewarded, for we found pedestals Porte.
still standing, prostrate columns, archiBut we must attend to our lunch at traves with the cup and egg pattern, and the fountain. The road above it rurs another design in marble showing either from the Huleh, by Jib Yusef (Joseph's a pot of flowers or an urn of incense. In pit) to Tiberias over the spur of the hill, an old hovel, now used as a sheepfold, we and runs parallel with the Jordan in its saw what were evidently foundation course to the lake. This entire district is stones, probably of the synagogue. The most attractive at this season, and is weather was stiflingly hot, and we moved agreeable at all times. It has ever been about with great difficulty on account of high in favor with both native and for- the tangled thistle and shrubs; we soon eigner, and was always peopled by a became exhausted, and turning to our mixture of races, the Greek, the Arab horses for relief, were forcibly reminded and the Jew, who never ceased, however, of the condemnation passed by our Lord to maintain a separate existence. Never on the place : “And thou Capernaum, fusing, intermarrying or even dwelling which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be together, they were distinct in blood, in cast down to hell!” appearance, and in creed. And this is true The controversy abont the site of Caof the present inhabitants—the Moslem, pernaum, which includes already a list of Druse, Maronite, Metowali, Armenian and learned biblical and scientific men, will the Frank. The Arabs then, as now, soon receive an additional impetus from live in their tents; the Jews, into whose the explorations of Mr. McGregor, the houses a Syrian could not enter, occu- London barrister, who proposes to exampied open towns, while the Greeks lived ine the shores of the lake from the water in walled cities, in which a Jew was not side. Having already made three famous allowed to sleep.
voyages in his “ Rob Roy canoe" in the After lunch we went to Capernaum, or rivers of Europe, he is now in Syria, with
the view of paddling over and sounding is no doubt the Chorasin of the New Tesall the water deep enough to float his lit- tament Night was coming on, and we tle craft. After examining the rivers of hastened toward Tiberias, where we were Damascus and verifying the sources of to find our tents. The ride along the the Jordan, he proposes to find all that is beautiful sandy shore of the lake in the concealed by the "waters of Merom,” twilight was full of the deepest interest. which has not hitherto been explored, We soon passed Magdala, an hour north and then go down the Jordan to the Sea of Tiberias, the home of that Mary, to of Galilee, and by inspecting closely that whom our Lord showed a charity not part of Tell Hûm that lies under water, often imitated in our day. A score of he thinks he will be able to throw some hovels now occupy the site, and the misnew light on the subject.
erable Magdalens, who passed us to get Mounting our horses we hastened on water from the lake, looked as if they to pick up the artist and his train. He had never been pardoned. had taken a good photograph of the cape As we crossed the rocky promontory and its disputed ruins. We were greatly north of the wailed city of Tiberias we impressed with the beauty of the little had an opportunity of enjoying the calm inlets or creeks, in one of which our Lord beauty of the lake in shadow, while the must have thrust out in a little boat to Jaulan slopes on the eastern side were speak to the people on the shore. One basking in the golden light of the declinmight easily address 5,000 or 10,000 ing sun. This scenery has been called people from such a position as the boat tame by certain travelers.
In good would have occupied in yonder little weather, it is calm; but the lake can be bay.
