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rigorons. He first examines each word in every verse; he then | After his death corrected copies of these (many of which had betraces it in classical authors and parallel passages; discusses its come extremely scarce), together with numerous inedited disquisivarious meanings; and states the grounds of the signification lions, were sent to prof. Ruhnkenius at Leyden; and finally were which he adopts; and, after having thus drawn up a dictionary of edited by prof. Te Water, with numerous valuable notes and inthe verse, he re-construes it with scrupulous fidelity. The result dexes. The first volume contains the Egyptian Glossary, already of all these laborious inquiries is, the eliciting of a clear and simple noticed in p. 112. The second volume comprises six disquisitions meaning to every passage which he has undertaken to elucidate. on Egyptian Antiquities, one on the import of the word' Arronxa, (Revue Protestante, tom. i. p. 254.)

and three illustrations of Job xix. 25., Matt. xii. 36., and Mark ix. 49. 49. A. Th. Hoffmann Observationes in Difficiliora Veteris The third volume contains several dissertations elucidating difficult

passages of Scripture ; and six, on subjects of ecclesiastical antiTestamenti Loca, Particula prima. Jenæ, 1823, 4to.

quity. The fourth volume is wholly filled with dissertations relating 50. Scripture Testimonies to the Divinity of our Lord and to ecclesiastical history and antiquity. All these pieces are replete Saviour Jesus Christ, collected and illustrated by the Rev. with profound learning. This collection of Jablonski's Opuscula George Holder, M.A. London, 1820, 8vo.

is not of common occurrence. 51. The Scripture Testimony to the Messiah : an Inquiry,

61. Car. Aug. Theoph. Keilii Opuscula Academica ad N. T. with a view to a satisfactory Determination of the Doctrine Interpretationem Grammatico-historicam, et Theologiæ Christianæ taught in the Holy Scriptures concerning the Person of Christ. Origines, pertinentia. Edidit J. D. Goldhorn. Lipsiæ, 1821, 8vo. By John Pye Smith, D.D. London, 1818-21. 2 vols. in 3 62. Remarks on Select Passages in the Old Testament ; to parts, 8vo. Second Edition, much improved and enlarged, 1829, which are added eight sermons. By the late Benjamin Kenni. 3 vols. 8vo.

cort, D.D. London, 1777, 8vo. 52. Discourses and Dissertations on the Scriptural Doctrines For an account of this work, see Monthly Review, 0. S. vol. of Atonement and Sacrifice. By William Magee, D.D., (late] | laxviii. pp. 477–489. Archbishop of Dublin. A new edition. London, 1832, 3 vols. 63. Petri KEUCHENII Annotata in Novum Testamentum, cum 8vo.

Præfatione Joannis Alberti. Lugd. Bat. 1775, 8vo. best edition. 50–52.-Each of these truly valuable works was published in 64. Morsels of Criticism, tending to illustrate some few Pasdefence of that cardinal doctrine of the Christian Revelationthe sages in the Holy Scripture upon Philosophical Principles, and supreme Deity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ: but they claim a distinct notice in this place, on account of the very nume and F.S.A. 4to. London, part i. 1784, part ii. 1800; also a

an enlarged View of Things. By Edward King, Esq. F.R.S. rous philological and critical explanations of important passages of Scripture which they contain. From frequently consulting second edition, 8vo. in 3 vols. London, 1800. them, the writer of these pages can with confidence state, that " Mr. King's particular aim is, to provide answers to the more they are works of which the student will never regret the pur- subtile opponents of Christianity, and to trace the completion of chase : each contains most valuable matter peculiar to itself; and, the sacred oracles.” “We cannot take our leave of this valuable together, they form the most elaborate defence and proof of the work without expressing our admiration of the singular union of Deity of Jesus Christ extant in our language. The value of Arch, ingenuity and piety which appears in every page. Few readers bishop Magee's and Dr. Smith's works is enhanced by their learned perhaps will follow the author's steps with the same alacrity with vindications of many important passages of the Sacred Scriptures which he proceeds through the most curious and subtile inquiries; from the erroneous interpretations of the modern Socinians, as well but all must readily grant, that such an application of ingenuity, as the recent neologian commentators of Germany.

diligence, learning, and philosophical knowledge, is in a high 53. Joh. Friderici HOMBERGK Parerga Sacra ; sive Observa- degree praiseworthy." (British Critic, O. S. vol. xvi. preface, p. iv. tiones quædam ad Novum Testamentum. Trajecti ad Rhenum,

and 1712, 4to.

65. Geo. Chr. Knappu Scripta varii Argumenti, maximam 54. Specimen Exercitationum Criticarum in Versionem Lxx. partem exegeticam. Halæ, 1805, 2 vols. 8vo. Editio altera, Interpretum, ex Philone. Auctore Claudio Frees Honne. Halæ, 1823, 2 vols. 8vo. MANN.-Specimen primum, Gouinga, 1773. Specimen secun- 66. Jo. Bern. KOEHLERI Observationes philologicæ in loca dum, Hauniæ, 1776. Specimen tertium, Hauniæ, 1778, 8vo. selecta codicis sacri. Lugd. Bat. 1766, 8vo.

55. Gerardi HORREI Animadversiones Sacræ-Profanæ ad 67. Wilhelmi Koolhaas Observationes Philologico-Exegeticæ selecta Novi Fæderis, Scriptorumque exterorum Græcorum, in quinque Mosis Libros, aliosque Libros Historicos Veteris Loca. Harlingæ, 1749, 8vo.

