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bride was conducted to his house, and the nuptials were officers were appointed by the Shoterim, genealogists or officonsummated.

cers (as they are termed in our version), who probably chose 4. Every newly married man, during the first year after the heads of families ; but after the monarchy took place, his marriage. The humanity of these exemptions will be they received their commissions either from the king in the the more evident, when it is recollected that, anciently, it same manner as at present, as appears from 2 Sam. xviii. 1. was deemed an excessive hardship for a person to be obliged and 2 Chron. xxv. 5.; or from the commander-in-chief (2 Sam. to go to battle (in which there was a probability of his being xviii. 11.): and it should seem that a captain's commission slain) who had left a new house unfinished, a newly pur- was denoted by giving a military girdle or sash. (2 Sam." chased heritage half tilled, or a wife with whom he had just xviii. 11.) contracted marriage. Homer represents the case of Protesi- The first and principal Head of the armies of Israel was laus as singularly afflicting, who was obliged to go to the the Almighty himself, who is so frequently termed in ScripTrojan war, leaving his wife in the deepest distress, and his ture the Lord of Hosts. The whole nation marched forth house unfinished.

under the superintending guidance of their God. Subordinate 5. The last exemption was in favour of the fearful and to Him, and as his lieutenant-general, was the principal officer, faint hearted; an exemption of such a disgraceful nature, or leader of the whole army, who, in the Scriptures, is termed that one would think it never would have been claimed. the CAPTAIN OF THE Lord's Host, and who appears to have Such, however, was the case in Gideon's expedition against been of the same rank with him who is now called the comthe Midianites. Ten thousand only remained out of thirty- mander-in-chief of an army. Such were Joshua and the tuo thousand, of which number his army originally consisted ; | Judges under the primitive constitution of their government twenty-two thousand having complied with his proclamation, as settled by God himself: such was Abner under Saul (2 Sam. that whosoever was fearful and afraid might return and depart ii. 8.), Joab under David (2 Sam. xx. 23.), and Amasa under early from Mount Gilead. (Judg. vii. 3.)?.

Absalom, when he was raising a rebellion against his father. Before the regal government was established, the Israeli- (2 Sam. xvii. 25.) The command and authority of this captain tish army was entirely disbanded at the conclusion of a war. of the host appear to have been very great, sometimes indeed, The earliest instance recorded of any military force being nearly equal to that of the sovereign. David seems to have kept in time of peace, is in the reign of Saul, who retained been afraid of Joab his commander-in-chief; otherwise he two thousand for his body guard, and one thousand for his would never have suffered him to live after the sanguinary son Jonathan's guard. (1 Sam. xiii. 1, 2.) David had a dis- assassinations which he had perpetrated. It is evident that tinet guard, called Cherethites and Pelethites, concerning the the captain of the host enjoyed great influence in the time of origin of whose name various contradictory opinions have Elisha : for we read, that the prophet having been hospitably been offered. Josephus, however, expressly says, that they entertained by an opulent woman at Shunem, and being dewere his guards, and the Chaldee paraphrast terms them sirous of making her some acknowledgment for her kindness, archers and slingers. Besides these he had twelve bodies of ordered his servant Gehazi to inquire what she would wish twenty-four thousand men each, who were on duty for one to have done for her. Wouldst thou be spoken for to the king, month, forming an aggregate of two hundred and eighty-eight or to the Captain of the Host? (2 Kings iv. 13.) thousand men. (1 Chron. xxvii. 1—15.) Subsequently, when After the establishment of the monarchy, the kings went to the art of war was improved, a regular force seems to have war in person, and at first fought on foot, like the meanest of been kept up both in peace and war; for, exclusive of the their soldiers. Thus David fought, until the danger to which vast army which Jehoshaphat had in the field, we read that he exposed himself became so great, that his people would he had troops throughout all the fenced cities, which doubt- no longer allow him to lead them on to battle. *(2 Sam. xxi. less were garrisoned in time of peace as well as during war. 17.). It does not appear that there were any horse in the Is

III. The Officers who were placed at the head of the raelitish army before the time of Solomon. In the time of Hebrew forces appear not to have differed materially from David there were none; for the rebel Absalom was mounted those whom we find in ancient and modern armies.

on a mule in the battle in which he lost his life. (2 Sam. The Division of the army into three bands or companies, xviii