very rough, as Peter found to his cost. On our road to Tiberias we passed Snow-capped Hermon looks down from Tabiga, supposed by Robinson to be the his airy height, an ever-watchful sentinel ancient Bethsaida, where we saw many over this mimic sea; and Safed, with her old birkehs 20 feet high, in which the many hills, keeps guard on the western water from the stream was raised up to side, while Jaulan, the country of Jub, overflow into a canal, and ran along par- with its grand outlines embracing the allel with their tops, for the irrigation of sky, stretches away to the east. The the plain of Genesareth. Part of this castle of Tiberias, the plain of Genesacanal was cut through the solid rock, on reth, the hot baths and the horns of Hutthe road to Tiberias. There is a flour tin beautify the shore, from the inlet of mill at Tabiga and a cluster of fountains, the Jordan to its outgo, where the river whose water is brackish and tepid, but skips over the threshold of the lake into there was no inhabitant of any kind at the valley below. All nature seems to Am et Teen or at Tell Hûm-not even an pet this inland sea: the hills look fondly animal to shoot at. An old Sheik whom down, and their shadows lovingly rest we met coming from the eastern side of upon it. There she lies, the jewel—a the lake, told us of Massada, or the place sacred cameo upon the breast of the of fishing near the entrance of the Jordan Promised Land ! into the lake. This may be the real Beth- We reached our tents at dusk, and srida, or house of fishing, * but this name found them within the walls between the is not known among the people. About old castle and the shore, about fifty feet twenty minutes back and north of Tabiga, above the beach. The view from the tent is a ruin and a small hamlet called Kara- door attracted my attention. The slope sia, (Chorasin being the dual form) and to the water's edge was so rapid, that
from my bed, it seemed as if the lake If the Bethsaida of Robinson be correctly came to the door; but the two graceful located, the one mentioned by the Sheik is palms that drooped their long branches, probably the Bethsaida—also called Julias, on the east bank of the Jordan, two miles above as the sunset breeze subsided, indicated the lake.
the shore line, and stood like twin sisters
in placid meditation. The palm tree, un- yet it grows so rapidly that it rises to the like the twinkling, glistening olive, whose height of a man in five or six years. As silver foliage suggests the aged willow, it ascends new leaves are sent out and represents meditation and repose. Dif- the former ones decay, and fall down on fering from every other tree in Syria, in the trunk, and when the tree is under appearance and effect, it affords no shel- cultivation they are cut off. The leaves ter from the sun or rain; and though of are from 10 to 12 feet length and the earth, earthy, it seems to have as lit- when cut from the tree they are macetle to do with earth as possible. The rated in water and become supple, after tallest of trees, its contribution of dates which they are manufactured into mats, is given in its own peculiarly lofty style and are applied to many other useful purfrom the summit of its columnar trunk, poses. The palm requires a hot climate while the branches droop toward the with a soil sandy, yet humid and someground from their airy height, as if wea- what nitreous; hence it is often found ry with their effort to reach the skies. beside wells in the desert, having sprung The palm in groves produces in the be- from date-stones thrown away by trarholder a sensation of delight—the im- elers who have rested there for refreshmense palm groves seven miles long ment. In fact, it is pre-eminently the which once environed Jericho must have tree of the desert, and is spoken, of in been a beautiful sight—but singly, or in Rabbinical writings as a tree of the val. twos, they predispose the mind to pen- leys, not of the mountains. sive thoughts. Like the village spire in deemed characteristic of Judea, and on New England towns, they point upward the coins of her Roman conquerors, we and suggest the Creator; and several lo- find the words Judea capta, and the Jews calities in the lands of the Bible have not are represented by a weeping female sitbeen inappropriately named, as Phenicia, ting under a palm tree. “ the land of palms,” Palmyra, the city
The castle in ruins behind our tents of palms, and Bethany, “the house of brought up thoughts of the Crusaders, dates.” Palm branches are still used in who held Tiberias for a time, and sugthe East on Palm Sunday and at fune- gested the warlike exploits of the Jews rals, where they suggest victory and im- as related by Josephus. The town on mortality. The righteous are said to the right slope of the hill twinkled with "flourish like the palm tree.” The char- its hundred lights below us, and the acter of the tree is therefore worthy of tents of Englishmen were illuminated on remark.