Testamenti. Amstelodami, 1751, 8vo. 56. Petri HORREI Miscellaneorum Criticorum Libri duo: 68. Joannis Guilielmi Krafftu Observationes Sacræ : quibus quorum alter ex variis Græcis, Latinis, varia Sacrorum, extero- varia Scripturæ Loca illustrantur. Marpurgi, 1753–55, 2 parts, rum Scriptorum complectitur: alter vocabuli $271n Originem, 8vo. Usum, apud seniores et reliquos, ubi loci plures LXX. &c. illus- 69. Jo. Tob. KREBSII de Usu et Præstantia Romanæ Historiæ trantur, emendantur, vindicantur, tractat. Leovardiæ et Har- in Novi Testamenti Interpretatione Libellus. Lipsiæ, 1745, 8vo. lingæ, 1738, 8vo.

70. Car. Frid. KRUMBHolzii Operæ Subsecivæ; seu Animad57. Biblical Criticism on the first fourteen Historical Books versiones Sacræ in Loca quædam Novi Fæderis Selecta. Norimof the Old Testament; also on the first nine Prophetical Books. bergæ, 1737, 8vo. By Samuel HORSLEY, LL.D., Bishop of St. Asaph. London, 71. G. C. KÜCALER De Simplicitate Scriptorum Sacrorum in 1820, 4 vols. 8vo.

commentariis de Vita Jesu Christi. Lipsiæ, 1821, 8vo. Besides the critical pieces mentioned in the title-page, these volumes (which are edited by the author's son, the Rev. Heneage Testamentum ex Libris Apocryphis V. Lipsiæ, 1794, 8vo.

72. Christiani Theophili KUINOEL Observationes ad Novum Horsley) contain three valuable disquisitions, published in the bishop's lifetime, viz. 1. A general view of the first three chap- 73. C. G. KÜTTNERI Hypomnemata in Novum Testamentum. ters of Genesis, together with an inquiry into the etymology and Lipsiæ, 1780, 8vo. import of the Divine Names of Eloah, Elohim, El, Jehovah, and Jah; which originally appeared in the British Critic, for 1802, in

74. Geo. Dav. KYPKE Observationes Sacræ in Novi Fæderis a review of the late Dr. Geddes's remarks on the Hebrew Scrip- Libros. Vratislaviæ, 1755, 2 vols. 8vo.

2. A Critical Disquisition on the Eighteenth Chapter of 75. Jo. Gothofr. LAKEMACHERI Observationes Philologicæ ; Isaiah ; and, 3. The Translation of the Prophecy of Hosea (no- quibus Varia Antiquitatis Hebraicæ atque Græcæ capita et nonticed p. 142. supra). These are inserted as revised by their author. At the end of the fourth volume are translations of several Sacred nulla S. Codicis Loca novâ luce collustrantur. Helmstadii, 1729 Songs, with Critical Notes on them, and on a few other Sacred -33, 10 parts, forming three volumes, 8vo. Pieces, of which the bishop has not given versions.

76. Friderici Adolphi LAMPE Dissertationum Philologico58. Jo. Jac. HOTTINGERI, Opuscula, philologica, critica, atque Theologicarum, tum earum quæ ad ulteriorum evangelii Johanhermeneutica. Lipsiæ, 1817, 8vo.

nis illustrationem pertinent, tum reliquarum varii generis et 59. Conradi IKENII Dissertationes Philologico-Theologicæ in eruditionis multifariæ, Syntagma : cum Danielis Gerdesii præfadiversa Sacri Codicis utriusque Testamenti loca. Lugd. Bat. tione. Amstelodami, 1737, 4to. 1749, 1750, 2 vols. 410.

77. Caroli Henrici Langu Observationes Sacræ, quibus varia 60. Pau!i Ernestii Jablonski Opuscula, quibus Lingua et N. Test. Loca, ex antiquitatibus et Philologia Sacra illustrantur. Antiquitas Egyptiorum, difficilia Librorum Sacrorum Loca, et Lubecæ, 1737, 8vo. Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ capita illustrantur. Edidit atque Animad- 78. The Complete Works of Dr. LARDNER. London, 1789, versiones adjecit Jona Guilielmus Te Water. Lugduni Batavo- | 11 vols. 8vo. London, 1817, 5 vols. 4to. London, 1827, 10 rum, 1804–6–9–13, 4 tomis, 8vo.

vols. 8vo. Besides his Pantheon Ægyptiacum, M. Jablonski wrote numerous In the applause of Dr. Lardner all parties of Christians are united, dissertations on various topics of sacred and oriental literature. I regarding him as the champion of their common and holy faith.

tures.

Archbishop Secker, Bishops Porteus, Watson, and Tomline, and 88. Sam. Frid. Nathan Mori Dissertationes Theologicæ et Doctors Jortin, Hey, and Paley, of the Anglican church: Doctors Philologicæ, vol. i. Lipsiæ, 1787; vol. ii. ibid. 1794; 2d edition, Doddridge, Kippis, and Priestley, amongst the Dissenters; and all ibid. 1798, 8vo. foreign Protestant biblical critics, have rendered public homage to his learning, his fairness, and his great merits as a Christian apolo

89. Miscellanea Hafniensia Theologici et Philologici Argu. gist. The candid of the literati of the Romish communion have menti. Edidit Fridericus MünTER. Tom. I. II. Hafniæ, 1816–24. extolled his labours : and even Morgan and Gibbon, professed unbelievers, have awarded to him the meed of faithfulness and impar- Novi Testamenti Libros, ex Diodoro Siculo collectæ. Hafnia et

90. Casp. Frid. Munthu Observationes philologicæ in Sacros tiality. With his name is associated the praise of deep erudition, accurate research, sound and impartial judgment, and unblemished Lipsiæ, 1755, 8vo. candour. The publication of his works constituted a new æra in