. 9.), Solomon, who had married the daughter of the mentioned in Gen. xiv. 14, 15. Job i. 17. Judg: vii. 16. 20. king of Egypt, procured horses from that country at a great 1 Sam. xi. 11. and 2 Sam. xviii. 2., was probably no other expense (1 Kings x. 28, 29.); and afterwards had four thouthan the division into the centre, left, and right wing, which sand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horseobtains in the modern art of war. The Hebrews, when they inen. (2 Chron. ix. 25.) From Zech. xiv. 20. it should seem, departed from Egypt, marched in military order, Dnes by that bells formed a part of the caparison of war-horses. Sub(AL TSEBOTOM) by their armies or hosts* (Exod. xii. 51.), and sequent kings of Judah and Israel went into the battle in Dismi (ve-CHAMUSHIM), which word in our English Bibles chariots, arrayed in their royal vestments, or sometimes in (Exod. xiii. 18.) is rendered harnessed, and in the margin, disguise. They generally had a spare chariot to attend them: by fire in a rank. It is probable, from these expressions, thus we read that king Josiah, after he was mortally wounded, that they followed each other in ranks fifty deep, and that at was taken out of his war-chariot, and put into another, in the head of each rank or file of fifty was the captain of fifty. which he was carried to Jerusalem. (2 Chron. xxxv. 23, 24. (1 Sam. viii. 12. 2 Kings i. 9–14.) The other divisions 1 Kings xxii. 34.) Both kings and generals had armourconsisted of tens, hundreds, thousands, &c.; and the officers bearers, who were chosen from the bravest of the soldiery, that commanded them are styled captains of thousands, cap- and not only bore the arms of their masters, but were also tains of hundreds, captains of fifties, and captains of tens; employed to give his commands to the subordinate captains, of these mention is made in 1 Chron. xii. 14. 20. xiii. 1. and were present at his side in the hour of peril

. (i Sam. xxvii. 1. and 2 Kings i. 9. 11. 13. These, probably, were of xiv. 6. xvii. 7.) the same rank with those whom Moses constituted in the Military chariots were much in use among the Egyptians, wilderness, rulers of thousands, &c. (Exod. xviii. 25.), and Canaanites, and other oriental nations. Two sorts are menwho at first acted in a double capacity, being at the same time tioned in the Scriptures; one in which princes and generals civil magistrates and military officers. The captains of thou- rode, the other to break the enemy's battalions by rushing in sands seem to have been much the same as colonels of regi- among them, armed with iron scythes, which caused terrible ments with us; and the captains of hundreds might probably havoc. The most ancient war-chariots, of which we read, answer to those who in our army have the command of troops are those of Pharaoh, which were destroyed in the Red Sea and companies; the captains of fifties and tens to our subal- |(Exod. xiv. 7.): his infantry, cavalry, and war-chariots were terns, sergeants, and corporals. During the Mosaic com- so arranged as to form separate divisions of his army. (Exod. monwealth, in conformity to the law in Deut. xx. 9., all these xiv. 6, 7.), The Canaanites, whom Joshua engaged at the

waters of Merom, had cavalry and a multitude of chariots. 1 Diad, lib. ii. 700—702.

(Josh. xi. 4.) Sisera, the general of Jabin, king of Hazor, Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. jii. 34-37.

had nine hundred chariots of iron in his army. (Judg. iv. 3.) i On this subject the reader may consult the Dissertations of Ikenius, The tribe of Judah could not obtain possession of part of the De Crethi et Plethi (Lag. Bat. 1749), and of Lakemacher, Observationes Philologicæ, part ij, pp. 14-41., and also Michaelis's Commentaries on the lands allotted to them, because the inhabitants of the country * It is from this circumstance "that the Divine Being calls himself the tines, in their war with Saul, had thirty thousand chariots,

were strong in chariots of iron, (Judg. i. 19.) The PhilisEzypt under his direction, marshalled and ordered by himself, guided by and six thousand horsemen. (1 Sam. xiii. 5.) David, having tus wisduin supported by his providence and protected by his fight. taken a thousand war-chariots from Hadadezer, king of DaSeripture the Lord of Hosts: for the Lord did bring the children of lerael mascus, ham-strung the horses, and burnt nine hundred chaout of Egypt by their armies." Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, on Exod.

• They were also used among the ancient Britons.