one side, while our muleteers were chatThe date-palm, called the Phenix dacty- ting and making the night hideous with lifera in the Linnean system, is an ever- their horse-laughs on the other, when we green and sometimes rises to the height sat down to dine on the shore of the Sea of 100 feet; it is in its greatest vigor 30 of Galilee. years after transplantation, and continues Next morning, during a walk through so for 70 years, when it begins gradually the bazaars, I noted some improvement to decay, falling usually at the close of its in the business of the town-the Jewish second century. When the old trunk population having nearly doubled since dies, one or more young shoots spring up, my former visit in 1859. The Jews are so that the tree enjoys a kind of immor- no cleaner here, although water is at tality. It is propagated chiefly from hand, than in the other holy cities. Their young shoots taken frou the roots of bazaars, like those at Safed, were amply full-grown trees, which, if well trans. stored with meat, vegetables, dry goods planted and nursed, yield their fruit in and hardware; fish from the lake is found the 6th or 7th year, while those from the at every corner, and Syrian cotton, then stone will not bear till the 16th year. a drug in the market, was sold in bags. The trunk rises from the ground of a I bought a saddle-girth in a Moslem shop, thickness which is never increased, and and turned back satisfied with my explorations into the dirt of Tiberias. We clear and gravelly bottom shelves down passed an old Greek church, which had very gradually and is strewed with pebbeen purchased by some Latin monks, for bles. During the rainy season the waters a convent—a branch of the community at rise to the level of the courtyards of the Nazareth. From an open space we could houses on the shore at Tiberias. The see the city wall and the extent of the lake is full of fish, and Hasslequist the town, which has a population of more naturalist, notes the remarkable fact that than 2,000 souls. One half of these are some of the same species of fish are met Jews, and the other half Moslems and with here as in the Nile; the Siluries and Christians. The Jews regard this town Mugil, (chub) and a species of bream. with veneration as one of their 'holy cit. The right to fish is farmed out by the ies, and are said to believe that their government, and is carried on from the long expected Messiah will rise from the shore with hand nets, and not with boats. waters of the lake, land in this city and Boats are not always found here, and travestablish his throne at Safed. Their elers have given various reports: Irby quarter of the town contains several syn- and Mangles found none in 1818, in 1822 agogues and schools, in which rabbinical and '29 there was none. Pococke in lore bas been kept up as a branch of 1738 made an excursion on the lake in a learning. They are not closely united, boat which was kept, in order to bring being different in sect and in origin-the wood from the other side. Jezzar Pacha Sephardim being chiefly from Northern had a boat built for this purpose, but Africa and Spain, whose language is a Burchart in 1812 says it had fallen to piecorrupt Spanish, while the Askenazim ces the year before. The United States are from Russia. The wall and towers of Expedition to the Dead Sea under Capt. the town are much dilapidated, and show Lynch launched its boats from Tiberias traces of the earthquake of 1837.* April 8, 1848, and began a series of in
The old city wall ran lower than the mod. vestigations which have formed the basis ern and into the water in places. I shook of much that has been written by subseoff the dust of the town, and plunged into quent travelers. Lynch had not time to the water from the old rampart, and ten survey the lake, but he speaks of its botyards from the shore found no bottom. tom as a concave basin, and of its greatThe waves were about two feet high, est depth as 165 feet, though fluctuating and yet the boatmen had refused to ven- from copious rains, melting snows and ture out in the old sail boat. This was rapid evaporation. The water is cool my only experience on the lake, and my and sweet, and the inhabitants say that only bath in a volcanic basin.t The it possesses medicinal properties. The
* The history of Tiberias may be summed surface of the lake was found by baromeup in a few words. Built by Herod the trical measurement to be 653.3 below murderer of John the Baptist, in honor of that of the Mediterranean. Its length is the Emperor Tiberias, it was endowed with stated to be 11} geographical miles by a many immunities and became the capital breadth of about 6 miles across the midcity of Galilee, and subsequently the chief residence of the Jews in Palestine, who for dle; and its distance from the Dead Sea three centuries made it their metropolis. 564 miles. It is about 660 feet below the Conspicuous in the war that attended the Mediterranear. sige of Jerusalem, it was captured by the
I was struck with the tidy appearPersians, (A.D. 614) by the Arabs, (A.D.' 637) and by the Crusaders under Tancred. About 100 years ago, Dahebel Omer, an Arab Springs near Tiberias, S. E. of the lake, as sheik, built the present walls. Jerome also the lukewarm springs along its western thinks it was the Chinnereth-at which Dr. shore, the frequent and violent earthquakes, Thomson demurs, while the Rabbins say that and the black basaltic stones which thickly the old city of Rakkath, mentioned in Joshua, strew the ground, all leave no room for doubt stood on this site.