91. H. MUNTINGHE Sylloge Opusculorum ad doctrinem sacram the annals of Christianity: for, by collecting a mass of scattered evidences in favour of the authenticity of the evangelical history, pertinentium. Lugd. Bat. 1791, 1794, 2 vols. 8vo. he established a bulwark on the side of truth which infidelity has 92. Augusti Hermanni NIEMEYERI de Evangelistarum in never presumed to attack. His “ Credibility,” and his “ Collection narranda Jesu Christi in vitam reditu Dissensione, varüsque of Jewish and Heathen Testimonies,” may be said to have given Veterum Ecclesiæ Doctorum in ea dijudicandâ et componendà the deistical controversy a new turn, and ió have driven the assailants of the Gospel from the field of Christian antiquity, in which Studiis, Prolusio. Halæ, 1824, 8vo. they esteemed themselves securely intrenched, into the by-paths 93. Jo. Aug. Noesselti Opusculorum ad interpretatioof sarcasm and irony. How amply we are indebted to the elabo- nem sacrarum Scripturarum, Fasciculus I. 8vo. Halæ, 1785; rate researches of the learned and accurate Dr. Lardner, the nu. Fasciculus II. ibid. 1787.-Ejusdem, Exercitationes ad Sacra merous references to his writings in the course of the present work Scripturæ interpretationem. Halæ, 1808, 8vo. will sufficiently attest. The quarto edition has corrected indexes. The octavo edition of 1827 is sold at a very reasonable price, and

94. Geo. Lud. EdERI Observationum Sacrarum Syntagma, its typographical execution is truly beautiful. Our references to 8vo. Weissenberg, 1729.—Ejusdem, Conjecturarum de difficiDr. Lardner's works are made to the quarto edition, and also to the lioribus SS. locis centuria, 8vo. Lipsiæ, 1738.-Ejusdem, Anioctavo edition of 1789.

madversiones sacræ. Brunswige, 1747, 8vo. 79. A Common-Place-Book; or Companion to the New Tes- 95. Eliæ PalaiRET Observationes Philologico-criticæ in sacros tament; consisting of Illustrations of difficult passages ; apparent Novi Federis Libros. Lugd. Bat. 1752, 8vo.—Ejusdem SpeciContradictions and Inconsistencies reconciled; and the Confor- men Exercitationum Philologico-criticarum in Sacros Novi Fosmity of some Important facts mentioned in Scripture, with the deris Libros, 1775, 8vo. Statements of Profane Authors. By the Rev. 8. LONGHURST,

96. Augusti PFEIFFERI Opera Omnia. Amstelodami, 1704, B.A. Richmond and London, 1833, 8vo.

2 vols. 8vo. This compilation contains most of the passages in the New Tes- The first volume contains his Dubia Vereta Scripture, 400 notes tament, which have arrested the attention of ihe captious opposer on difficult passages of Scripture, Ebraica atque Erotica Nori Tesor the ingenuous critic. The compiler has undertaken it " for the tamenti e suis fontibus derivata, an explanation of Hebrew and other English reader, and for those who may have bui little acquaintance foreign words occurring in the New Testament, and ten dissertawith the technicality and intricacies of biblical criticism."

This lions on passages of peculiar difficulty in the sacred writings. The Introduction to the critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scrip- second volume consists of treatises on the criticism, interpretation, tures has been laid under a large contribution. The remainder of antiquities, &c. of the Bible. the compiler's materials are derived from Mr. Burder's Oriental Customs, the Commentaries of Ostervald, Doddridge, &c. Mr. Val

97. Remarks on several Passages of Scripture, rectifying some py's very valuable edition of the Greek Testament, and the works errors in the printed Hebrew Text, pointing out several mistakes of Josephus ; and for those passages which are quoted in the New in the versions, &c. By Matthew PILKINGTOX, LL.B. CamTestament from the Old, the compiler states that the Greek Septu- bridge and London, 1759, 4to. agint and the Hebrew text have been carefully compared.

98. Extracts from the Pentateuch compared with similar 80. Joannis Henrici Mau (filii) Observationes Sacræ ; quibus passages from Greek and Latin authors, with notes. By Edward diversa utriusque Testamenti Loca ex linguarum Indole, et Anti- Popham, D.D. Oxford, 1802, 8vo. quitatibus potissimum illustrantur. Francofurti, 1713-15, in 4

of this work the reader will find an analysis in the British Critie, books or parts, 8vo.

0. S. vol. xx. pp. 289_294. 81. Critical Notes on some Passages of Scripture, comparing 99. PorschBERGER (Christiani) Theocritus Scripturam illus them with the most ancient Versions, and restoring them to their trans; sive Sententiæ ac Phrases e Poetis Græcis ad illustranda original reading or true Sense. (By Nicholas Mann.] London, Sacri Codicis Oracula. Dresdæ et Lipsiæ, 1744, 8vo. 1747, 8vo.

100. Georgii RAPHAELII, Ecclesiarum Lunenburgensium Sg. These “ Notes” are not numerous, but they contain some good perintendentis, Annotationes in Sacram Scripturam ; Historicæ illustrations of confessedly difficult passages of Scripture : they in Vetus, Philologicæ in Novum Testamentum, ex Xenophonte, were published anonymously.

Polybio, Arriano, et Herodoto collectæ. Lugduni Batavorum, 82. C. B. Meisner De Nopao Paulino Commentatio Exegetico- 1747. In two volumes, 8vo. Dogmatica. Gratz, 1830, 8vo.

101. REINECKE (C. F. C.) De Constanti et Æquabili Jesu 83, Jo. Dav. Michaelis Commentationes in Societate Regia Christi Indole et Ingenio, Doctrinâ et Docendi Ratione : sive Scientiarum Goettingensi per annos 1758–1762, prælectæ. Commentatio de Evangelio Johannis cum Matthæi, Marci, et Editio Secunda. Bremæ, 1774, 4to.