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riots, reserving only one hundred. (2 Sam. viii. 4.) It does in the wilderness, the form of their camp, according to the not appear that the Hebrews ever used chariots in war, though account given in Num. ii., appears to have been quadranguSolomon had a considerable number; but we know of no lar, having three tribes placed on each side, under one genemilitary expedition in which he employed them. In the ral standard, so as to inclose the tabernacle, which stood in second book of Maccabees, mention is made of chariots the centre. Between these four great camps and the taberarmed with scythes, which the king of Syria led against the nacle were pitched four smaller camps of the priests and Jews. (2 Macc. xiii. 2.) These chariots were generally Levites, who were immediately in attendance upon it; the placed on the whole front of the infantry, ranged in a straight camp of Moses and of Aaron and his sons (who were the line, parallel sometimes to the cavalry: Some of them were ministering priests, and had the charge of the sanctuary) was with four, others with two wheels only: these were driven on the east side of the tabernacle, where the entrance was. against the enemy, whom they never failed to put into dis- From Isa. liv. 2. it appears that the tents, under which they order, when they were followed closely by the line. There lived, were nearly the same as those which are now in use were two ways of rendering them useless: first, by opening in the East. Every family and household had their particua passage for them through the battalions; secondly, by kill- lar ensign; under which they encamped or pursued their ing the horses before they were too far advanced : in which march. °Rabbinical writers assert that the standard of Judah case they were of the greatest disservice to those who em- was a lion; that of Reuben, the figure of a man; that of ployed them, because they not only embarrassed them, but, Ephraim, an ox; that of Dan, an eagle with a serpent in his further, broke the closeness of the line, and checked all the talons : but for these assertions there is no foundation. force of the onset. The infantry were divided into light- They are probably derived from the patriarch's prophetic armed troops, and into spearmen. (Gen. xlix. 19. 1 Sam. xxx. blessing of his children, related in Gen. xlix. It is far more 8. 15. 23. 2 Sam. iii. 22. iv. 2. xxii. 30. Psal. xviii. 30. in likely, that the names of the several tribes were embroidered the Hebrew, 29. of our English version, 2 Kings v. 2. Hos. in large letters on their respective standards, or that they vii. 1.) The light-armed troops of infantry were furnished were distinguished by appropriate colours. The following with a sling and javelin, with a bow, arrows, and quiver, and diagram, after Ainsworth, Roberts, and Dr. A. Clarke, will, also, at least in later times, with a buckler: they fought the perhaps, give the reader a tolerable idea of the beautiful order enemy at a distance. The spearmen, on the contrary, who of the Israelitish encampment; the sight of which, from the were armed with spears, swords, and shields, fought hand mountains of Moab, extorted from Balaam (when he saw to hand. (1 Chron. xii. 24. 34. 2 Chron. xiv. 8. xvii. 17.) Israel abiding in his tents according to their tribes) the followThe light-armed troops were commonly taken from the tribes ing exclamation :- How goodly are thy tents, 0 Jacob, and of Ephraim and Benjamin. (2 Chron. xiv. 8. xvii. 17.) thy tabernacles, O Israel ! As the valleys are they spread forth,

IV. No information is given us in the Scriptures, con- as gardens by the river's side, as the trees of lign-ales which cerning the order of Encampment adopted by the Israelites the Lord hath planted, and as cedar trees beside the waters. after their settlement in Canaan. During their sojourning |(Num. xxiv. 2. 5, 6.)

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During the encampment of the Israelites in the wilderness, der), attended the wagons with the boards, staves, &c. When Moses made various salutary enactments, which are recorded these were on their march a second alarm was sounded, in Deut. xxiii. 10–15., for guarding against the vice and un- upon which the standard of Reuben's camp advanced with cleanliness that might otherwise have prevailed among so the three tribes under it. After them followed the Kohathlarge a body of people, forming an aggregate of upwards of ites (the third family of the Levites) bearing the sanctuary, three millions. The following was the order of their march, that is, the Holy of Holies and the utensils thereto belong. which is not much unlike that in which the caravans or assem- ing; and because this was less cumbersome than the boards, blages of oriental travellers still continue to move :-When pillars, and other parts of the tabernacle, and more holy, it they were to remove (which was only when the cloud was was on that account not put into a wagon, but carried on taken off the tabernacle), the trumpet was sounded, and upon their shoulders. Next followed the standard of Ephraim's the first alarm the standard of Judah being raised, the three 1 Lamy de Tabernaculo, lib. iii. c. 2. Carpzov has given at length the tribes which belonged to it set forward; then the tabernacle rabbinical descriptions of the Israelitish standards. Antiq. Hebr. Gentis. being taken down, which was the proper office of the Levites, pp: 667,668.

- In their Commentaries, on Num. ii. Roberts's Calvis Bibliorum, p. the Gershonites and the Merarites (two families of that or- 24. folio edit.

camp with the tribes belonging to it: and last of all the other brass, principally of the latter metal. In the Scriptures we three tribes under the standard of Dan brought up the rear ; read of brazen "shields, helmets, and bows; the helmet, Moses and Aaron overseeing the whole, that every thing was greaves, and target of the gigantic Goliath were all of brass, done as God had directed,' while the sons of Aaron were which was the metal chiefly used by the ancient Greeks.s chiefly employed in blowing the trumpets, and other offices The national museums of most countries contain abundant properly belonging to them.

specimens of brazen arms, which have been rescued from the From 1 Sam. xxvi. 5., as rendered in our authorized ver- destroying hand of time. Originally, every man provided his sion (Saul lay in the trench, and the people pitched round about own arms: but after the establishment of the monarchy, kim), it has been imagined that the Israelites had a fortified depôts were formed, whence they were distributed to the men camp. The proper rendering is, that Saul lay among the bag- as occasion required. (2 Chron. xi. 12. xxvi. 14, 15.) gage, with his spear stuck at his head (v.7.), in the same Of the Defensive Arms of the Hebrews, the following manner as is usual among the Persians, and also among the were the most remarkable; viz. Arabs to this day, wherever the disposition of the ground 1. The Helmet y317 (KOBANG), for covering and defending will permit it: their emir or prince being in the centre of the the head. This was a part

of the military provision made by Arabs around him at a respectful distance.? When David is Uzziah for his vast army (2 Chron. xxvi. 14.): and long berepresented as sometimes secreting himself in the night, when fore the time of that king, the helmets of Saul and of the he was with his armies, instead of lodging with the people Philistine champion were of brass. (1 Sam. xvii. 38. 5.) (2 Sam. xvii. 8, 9.), it probably means that he did not lodge This military cap was also worn by the Persians, Ethiopians, in the middle of the camp, which was the proper place for a and Libyans (Ezek. xxxviii. 5.), and by the troops which king, in order that he might the better avoid any surprise Antiochus sent against Judas Maccabeus. (1 Macc. vi. 35.), from his enemies.3