on this point. Robinson ii. 416. S. Crowe, Ge| The volcanic nature of the basin of this ographisch-historische Beschreibung des lake (the Sea of Galilee) and of the surround- Landes Palästina, Pt. i. p. 34. Lange, Life of ing region is not to be mistaken. The hot Christ, p. 312, vol. i.
ance of the Jewish women, some of rulers and neighbors of a faith more modwhom were dressed in white. One if not more liberal than their own. carried on her head a basket platter There is one tie, however, between the of clean yellow bread, and the artist, a Moslem and the Eastern Jew—both are young Frenchman, followed and begged Unitarians, both Orientals, and in symher to sell a loaf, for the sake of charity, pathy in their dislike of the Christians. of Allah, just one loaf, but the Jewess We did not gain access to the baths, was obdurate and referred him to the several Moslem hareems having possesmarket where we had already purchased sion. In 1859 I found them hot, dirty, a villainous gritty preparation which the and uninviting; I could not hold my hand Arabs call bread, of the consistency of a in the water a moment, it being at 144° soiled blanket soaked in dishwater. On F. The taste is very salt and bitter, asking the reason of the woman's refusal and smells of sulphur, and an analysis has to part with her bread, of a Jew mending shown carbonate of lime, with a small shoes outside the gate, we learned that proportion of muriatic salts, like that of this was religious bread, destined for use the Dead Sea. Pococke found in a bottle in the church feast of the following day, of this water a considerable quantity of Saturday. The Jewess who sold the ar- gross fixed vitriol, some alum and a tist some tobacco was more amiable and salt which is probably the chloride of so. did not seem unwilling to handle his dium mentioned by Dr. Anderson. There Christian silver.
is nothing ancient in the buildings or We reached the hot baths in less than surroundings, and nothing to suggest the a half-hour's easy ride, passing groups of fortified camp of Vespasian, or the CrusaJews with white beards, and boys, but ders. The present buildings were erected
men of middle age, or women. by Ibrahim Pasha in 1833, and cover the Stricken with palsy and other infirmities, four fountains, which are visited chietly these children of Israel presented the in July by Syrians who have faith to most singular types of the human counte- believe that they may free themselves nance I ever witnessed. Holding on to from their rheumatism and debility in life with intense eagerness, they had these seething waters. These hot springs barely enough of the vital spark in their are mentioned by Pliny and Josephus, exhausted frames to drag them from the the latter calling the place Ammaus, or city to these famous medicinal baths.
warm baths" Whatever of efficacy they may contain for A short ride along the border of the cases of rheumatism and nervous com- lake brought us to the outgo of the Jorplaints, they certainly fail to restore dan, where we found a boat, and, after youth and beauty, for every face that some patient waiting, a boatman to ferry passed us exhibited a great degree of us to the other side. I longed to tarry physical and mental suffering, which, to- and spend the day just at this spot. On gether with their soiled and disordered these tells of Kerak were the fortified clothing, gave to their countenances an places of the Jews, and this was their expression bordering on the hideous, and great naval station, where Josephus colreminded one of Michael Angelo's painting lected 230 ships to attack Tiberius, and of the souls in purgatory. The pallor of the where occurred the only sea fight beboys was ghastly; and the contrast be- tween them and the Romans. My friend tween infirm old age and imbecile youth, the Doctor, saw a storm raging here, added nothing to the beauty of either. To years ago, for thirty consecutive hours, enjoy the benefit of these sulphurous baths, that would have wrecked a hundred and the fancied benefits arising from a resi- fleets like those of Josephus, unless dence in this, their sacred city, these harbored just at this point. My bath in “children of the wandering foot” will en- the swift torrent at the Pilgrim's Ford, dure a summer of stifling heat, in a town six years before, had not satisfied my of infinite dirt, and under the contempt of desire to linger upon the banks of this