Lucæ Evangeliis conciliato. Hannoveræ, 1827, 8vo. 84. Johannis Georgii MICHAELIS Observationes Sacræ, in

102. Fr. V. REINHARDI Opuscula Academica. Lipsiæ, 1808 quibus diversis Sacræ Scripturæ utriusque Fæderis Locis selecto- | -9, % vols. 8vo. ribus, ex Lingue Ebrææ aliarumque Orientalium indole, priscorum item populorum ritibus et institutis, lux adfunditur : nonnulla libris repugnet, examinare conatus est F. W. RETTBERG. Got

103. An Joannes in exhibenda Jesu Naturâ reliquis Canonicis etiam Antiquitatum Judaicarum capita ex Lege Mosaica et

tingæ, 1826, 8vo. Magistrorum placitis excutiuntur, adque Sensum Spiritualem traducuntur. 'Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1738, 8vo. 2da editio. Arn- and human natures of Jesus Christ, and then compares them with

The writer states the doctrine of St. John relative to the divine hemii, 1752, 8vo.

the writings of the first three evangelists, and the remaining books 85. Jo. Georg. MICHAELIS Exercitationes theologico-philolo- of the New Testament. The conclusion to which the author ar gicæ. Lugd. Bat. 1757, 8vo.

rives is, that the evangelist is not an impostor, and consequently

that the writings bearing his name are his genuine productions. 86. De iis, quæ ad cognoscendam, Judæorem Palæstinensium, qui Jesu tempore vivebant, Christologiam Evangelia nobis exhi- 104. Corrections of various passages in the English Version bent, deque Locis Messianis in illis allegatis, scripsit Adamus of the Old Testament, upon the authority of ancient manuscripts, MORAut. Gottingæ, 1828, 8vo.

and ancient versions, by the late W. H. ROBERTS, D.D., Provost 87. Observationes Selectæ in varia loca Novi Testamenti : sive of Eton College. Published by his son W. Roberts, M.A. LanLaur. Ramiresii de Prado Pentecontarchus, Alexandri Mori in don, 1794, 8vo. Novum Fædus Notæ, et Petri Possini Societatis Jesu Spicile

“ The biblical scholar will infallibly receive with pleasure these gium Evangelicum : cum præfatione Jo. Alberti Fabricii et tab. remarks, from a man of undoubted learning and ingenuity. The

chief intention of Dr. Roberts seems to have been that of lessening æn. Hamburgi, 1712, 8vo.

the number of words supplied in Italic in our public version, as not One of the rarest little books of sacred criticism. Dr. Harwood answering literally to any words in the Hebrew, by showing that calls this a very useful collection, containing many excellent notes in some cases they are unnecessary, and that in some, the sense on particular passages of the New Testament.

may be filled up by other means. There are also many remarks

of a more general kind." In these observations, “ candour, modesty, 117. Car. Chr. TITTMANNI Opuscula Theologica. Lipsiæ, and ingenuity will be found adorning learning.” British Critic, 1803, 8vo. 0. S. vol. iv. p. 648., and pref. p. vi.

Various questions of sacred criticism are illustrated in this work 105. Discours Historiques, Critiques, Théologiques, et Moraux, with singular ability. sur les Evénemens les plus mémorables du Vieux et du Nouveau

118. Dissertations on some parts of the Old and New Testa. Testament. Par M. SAURIN. Avec des planches. A la Haye, ments, which have been supposed unsuitable to the Divine At1735–1739, 6 vols. folio.

tributes. By Richard TwoPENNY, M.A. London, 1824, 8vo. Mr. van der Marck formed a design of representing on copperplates the most memorable events in sacred history; and he en

119. Dissertatio Theologica Judæo-Christianismo, ejusque Vi gaged Mr. Saurin to write an explanation of the plates ; this gave et Efficacitate quam exseruit in Rem Christianum sæculo primo rise to the discourses here published. There is an edition of them Quam....publico examini submittit. David Van Heyst. Lugin 11 vols. 8vo. They are deservedly held in the highest esteem. duni Batavorum, 1828, 4to.

106. Dissertations, Historical, Critical, Theological, and Moral, 120. Joannis VERPOORTENII Fasciculus Dissertationum ad on the most memorable events of the Old and New Testament. Theologiam, maxime exegeticam, et Philologiam Sacram. Co. Translated from the French of M. Saurin by John Chamberlayne. burgi, 1739, 8vo. Vol. I. (all published) London, 1732, folio. 107. Dissertationes Philologico-Exegeticæ Everardi Scheldir. Litt. locis, et argumentis exinde desumptis criticè et liberè dis

121. VERSCHUIRII (J. H.) Opuscula, in quibus de variis S. Harderovici, 1769, 1770, 8vo. 108. Biblical Fragments. By M. A. ScHIMMELPENNINCK.jecti, 1810, 8vo.

seritur. Edidit atque animadversiones adjecit J. A. Lotze. TraLondon, 1821, 1822, 2 vols. 8vo. These fragments are not critical elucidations of particular texts : Libri iv. Franequere, 1700. Libri v. et vi. 1708, 4to.

122. Campegii Vitring Æ, patris, Observationum Sacrarum but they are written with much elegance, and the authoress has introduced some of the finest practical and devotional thoughts of 123. Campegii VITNINGÆ, filii, Dissertationes Sacræ, cum the Jansenist writers, particularly the accomplished and much tra- animadversionibus Hermanni Venemæ. Franequeræ, 1731, 4vo. duced recluses of Port Royal. "But her critical remarks on the

124. Emonis Lucii VRIEMOET Observationum Miscellaneaauthorized English version are not always correct. 109. Joannis Friderici SCHLEUSNERI Opuscula Critica ad Ver- locis s. Codicis aut nova aut uberior lux adfunditur, Liber. Leo

rum, argumenti præcipue philologici et theologici, quibus multis siones Græcas Veteris Testamenti pertinentia. Lipsiæ, 1812, 8vo. vardiæ, 1740, 4vo.