2. The BREAST-PLATE or CORSLET, prone (Shirion) was V. In ancient times the Hebrews received no páy, during another piece of defensive armour. Goliath, and the soldiers their military service: the same practice of gratuitous service of Antiochus (1 Sam. xvii. 5. 1 Macc. vi. 35.) were accoutred obtained among the Greeks and Romans, in the early period with this defence, which, in our authorized translation, is of their respective republics. The Cherethites and Peleth- variously rendered habergeon, coat of mail, and brigundine. ites appear to have been the first stipendiary soldiers: it is (1 Sam. xvii. 38. 2 Chron. xxvi. 14. Ísa. lix. 17. Jer. xlvi. 4.) however probable, that the great military officers of Saul, Between the joints of his harness (as it is termed in 1 Kings David, Solomon, and the other kings, had some allowance xxii. 34.), the profligate Ahab was mortally wounded by an suitable to the dignity of their rank. The soldiers were paid arrow shot at a venture. From these various renderings of out of the king's treasury: and in order to stimulate their the original word, it should seem that this piece of armour valour, rewards and honours were publicly bestowed on those covered both the back and breast, but principally the latter. who distinguished themselves against the enemy; consisting The corslets were made of various materials: sometimes of pecuniary presents, a girdle or belt, a woman of quality they were made of flax or cotton, woven very thick, or of a for a wile, exemptions from taxes, promotion to a higher kind of woollen felt: others again were made of iron or rank in the army, &c. all of which were attended with great brazen scales, or laminæ, laid one over another like the scales profit and distinction. (2 Sam. xviii. 11. Josh. xv. 16. 1 Sam. of a fish; others were properly what we call coats of mail ; sviii. 25. 1 Chron. xi. 6.) In the age of the Maccabees, the and others were composed of two pieces of iron or brass, patriot Simon both armed and paid his brave companions in which protected the back and breast. All these kinds of arms, at his own expense. (1 Macc. xiv. 32.) Afterwards, corslets are mentioned in the Scriptures. Goliath's coat of it became an established custom, that all soldiers should mail (1 Sam. xvii. 5.) was literally, a corslet of scales, that is, receive pay. (Luke iii. 14. 1 Cor. ix. 7.).

composed of numerous laminæ of brass, crossing each other. It appears from various passages of Scripture, and espe- It was called by the Latin writers squamea lorica.6 Similar cially from Isa. ii. 4. and Mic. iv. 3., that there were mili- corslets were worn by the Persians and other nations. The tary schools, in which the Hebrew soldiers learned war, or, breast-plate worn by the unhappy Saul, when he perished in in modern language, were trained, by proper officers, in those battle, is supposed to have been of flax, or cotton, woven exercises which were in use among the other nations of anti- very close and thick. (2 Sam. i. 9. marginal rendering.) quity. Swiftness of foot was an accomplishment highly 3. The Shield defended the whole body during the battle. valued among the Hebrew warriors, both for attacking and It was of various forms, and made of wood or ozier, covered pursuing an enemy, as well as among the ancient Greeks with tough hides, or of brass, and sometimes was overlaid and Romans. In 2 Sam. i. 19. Saul is denominated the roe with gold. (1 Kings x. 16, 17. xiv. 26, 27.), Two sorts are (in our version rendered the beauty) of Israel; the force of mentioned in the Scriptures, viz. the ads (tsinnah) great which expression will be felt, when it is recollected that in shield or buckler, and the 10 (Magen) or smaller shield. It the East, to this day, the hind and roe, the hart and antelope, was much used by the Jews, Babylonians, Chaldæans, Ascontinue to be held in high estimation for the delicate ele- syrians, and Egyptians. David, who was a great warrior, gance of their form, or their graceful agility of action. In often mentions a shield and buckler, in his divine poems, to