The Tracts contained in this volume are, 1. Observationes nonnulla de Patrum Græcorum Auctoritate in constituenda Versionum

125. Silva Critica, sive in Auctores Sacros Profanosque ComGracarum Veteris Testamenti Lectione genuina: the object of which mentarius Philologus. Concinnavit Gilbertus WAKEFIELD, A.B. disquisition is to prove that, in citing the words of the Old Testa- Cantabrigiæ, 1789-1795, 5 parts, 8vo. ment, the Fathers were in many respects inaccurate, parıly from

The design of Mr. Wakefield, in the plan of this work, was the their using faulty MSS., and partly from a failure of memory, which union of theological and classical learning—the illustration of the led them sometimes to substitute not only one word for another, Scriptures by light borrowed from the philology of Greece and but even to change whole members of a sentence : and, 2. Sylloge Rome, as a probable inethod of recommending the books of revelaObservationum et Emendationum Conject. in Verss. Gr. Veteris Testa- tion to scholars. How ably this design was executed the reader menti.

may see in the different critical journals of that time, where Mr. 110. Dissertationes Philologico-Criticæ. Singulas primum, W.'s peculiar notions on some points are considered. (See particununc cunctas, edidit Christianus Friedericus SCHNURRER.larly the Monthly Review, N. S. vol. v. p. 54. et seq., vol. viii. p. Gothæ, 1790, 8vo.

571., and vol. xvi. p. 235.) An Eramen of his work was published The dissertations collected in this volume were, for the most by H.C. A. Haenlein, in four small tracts, printed at Erlang, in 410.

1798-1801. part, published separately between the years 1772, 1775, 1781, are fifieen in number, and are highly valued on the continent. They

126. Walchii (Jo. Geo.) Observationes in Novi Fæderis comprise philologico-critical observations on the hymn of Deborah Libros, quarum prima pars ea continet loca, quæ ex historia phi(Judg. v.), on varions passages of the Books of Psalms and Job, on losophica illustrantur. Jena, 1727, 8vo. Isaiah xxvii., Ezekiel xxi., Habakkuk iii., and the prophecy of Oba

127. Vindiciæ Biblicæ : a Series of Notices and Elucidations diah ; besides two valuable dissertations, on the difficulty of determining the age of Hebrew Manuscripts, and on the Arabic Penta- of Passages in the Old and New Tes ent, which have been leuch in Bishop Walton's edition of ihe Polyglott Bible.

the subject of attack and misrepresentation by deistical writers. 11. Opuscula Exegetica, Critica, Dogmatica Scripsit, re- [By David Walter.] London, 1832, 8vo. cognovit, variisque additamentis locupletavit H. A. Schott, 128. Scripture Vindicated. in answer to a Book entitled Theol. Doctor et Prof. Ordin. Academiæ Jenensis. Jenæ, 1817,“ Christianity as old as the Creation.” By Daniel WATERLAND, 1818, 2 vols. 8vo.

D.D. London, 1730-1734, 8vo. also in the sixth volume of Bp. 111*. Alberti Schulters Animadversiones Philologicæ et Vanmildert's edition of his works. Oxford, 1823, 8vo. Criticæ ad varia loca Veteris Testamenti : in quibus, ope præci- Though published in reply to Tindal's declamatory libel against puè Lingua Arabicæ, multa ab interpretibus nondum satis intel-revealed religion, this publication claims a distinct notice on ac

many,

and lecta illustrantur, quamplurima etiam nova explicanda modeste count of its satisfactory elucidation and vindication of

some of them difficult, passages in the Old Testament. They are proponuntur. Amstelodami, 1709, 8vo.

arranged, not in the desultory way in which Tindal introduced This treatise was reprinted, together with other pieces of Prof. them, to give point to his jests and sarcasms, but as the texts stand Schulten's, under the iitle of Opera Minora, Lugduni Batavorum in holy writ; so as to form a regular series of expository illustraet Leovardiæ, 1769, 4to. In this work Schultens has made great tions. Part I. comprises the book of Genesis ; Part II. carries on use of the Arabic language to illustrate Hebrew words and phrases, the examination of texts from the book of Exodus to the second although he generally adduces passages from the grammarians and book of Kings ; and Part III. extends through the remaining books prose writers. The philological interpretations which he thus de- of the Old Testament. Various passages in the book of Job, the duces he places in contradistinction to those which the traditions of Psalms, and the Prophets, charged by infidel writers with incon the rabbins had preserved.

sistency, injustice, or absurdity, are here examined ; and, ocoa 112. Jo. SchulthESSI, De Charismatibus Spiritûs Sancti. sionally, some collateral topics are entered into, tending to their Pars prima De vi et naturâ, ratione et utilitate Dotis Linguarum, ble use of Waterland's la bours. For an account of the controver

further elucidation. Bp. Mant and Dr. D'Oyly have made considerain primos Discipulos Christi collatæ, atque in posteros omnes sies into which the publication of “Scripture Vindicated” comdeinceps ad finem usque sec. peren. Lipsiæ, 1818, 8vo.

pelled him to enter, the reader is referred to pp. 153–173. of his 113. C. Segaar Observationes Philologicæ et Theologicæ in Life by Bp. Vanmildert, forming vol i. part i. of his edition of Dr. Lucæ XI. Capita priora. Trajecti, 1766, 8vo.

Waterland's Works. 114. Johannis Henrici à SEELEN Meditationes Exegeticæ, 129. Biblical Gleanings; or a Collection of Passages of quibus varia utriusque Testamenti loca expenduntur et illustran- Scripture, that have generally been considered to be mistranstur. Lubecæ, 1730-32–37, 3 parts, 8vo.

lated in the received English Version, with proposed corrections; 115. Gottlob Christiani Storr Dissertationes in librorum also the important various readings in both Testaments, and Novi Testamenti Historicorum aliquot locos, parts i.-iii. Tuo occasional notes, interspersed with a view to the illustration of bingen, 1790-91-94, 4to.

obscure and ambiguous texts, with several other matters tending 116. Gottlob Christiani Storr Opuscula Academica ad inter- to the general elucidation of the Sacred Writings. By Thomas pretationem Librorum Sacrorum pertinentia. Tubingen, 1796, Wemyss. York, 8vo. 1799, 1803, 3 vols. 8vo.

The ample title-page of this work sufficiently indicates the de. Besides various critical disquisitions of great merit, this work sign of the industrious compiler: in the compass of litle more contains several commentaries on detached books of the New Tes- than 250 pages, it presents a variety of important corrections of a

multitude of obscure or ambiguous passages in the sacred writings, Vol. II.-App.

4 M

lament.

compiled from the biblical labours of upwards of fifty of the most 134. Hermanni Witsi Ægyptiaca et Arxeoul CT ; sive de distinguished critics, both British and foreign. In the event of a Ægyptiacorum Sacrorum comparatione cum Hebraicis Libri new translation or revision of our authorized version of the Holy Scriptures, this little book cannot fail of being eminently useful tres, et de decem tribubus Israelis Liber singularis. Accesit Its value would have been enhanced if the compiler had specified Diatribe de Legione Fulminatrice Christianorum sub imperatore the sources or authors of each emendation.

Marco Aurelio Antonio Basileæ, 1739, 4to. 130. An Illustration of the Method of explaining the New 135. Martini Caspari WOLFBURGI Observationes Sacra in Testament by the early opinions of Jews and Christians con- Novum Testamentum; seu Adnotationes Theologico-Critica in cerning Christ. By W. Wilson, B.D. Cambridge, at the voces plerasque Novi Testamenti

, ordine alphabetico, et Dicta University Press, 1797, 8vo.

præcipua tam Veteris quam Novi Fæderis. Flensburgi, 1717, “Though not expressly presented to the public as a refutation 4to. Hafniæ, 1738, 4to. of Dr. Priestley's · History of Early Opinions, and other works concerning the person of Christ, this performance is unquestionably

136. An Impartial Enquiry into the case of the Gospel Deto be received in this light. The author constantly keeps in view moniacks. By William WORTBINGTON, D.D. London, 1777, the arguments of this work just mentioned, and nearly passes over 8vo. the same ground, in order to prove that the historical faci, relating to the opinions of the first Christians, is the reverse of that which

137. Petri Zonnu Opuscula sacra ; hoc est, Programmata, the docior has represented, and consequently that the inference Dissertationes, Orationes, Epistolæ, et Schediasmata, in quibus respecting the true meaning of the New Testament is directly præter selectissima Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ et Literariæ capita, contrary to that of the unitarian hypothesis.-It would be injustice etiam plusquam sexcenta Scripturæ loca, partim ex utriusque to the ingenious writer of this reply," to Dr. Priestley, “not to linguae sanctioris genio, partim ex Antiquitatum Hebraicarun allow him, unequivocally, the praise of having written, in a per; Græcarum et Romanarum apparatu, illustrantur ac vindicantur. spicuous and correct style, a learned and well-digested tract, and of having conducted his part of the controversy with urbanity Altonaviæ, 1731, 2 vols. 8vo. and candour." (Analytical Review, vol. xxvi. pp. 368. 372.) 138. The Truth of Revelation, demonstrated by an Appeal

131. Joh. Dieterici Winckler Disquisitiones Philologicæ, to existing Monuments, Sculptures, Gems, Coins, and Medals. Scripturæ Sacræ quædam loca, et antiquitatis tam ecclesiasticæ London, 1832, 12mo. quam profanæ momenta, illustrantes. Hamburgi, 1741, 8v0.Ejusdem, Hypomnemata philologica et critica in diversa Scrip- and cultivated, enriched by science and enlarged by various infos

“This interesting book is clearly the production of a mind pics turæ Sacræ, tam Veteris quam Novi Testamenti, illustrantes. mation; adapted especially 10 guard the young against the foo Hamburgi, 1745, 8v0.-Ejusdem, Animadversiones Philologicæ , welcome theories of skepticism: it will also afford io the general et Criticæ ad varia Sacri Codicis utriusque Fæderis loca. Hilde- reader both gratification and improvement. It chiefly consists of size, 1750-52–53, 3 parts, 8vo.

striking facts deduced from the labours of modern inquiry, of allu. All the publications of Winckler are both scarce and valuable: over the relics of by-gone times, in sculptures, gems, and medals;

sions gleaned from literature, of memorials of past events ecaile red they are said, by Walchius, to illustrate many diflicult passages of and its object is, to apply these various materials to the illustration Holy Writ with great learning and industry. (Bibl. Theol. Select and establishment of the sacred records ; as well as to express the vol. iv, p. 812.)

conviction, that the foundations of a scriptural hope are not to be 132. Hermanni Witsui Miscellaneorum Sacrorum Libri shaken by advancing knowledge, nor ultimately injured by the Quatuor. Lugd. Bat. 1736, 2 vols. 4to.

rash assaults of a class of men, who, aspiring to be deemed the 133. Hermanni Witsi Meletemata Leidensia ; quibus con

votaries of philosophy, give too much reason for the suspicion, tinentur Prælectiones de Vita et Rebus Gestis Pauli Apostoli

, I expectation of some discovery adverse to the Christian religkin,

that the stimulus by which their industry is excited is ihe vain necnon Dissertationum Exegeticarum Duodecas ; denique Com- rather than zeal for the promotion of science." (Eclectic Revie#, mentarius in Epistolam Judæ Apostoli. Basileæ, 1739, 4to. July, 1832, vol. viii. N. S. p. 14.)

CHAPTER VI.

CONCORDANCES AND DICTIONARIES, COMMON-PLACE BOOKS, INDEXES, AND ANALYSES OF THE BIBLE

SECTION I.

CONCORDANCES TO THE SCRIPTURES.

§ 1. CONCORDANCES TO THE HEBREW BIBLE.

1. Maria de Calasio Concordantiæ Bibliorum Hebraicorum in fontibus et hactenus non expositæ sunt in Lexicis aut Com et Latinorum. Romæ, 1621, folio, in four volumes.-Londini, cordantiis, natura et sensuum varietas ostenditur.