Sam. ii. 18. we are told that Asahel was as light of foot as a signify that defence and protection of heaven which he exwild roe ;-a mode of expression perfectly synonymous with pected and experienced, and in which he reposed all his trust. the epithet of IIcdes cxus A xenarus, the swift-footed Achilles, (Psal. v. 12.) And when he says, God will with favour which is given by Homer to his hero, not fewer than thirty compass the righteous as with a shield, he seems to allude to times in the course of the Iliad. David expressed his grati- the use of the great shield tsinnah (which is the word he uses) tude to God for making his feet like hind's feet for swiftness, with which they covered and defended their whole bodies. and teaching his hands to war, so that a bow of steel was King Solomon caused two different sorts of shields to be made, broken by his arms. (Psal. xviii. 33, 34.) The tribe of Ben- viz. the tsinnah (which answers to the clypeus of the Latins), jamin could boast of a great number of brave men, who such a large shield as the infantry wore, and the maginnim could use their right and left hands with equal dexterity or scuta, which were used by the horsemen, and were of a (Judg. xx. 16. 1 Chron. xii. 2.), and who were eminent for much less size. (2 Chron. ix. 15, 16.) The former of these their skill in the use of the bow and the sling: The men of war, are translated targets, and are double in weight to the other. out of the tribe of Gad, who came to David when persecuted The Philistines came into the field with this weapon: so we by Saul, are described as being men of war, fit for the battle, find their formidable champion was appointed. (1 Sam. xvii. that could handle shield and buckler, whose faces were like the 7.) One bearing a shield went before him, whose proper fucts of lions, and who were as swift as the roes upon the duty it was to carry this and some other weapons, with which mountains. (1 Chron. xii. 8.)

to furnish his master upon occasion.? VI. The Hebrews do not appear to have had any peculiar

Calmet, in his elaborate Dissertation sur la Milice des Anciens He. military habit: as the flowing dress which they ordinarily breux, has collected numerous examples from Homer, Hesiod, Virgil, and wore, would have impeded their movements, they girt ít

various other classic writers, in which brazen arins and armour are inen. elosely around them when preparing for battle, and loosened tioned. Dissertations, tom. I. pp. 220–22. it on their return. (2 Sam. xx. 8. 1 Kings xx. 11.). They • The chevalier Folard is of opinion that the brazen shield, with which used the same arms as the neighbouring nations, both defen- Goliath covered his shoulders, consisted only of brass plates fastened upon sive and offensive, and these were made either of iron or of the wood; similar to the bucklers which Solomon afterwards enriched

with gold plates, and deposited in the temple (1 Kings x. 16, 17.), and which, · Morier's second Journey into Persia, pp. 115, 116.

having been carried away by Shishak, king of Egypt, were replaced by • Caprains Irby's and Mangle's Travels in Egypt, &c. p. 335. C-IL's Narrative of an Expedition from Tripoli in Barbary to the Western ing Goliath's shield to have been composed of brass plates affixed to wood, Frontiers of Egypt, p. 11.

is, that if it had been wholly composed of this metal, and had been of a • Hariner's Observations, vol. iii. pp. 430, 431.

size proportionable to his body, it is doubtful whether this giant, and still • Livy, lib. ix. c. 59. Bruning's Antiquit. Græc. p. 102.

more whether his squire, would have been able to support its weight.

€ Eneid, lib. ix. 707.

Dr. Della Rehoboam, with other brazen shields.

An additional reason for conclud.

1

A shield-bearer was an office among the Jews as well as and those with which they annoyed the enemy at a distance. the Philistines, for David when he tirst went to court was Of the former description were the sword and the battle-axe. made king Saul's armour-bearer (1 Sam. xvi. 21.), and Jona- 1. The Sword is the most ancient weapon of offence menthan bad a young man who bore his armour before him. tioned in the Bible. With it Jacob's sons treacherously as(1 Sam. xiv. 1.) Besides this tsinnah, or great massy shield, sassinated the Shechemites. (Gen. xxxiv. 25.) It was worn Goliath was furnished with a less one (1 Sam. xvii. 6. and on the thigh (Psal. xlv. 3. Exod. xxxii. 27.), and it should 45.), which is not expressed by one of the fore-mentioned seem on the left thigh; though it is particularly mentioned words, but is called cidon, which we render a target in one that Ehud, a Benjamite, put a dagger or short sword under place and a shield in another, and was of a different nature his garments on his right thigh. (Judg. iii. 16.) The palanfrom the common shields. He seems not only to have held quin, or travelling couch of Solomon (Song iii. 7, 8. where it in his hand when he had occasion to use it, but could also our version terms it a bed), was surrounded by threescore at other times conveniently hang it about his neck and turn valiant Israelitish soldiers, every one of whom had his sword it behind, on which account it is added, that it was between girt upon his thigh. There appear to have been two kinds his shoulders. The loss of the shield in fight was excessively of swords in use, a larger one with one edge, which is called resented by the Jewish warriors, as well as lamented by in Hebrew the mouth of the sword (Josh. vi. 21.); and a them, for it was a signal ingredient of the public mourning, shorter one with two edges, like that of Ehud. The modern that the shield of the mighty was vilely cast away. (2 Sam. Arabs, it is well known, wear a sabre on one side, and a i. 21.) David, a man of arms, who composed the beautiful cangiar or dagger in their girdles. elegy on the death of Saul related in 2 Sam. i. 19—27., was 2. Of the BATTLE-AXE we have no description in the sensible how disgraceful a thing it was for soldiers to quit Sacred Volume: it seems to have been a most powerful their shields in the field, yet this was the deplorable case of weapon in the hands of cavalry, from the allusion made to the Jewish soldiers in that unhappy engagement with the it by Jeremiah :-Thou art my battle-axe and weapons of war; Philistines (1 Sam. xxxi. 7.), they fled away and left their for with thee will I break in pieces the nations, and with thee shields behind them; this vile and dishonourable casting will I destroy kingdoms : and with thee will I break in pieces away of that principal armour is deservedly the subject of the horse and his rider, and with thee will I break in pieces the the royal poet's lamentation.