Cum anno 1747, et ann. seqq. Edente Gulielmo Romaine, folio, in four tationibus J. G. Tympii et aliorum. Jenæ, 1734, 4to. editio volumes.

secunda. The original of this work was a Hebrew concordance of Rabbi The particles of all languages, and especially those of the He Nathan, a learned Jew, published at Venice in 1523, in folio, with brew, are not only of great importance, but very difficult to be fully great faults and defects. A second and much more correct edition understood. The Hebrew particles, indeed, were very imperfectly of Nathan's work was printed at Basil by Froben. The third edi-known, even by the best critics, before the publication of Noldius's tion is the first impression of Calasio's Concordance, who has ex. work. His Concordanee of them is so complete, that it has left tended Nathan's work into four large volumes, by adding, 1. A scarcely any thing unfinished; and it is of the greatest importance Latin Translation of the Rabbi's explanation of the several roots, to every biblical student and critic. The first impression appeared with additions of his own ; 2. The Rabbinical, Chaldee, Syriac, in 1650. The second is the best edition; and, besides the valuable and Arabic words derived from, or agreeing with, the Hebrew notes, and other additions of J. G. and S. B. Tympius, it contains, root in signification ; 3. A literal version of the Hebrew text; by way of Appendix, a Lexicon of the llebrew Particles, cump:led 4. The variations between the Vulgate and Septuagint versions ; by John Michaelis and Christopher Koerber. (Bibliographical Dicand, 5. The proper names of men, rivers, mountains, &c.-Buxtorf's tionary, vol. iii. p. 45.) Concordance (noticed below) was properly the fourth edition of Nathan's work, as Mr. Romaine's edition is the filth. The last is 4. The Hebrew Concordance adapted to the English Bible; a splendid and useful book.

disposed after the method of Buxtorf. By John Taylor (D.D.] 2. Joannis BuxtoRFII Concordantiæ Hebraicæ et Chaldaicae. of Norwich. London, 1754–57. In two volumes, folio. Basileæ, 1632, folio.

This is one of the most laborious and most useful works ever pab. This is a work of great labour: it was abridged by Christian lished for the advancement of Hebrew knowledge, and the underRavius, under the title of Fons Zionis, sice Concordantiarum He- standing of the Old Testament in its original language. braicarum, et Chaldaicarum, Jo. Buxtorfii Epitome. Berolini, 1677, fact, a Grammar, Lexicon, and Concordance, founded on the ConEvo.

cordance of Buxtorf, all whose errors Dr. Taylor has corrected. He

has also inserted the word or words by which any Hebrew word is 3. Christiani Noldu Concordantiæ Particularum Ebræo-translated in the English Bible: and where the Hebrew is not Chaldaicarum, in quibus partium indeclinabilium, que occurrunt literally rendered, a literal translation is added. In general, all change or difference in the two texts is diligently remarked : and Dr. T. has added all the words (about one hundred and twenty-one

§ 4. CONCORDANCE TO TIE LATIN VULGATE. in number) which Buxtorf had omitted ; together with the particles Sacrorum Bibliorum Vulgatæ editionis Concordantiae, HUGONE out of Noldius. This invaluable work was published under the Cardinali auctore, ad recognitionem jussu Sixti V. Pont. Max. patronage of all the English and Irish bishops, and is a monument The price of this

Concordance varies from nine to twelve guineas, Venetiis, 1612, 4to. Lugduni, 1615, 4to. Genevæ et Francoto their honour, as well as to the learning and industry of its author. adhibitam, recensitæ atque emendatæ operâ et studio Francisci

Antverpiæ, 1606, folio; 1612, 1617, 4to. according to ils condition.

furti, 1625, 4to. Parisiis, 1635, 1638, 1646, 4to. Coloniæ

Agrippinæ, 1684, 8vo. Avignon, 1786, 2 tomis, 4to. § 2. CONCORDANCES TO THE SEPTUAGINT GREEK VERSION. The first attempt towards a concordance to the Latin Bible was

made in the middle of the thirteenth century by Cardinal Hugo de 1. Conradi KIRCHERI Concordantiae Veteris Testamenti Græ- Sancto Caro, of whose invention of the division of chapters an cæ, Ebræis vocibis respondentes, monUXANTIC. Simul enim et account is given in Vol. I, Part I. Chap. IV. p. 213. He is said to Lexicon Ebraico-Latinum. Francofurti, 1607, 2 tomis, 4to.

have employed five hundred monks of the Dominican order in

selecting, and arranging in alphabetical order, all the declinable This laborious work, which is a Hebrew Dictionary and Con- words of the Old and New Testaments; but the fact of so many cordance, is strongly recommended by father Simon, when treating monks being employed is questionable. It is supposed that the on the best methods to be adopted in undertaking any new trans- work was at first less voluminous than it afierwards became, and lation of the Scriptures. It contains all the Hebrew words in the that it increased by frequent revisions and improvements. (TownOld Testament, introduced in an alphabetical order, and underneath ley's Biblical Illustrations, vol. i. p. 483.) Le Long has given a list is the Greek version of them from the Septuagint, followed by a of several Latin Concordances (Bibl. Sacra, tom. i. pp. 457, 458. folio collection of the passages of Scripture in which those words are edit.); but the revision of Cardinal Hugo's work by Lucas Brugendifferently interpreted. Considered as a first essay, Kircher’s Con- sis is considered to be the best of the numerous editions through eordance possesses considerable merit. It is, however, now super- which it has passed. That printed at Cologne is reputed to be the seded by

most beautiful; but the Avignon edition is the mosi complete. 2. Abrahami TromMu Concordantiæ Græcæ Versionis vulgo dictæ lxx. Interpretum. Amstelædami et Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1718, 2 vols. folio.