chariot and his rider. (Jer. li. 20, 21.) But these honourable sentiments were not confined to the The other offensive weapons for annoying the enemy at a Jews. We find them prevailing among most other ancient distance, were the spear or javelin, the sling, and the bow nations, who considered it infamous to cast away or lose and arrow. their shield. With the Greeks it was a capital crime, and 3. The Spear or Javelin (as the words non (Royach), and punished with death. The Lacedemonian women, it is well noun (chanith), are variously rendered in Num. xxv. 7. known, in order to excite the courage of their sons, used to 1 Sam. xiii. 19. and Jer. xlvi. 4.) was of different kinds, deliver to them their fathers' shields, with this short address: according to its length or make. Some of them might be

This shield thy father always preserved; do thou preserve thrown or darted (1 Sam. xviii. 11.); and it appears from it also, or perish." Alluding to these sentiments, Saint Paul, 2 Sam. ii 23. that some of them were pointed at both ends. when exhorting the Hebrew Christians to steadfastness in When armies were encamped, the spear of the general or the faith of the Gospel, urges them not to cast away their commander-in-chief was stuck into the ground at his head.2 confidence, their confession of faith, which hath great recom- 4. Slings are enumerated among the military stores colpense of reward, no less than the approbation of God, the lected by Uzziah. (2 Chron. xxvi. 14.) In the use of the peace which passeth all understanding here, and the glories sling, David eminently excelled, and slew Goliath with a of heaven, as their eternal portion. (Heb. x. 35.)

stone from one. The Benjamites were celebrated in battle It may be further observed, that they used to scour and because they had attained to a great skill and accuracy in polish their arms, as may be inferred from the prophet's ex- handling this weapon; they could sling stones to a hair's pressions of furbishing the spears and making bright the ar- breadth, and not miss (Judg. xx. 16.); and where it is said rows (Jer. xlvi. 4. and li. 11.), and it should seem that such that they were left-handed, it should rather be rendered amshields as were covered with leather were oiled in order to bidexters, for we are told, they could use both the right-hand keep them clean, and prevent them from becoming too dry. and the left (1 Chron. xii. 2.); that is, they did not conTo this custom there is an allusion in 2 Sam. i. 21. and Isa. stantly use their right hand as others did, when they shot xxi. 5. When the shields were not in use, they were co- arrows or slung stones, but they were so expert in their milivered with a case, in order to preserve them from being rusty tary exercises, that they could perform them with their left and soiled; hence we read of uncovering the shield, which hand as well as with their righi. signifies preparing for war, and having that weapon espe- 5. Bows and Arrows are of great antiquity: indeed, no weacially in readiness. (Isa. xxii. 6.)

pon is mentioned so early. Thus Isaac said to Esau, Take 4. Another defensive provision in war was the Military thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow (Gen. xxvii. 3.); though Girdle, or Belt, which answered a twofold purpose, viz. it is true, these are not spoken of as used

war, but in first, in order to wear the sword, which hung at the soldier's hunting, and so they are supposed and implied before this; girdle or belt (1 Sam. xvii. 39); secondly, it was necessary where it is said of Ishmael, that he became an archer, and to gird their clothes and armour together, and thus David used bows and arrows in shooting of wild beasts. (Gen. xxi. girded his sword upon his armour. To gird and to arm are 20.) This afterwards became so useful a weapon, that care synonymous words in Scripture; for those who are said to was taken to train up the Hebrew youth to it betimes. When be able to put on armour are, according to the Hebrew and David had in a solemn manner lamented the death of king the Septuagint, girt with a girdle, and hence comes the ex- Saul, he gave orders for teaching the young men the use of pression of girding to the battle. (1 Kings xx. 11. Isa. viii. 9. the bow (2 Sam. i. 18.), that they might be as expert as the 2 Sam. xxii. 40.) The military girdle was the chief orna- Philistines, by whose bows and arrows Saul and his army ment of a soldier, and was highly prized among all ancient were slain. These were part of the military ammunition nations: it was also a rich present from one chieftain to (for in those times bows were used instead of guns, and aranother. Thus, Jonathan gave his girdle to David, as the rows supplied the place of powder and ball). From Job xx. highest pledge of his esteem and perpetual friendship. 21. and from Psal. xviii. 34. it may be collected, that the (1 Sam. xvii. 4.)"

military bow was made of steel, and, consequently, was 5. Boots or GREAVES were part of the ancient defensive very suilt and hard to bend, on which account they used their harness, because it was the custom to cast certain guerresize, foot in bending their bows; and therefore when the prophets impediments (so called because they entangle their feet, speak of treading the bow, and of bows trodden, they are to be afterwards known by the name of gall-traps, which since, in understood of bows bent, as our translators rightly render it heraldry, are corruptly called call-trops), 'in the way before (Jer. 1. 14. Isa. v. 28. xxi. 15.); where the Hebrew word the enemy: the military boot or shoe was, therefore, neces- which is used in these places signifies to tread upon. This sary to guard the legs and feet from the iron stakes placed weapon was thought so necessary in war, that it is called in the way to gall and wound them; and thus we are ena- the bow of war, or the battle-bow. (Zech. ix. 10. X. 4.) bled to account for Goliath's greaves of brass which were VIII. Many of the cities of Palestine, being erected on upon his legs.

eminences, were fortified by nature; but most frequently they VII. The Offensive Arms were of two sorts, viz. such were surrounded with a lofty wall, either single or double as were employed when they came to a close engagement; (Deut. xxviii. 52. 2 Chron. xxxiii. 14. Isa. xxii. 11.); on

which were erected towers or bulwarks. (2 Chron. xiv. 7. • In like manner, Ajax gave his girdle to Hector, as a token of the highest respect. (lliad, vii. 305.) Dr. A. Clarke, on 2 Sam. xviii. 11.

9 See p. 87. supra, for examples of this custoin.

xxvi. 9. Psal. xlviii. 13.) These towers were furnished with When Jephthah was appointed judge of the Israelites machines, from which the besieged could discharge arrows beyond the Jordan, he sent messengers (or ambassadors) and great stones. (2 Chron. xxvi. 15.) It was also usual to to the king of the Ammonites, saying, What hast thou to erect towers on the confines of a country, to repress the in- do with me, that thou art come against me, to fight in my cursions of troublesome neighbours, and which also served land? (Judg, xi. 12.). On the Ammonites complaining as occasional places of refuge. The tower of Peniel (Judg. that the Israelites had forcibly seized their lands, Jephthah, viii. 9. 17.), and those erected by Uzziah (2 Chron. xxvi. 9, after justifying his people from the charge, concluded by say10.), appear to have been of this description; and similar ing, The LORD, the Judge, be judge this day between the chil. towers were afterwards erected by the crusaders. When dren of Israel and the children of Ammon (27.); after which the Israelites were about to besiege a city, they dug trenches, he attacked and totally discomfited them. When the Philisdrew a line of circumvallation, erected ramparts, built forts tines invaded the territory of the tribe of Judah, to avenge the against it, and cast a mount against it; they also set the injury committed by Samson in burning their corn, in reply camp against it, and set battering rams against it round about, to the question of the men of Judah, Why are ye come up (2 Sam. xx. 15. Lam. ii. 8. Ezek. iv. 2.). These engines against us ? and on their promising to deliver up Samson, of shot, as our margin Tenders it in the prophecy of Jeremiah the Philistines withdrew their forces. (Judg. xv. 9, 10, &c.) (vi. 6.), in all probability, resembled in some measure the After the detestable crime committed by certain Benjamites balistæ and catapultæ among the Romans; which were used of the town of Gibeah, upon the Levite's concubine, all the for throwing stones and arrows, and anciently served instead assembled Israelites sent to the tribe of Benjamin, to demand of mortars and carcasses. Further, in order to give notice that the guilty parties should be delivered up, that they might of an approaching enemy, and to bring the dispersed inhabi- put them to death, and put away evil from Israel. (Judg. XX. tants of the country together, they used to set up beacons on 12, 13.). Nor did they resolve upon war, until after the the tops of mountains, as a proper alarm upon those occasions. refusal of the Benjamites.

Such were the various instruments of offence and defence In later times, we may observe a kind of defiance, or declain use among the ancient Israelites. Sometimes, however, ration of war between David's army under the command of they were very badly provided with military weapons : for, Joab, and that of Ishbosheth under Abner, who said to Joab, after the Philistines had gained many considerable advantages Let the young men now arise and play before us. And Joab over them, and in effect subdued their country, they took said, Let them arise ; and immediately the conflict began becare that no smith should be left throughout the land of Is-tween twelve men of each army (2 Sam. ii. 14, 15.) ° Amarael, to prevent them from making swords and spears; so ziah, king of Judah, proud of some advantages which he had that the Israelites were obliged to go down to the Philistines obtained over the Levites, sent a challenge to Jehoash king whenever they had occasion to sharpen their instruments of of Israel, saying, Come, let us look one another in the face. husbandry. (1 Sam. xiii. 19, 20. 22.), Long before the reign Jehoash, in a beautiful parable, dissuaded him from going to of Saul we read that there was not a shield or speur seen war; to which Amaziah refused to listen. The two kings among forty thousand in Israel (Judg. v. 8.); though it is pro- did look one another in the face at Bethshemesh, where the king bable that they had other military weapons which are not men- of Judah was totally defeated. (2 Kings xiv. 8–12.) Bentioned. After Nebuchadnezzar had captured Jerusalem, he Hadad, king of Syria, declared war against Ahab in a yet adopted the policy of the Philistines, and took all the crafts- more insolent manner. Having, laid siege to Samaria, he men and smiths with him to Babylon, that the poorest of the sent messengers, saying, Thy silver and thy gold is mine ; people, whom he had left behind, might be in no condition thy wives also, and thy children are mine. Ahab, who felt his io rebel. (2 Kings xxiv. 14.)