§ 5. CONCORDANCES TO THE ENGLISH BIBLE. In this elaborate and valuable work, the order of the Greek 1. A Concordāce, that is to saie, a Worke wherein by the Alphabet is followed; the Greek word being first given, to which ordre of the letters of the A. B. C. ye maie redely finde any are subjoined its different acceptations in Latin. Then follow the worde conteigned in the whole Bible, so often as it is there exdifferent Hebrew words, which are explained by the Greek word pressed or mencioned. By Jhon Marbeck. London, imprynted in the Septuagint version. arranged under the Greek in their alphabetical order, with the by Richard Grafton, m. d. I. folio. passages of Scripture where they occur. If the word in question The first Concordance to the English Bible: an account of it occurs in Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, or any of the other may be seen in Dr. Townley's Biblical Illustrations, vol. iii. pp. ancient Greek interpreters of the Old Testament, the places where 118_120. It was preceded by a Concordance to the New Testait is found are referred to at the conclusion of the quotations from ment, compiled and printed by Thomas Gibson, about the year the Scriptures; and immediately after these all the passages in the | 1536. Apocrypha are specified, where the word occurs. The work is terminated by a useful Index, a Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon, a

2. A Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures of the Greek Lexicon 10 Origen's Hexapla (by Montfaucon), and a suc

Old and New Testament, or a Dictionary and Alphabetical cinct collation (by Lambert Bos) of the Frankfort and Roman edi. Index to the Bible. In two parts. By Alexander "Cruden, tions of the Septuagint. This work is beautifully printed. (Biblio. M.A. London, 1763; 1810; 1824; 4to. Also various edigraphical Dictionary, vol. iii. p. 42.)

tions in royal 8vo. Philadelphia, 1830, imperial 8vo.

The first edition of this well-known and most useful Con. cordance appeared at London in 1737. The edition of 1763 is the

third and last of those corrected by the author, and is usually con$ 3. CONCORDANCES TO THE GREEK TESTAMENT.

sidered as the best, from his known diligence and accuracy in cor1. Concordantiæ Græcæ Novi Testamenti, ab Henrico Ste- it to be repeatedly printed, but not always with due regard to ac

recting the press. The value of Cruden's Concordance has caused PIANO. Genevæ, 1594, folio. Et cum Supplemento, Geneæv, curacy. The London edition of 1810, however, is an honorable 1600, folio.

exception; every word, with its references, having been most This Concordance is noticed here, to put the student an his carelully examined by Mr. Deodatus Bye (formerly a respectable guard, as it may generally be purchased at a low price. It is so printer), who voluntarily employed some years in this arduous carelessly executed, that some critics suppose Henry Stephens not lask; for which he is justly entitled to the ihanks of every reader to have been the editor of it: and that he lent his name to the of the Holy Scriptures. The London edition of 1824 is a reprint work for pecuniary considerations.

of that published in 1810. Another very accurate edition was

printed a few years since at the press of Messrs. Nuttall and Co 2. Novi Testamenti Græci Jesu Christi Tameion, aliis Con- of Liverpool, who employed a person to collate and very every cordantise ; ita concinnatum, ut et loca reperiendi, et vocum veras word and reference. The typography of the reprint at Philadelsignificationes, et significationum diversitates per collationem phia is very neatly executed ; and its editor professes to have corinvestigandi, ducis instar esse possit. Opera Erasmi Schmidi, rected more than ten thousand errors in the references, which had Græc. Lat. et Mathem. Prof. Accedit nova præfatio Ernesti Salo- escaped the eye of the London editors. monis Cypriani. Lipsiæ, 1717, folio. Glasgue et Londini, 1819, 3. A New Concordance to the Holy Scriptures of the Old 2 vols. 8vo. Londini, 1830, 48mo.

and New Testament; or a Dictionary and Alphabetical Index The best Greek Concordance to the New Testament. The Glas- to the Bible, together with the various significations of the pringow reprint of 1819 is beautifully executed. The London edition cipal words, by which the true meaning of many passages is of 1830 was printed under the superintendence of the late Mr. shewn. By the Rev. John BUTTERWORTH. London, 1767; William Greenfield.“ By omitting the unimportant proper names, 1785; 1816; 8vo. the indeclinable particles, the pronouns, and ihe verb substantive; -hy substituting simple references for citation when the word of Mr. Cruden's Concordance.

This is in a great measure a judicious and valuable abridgment

Singular pains were bestowed by occurs only four or five times, or when there are two or more pas its compiler, in order to insure correctness, by collating every sages stricily parallel, in which case one only is given and the others are referred to; alterations which detract nothing from the usefulness the Bible. The second edition of 1785 is considerably improved.

word and reference in the proof sheets with the several texts of of the edition; the ponderous labours of Stephens and Schmidt are the third impression of 1816 has some alterations in the defini. here screwed into something less than a pocket volume ; and, what tions, made by Dr. A. Clarke; who has reprinted the original of is more, for six shillings the biblical student may possess himself of the passages so altered. Those who cannot afford to purchase a work at one time scarce and dear, in a form that will take up no Cruden's work will find this of Mr. Butterworth extremely valuroom on his table, and which onght scarcely ever to be off of it."

able. (Eclectic Review, February, 1832, vol. vii. N. S. p. 159.) This edi. tion is very neatly printed.

4. A Concordance of Parallels collected from Bibles and 3. A Concordance to the Greek Testament, with the English French, Spanish, and other Languages, with the Authorities of

Commentaries, which have been published in the Hebrew, Latin, version to each word; the principal Hebrew roots, corresponding each. By the Rev. C. CRUTWELL. 4to. London, 1790. to the Greek words of the Septuagint; with short critical Notes, and an Index. By John Williams, LL.D. 4to. London, 1767. of consulting; though the parallelisms are not always to be traced,

This is a very elaborate work, and will amply repay the labour “The lovers of sacred literature will find this work very useful and are sometimes very fanciful. But for this the industrious in many respects : it is compiled with great pains and accuracy." anthor is not to be censured, as he every where cites his authori. (Monthly Rev. 0. S. vol. xxxvi. p. 400.)

ties, which are very numerous.

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