weakness, replied, My lord, O king, according to thy saying, It was an ancient custom to shoot an arrow or cast a spear I am thine and all that I have. Then Ben-Hadad, more insointo the country which an army intended to invade. As soon lent than before, rejoined, Although I have sent unto thee, sayas Alexander had arrived on the coasts of lonia, he threw a ing, Thou shalt deliver me thy silver, and thy gold, and thy dart into the country of the Persians. The throwing of a wives, and thy children ; yet I will send my servants unto thee dart was considered as an emblem of the commencement of to-morrow about this time, and they shall search thine house, hostilities among the Romans.3 Some such custom as this and the houses of thy servants, and whatsoever is pleasant in appears to have obtained among the eastern people ; and to thine eyes, they shall put it in their hand, and take it away. this the prophet Elisha alluded when he termed the arrow These exorbitant demands being rejected by Ahab and his shot by the king of Israel, the arrow of deliverance from Syria counsel, who resolved to defend themselves and sustain the (2 Kings xiii. 17.): meaning, that as surely as that arrow siege, Ben-Hadad was obliged to abandon it, after having was shot towards the lands which had been conquered from lost the greater part of his army. (1 Kings xx. 4—21.) the Israelites by the Syrians, so surely should those lands be When Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt, on his way to Carreconquered and restored to Ísrael.

chemish against the Assyrians, was desirous of crossing the IX. Previously to undertaking a war, the heathens condominions of the king of Judah, Josiah, who was the ally sulted their oracles, soothsayers, and magicians; and after or tributary of the Assyrian monarch, opposed his passage their example, Saul, when forsaken by God, had recourse to with an army. Then Necho sent ambassadors to hím, saya witch to know the result of the impending battle (1 Sam. ing, What have I to do with thee, thou king of Judah? I come xxviii. 7.): they also had recourse to divination by arrows, not against thee this day, but against the house wherewith 1 and inspection of the livers of slaughtered victims. (Ezek. have war, for God commanded me to make haste. Forbear thou xxi. 21.) The Israelites, to whom these things were prohi- from meddling with God, who is with me, that he destroy thee bited, formerly consulted the urim and thummim, or the not. Josiah persisted, and was mortally wounded in a battle sacred lot. (Judg. i. 1. xx. 27, 28.) After the establishment which he lost. (2 Chron. xxxv. 20—24.). of the monarchy, the kings, as they were piously or impi- X. Of the precise mode in which the earliest Jewish ously disposed, consulted the prophets of the Lord, or the armies were drawn up, the Scriptures give us no information: false prophets, the latter of whom (as it was their interest) but, as the art of war was then comparatively imperfect, failed not to persuade them that they should succeed. much reliance was placed in the multitude of combatants, (1 Kings xxii. 6.–13. 2 Kings xix. 2. 20.) Their expedi- a notion, the fallacy of which is exposed in Psal. xxxiii. 16. tions were generally undertaken in the spring (2 Sam. xi. 1.), Subsequently, however, under the kings, when the Jews and carried on through the summer. Previously to the en had cavalry, they threw them upon the wings (according to gagement, the combatants anointed their shields, and took the chevalier Folard), in large squadrons of six or eight hunfood that their strength might not fail them. (Isa. xxi. 5. dred horse, with a depth equal to the front, and with little Jer. xlvi. 3, 4.) The law and usage of civilized nations re- intervals between them. But this order was not always obquire that no war should be undertaken without a previous served. John the son of Simon Maccabæus, in the battle declaration, and without a previous demand of satisfaction which he fought with Cendebeos, placed his horse in the for the injury complained of. Hence, in the voluntary wars centre, and threw his foot upon the wings; to which successof the Jews, Moses ordained that certain conditions of ful stratagem he was, under Providence, indebted for a compeace should be offered before the Israelites attacked any plete victory (1 Macc. xvi. 7, 8.): for the novelty of this place. (Deut. xx. 10—20.) There does not, however, ap- order of batile amazed the enemy's infantry, and confounded pear to have been any uniform mode of declaring war. Cendebeus, when he found that he had to encounter the whole

of John's cavalry, which bore down his foot, while the infantry · Harmer's Observations, vol. iii. pp. 415—418. 425–423.

of the Jews broke through his horse, and put them to flight. - Justin, Hist. Philipp. lib. ii. • Liry, lb. i. c. 32. Other instances from the Roman history may be

From the time of Moses to that of Solomon, the ark of the seen in Adlaru's Roman Aotiquities, p. 362.

covenant was present in the camp, the symbol of the divine VOL. II.

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