xxvii. 1-4.), and also gave to those places, which had been ascribes the origin of the name of Maccabæus with which signalized by the previous conduct of the Israelites, signifi- Judas was first distinguished (1 Macc. ii. 4.), (who was surcant names which would be perpetual memorials of their re- named Napo, Macasa, or the Hammer, on account of his sinbellion against God. (Exod. xvii. 7.). The same custom gular valour and success against the enemies of his nation);' obtained after their arrival in the land of Canaan. (Josh. iv.) and also the new name given by our Lord to Peter (Matt. In like manner, Samuel erected a stone at Mizpeh, to com- xvi. 18. John i. 43.), and the name given to the field which memorate the discomfiture of the Philistines. (1 Sam. vii. 12.) was bought with the purchase-money of Judas's treason.

In progress of time more splendid monuments were erected (Matt. xxvii. 8. Acts i. 19.) The great festivals, prescribed (1 Sam. xv. 12. 2 Sam. viii. 13. xviii. 18.); and symbolical by Moses to the Jews, as well as the feasts and fasts instimemorial names were given both to things and persons. tūted by them in later times, and the tables of the law which Thus, the columns which were erected in the temple of So- were to be most religiously preserved in the ark, were so lomon, Jachin he shall establish, Boaz, in it is strength, many memorials of important national transactions. most probably denoted the devout monarch's hope, that Jeho- In more ancient times proverbs sometimes originated from vah would firmly establish that temple in the entrance of some remarkable occurrence. (Gen. x. 9. xxii. 14. 1 Sam which they were placed. To the same practice Pareau / x. 12. xix. 24.)2



I. Whether the Jews were prohibited from concluding Treaties with heathen Nations.-II. Treaties, how made and ratified.

- Covenant of Salt.III. Contracts for the Sale and Cession of alienable Property, how made.-IV. Of Oaths. I. A Treaty is a pact or covenant made with a view to by believers and heathens at their solemn leagues; at first, the public welfare by the superior power. It is a common doubtless, with a view to the great Sacrifice, who was to mistake, that the Israelites were prohibited from forming purge our sins in his own blood"; and the offering of these alliances with heathens: this would in effect have amounted sacrifices, and passing between the parts of the divided victo a general prohibition of alliance with any nation whatever, tim, was symbolically staking their hopes of purification and because at that time all the world were heathens. . In the salvation on their performance of the condition on which it Mosaic law, not a single statule is enacted, that prohibits the was offered." conclusion of treaties with heathen nations in general ; al- The editor of the Fragments supplementary to Calmets is though, for the reasons therein specified, Moses either com- of opinion that what is yet practised of this ceremony may mands them to carry on eternal war against the Canaanites elucidate that passage in Isa. xxviii. 15.:-We have made a and Amalekites (but not against the Moabites and Ammon- covenant with death, and with hell are we at agreement; when ites), or else forbids all friendship with these particular na- the over flowing scourge shall pass through, it shall not come tions. It is however, clear, from Deut. xxiii. 4–9., that he unto us, for we have made lies our refuge, and under falsehood did not entertain the same opinion with regard to all foreign have ve hid ourselves. As if it had been said :-We have nations: for in that passage, though the Moabites are pro- cut off a covenant Sacrifice, a purification offering with nounced to be an abomination to the Israelites, no such decla- death, and with the grave we have settled, so that the ration is made respecting the Edomites. Further, it is evident scourge shall not injure us. May not such a custom have that they felt themselves bound religiously to observe treaties been the origin of the following superstition related by Pitts ? when actually concluded : though one of the contracting par- —“ If they (the Algerine corsairs) at any time happen to be ties had been guilty of fraud in the transaction, as in the case in a very great strait or distress, as being chased, or in a of the treaty with the Gibeonites. (Josh. ix.) David and storm, they will gather money, light up candles in rememSolomon lived in alliance with the king of Tyre; and the brance of some dead marrabot (saint) or other, calling upon former with the king of Hamath (2 Sam. viii. 9, 10); and him with heavy sighs and groans. If they find no succou the queen of Sheba cannot be regarded in any other light than from their before-mentioned rites and superstitions, but that as an ally of Solomon's. Even the Maccabees, who were the danger rather increases, then they go to sacrificing a so laudably zealous for the law of Moses, did not hesitate to sheep (or two or three upon occasion, as they think needful), enter into a compact with the Romans. The only treaties which is done after this manner : having cut off the head condemned by the prophets are those with the Egyptians, with a knife, they immediately take out the entrails, and Babylonians, and Assyrians, which were extremely prejudi- throw them and the head overboard; and then, with all the cial to the nation, by involving it continually in quarrels speed they can (without skinning) they cut the body into with sovereigns more powerful than the Jewish monarchs; two parts by the middle, and throw one part over the right and the event always showed, in a most striking manner, side of the ship, and the other over the left, into the sea, as the propriety of their reproofs.

a kind of propitiation. Thus those blind infidels app them II. Various solemnities were used in the conclusion of selves to imaginary intercessors, instead of the living and treaties ; sometimes it was done by a simple junction of the true God." In the case here referred to, the ship passes hands. (Prov. xi. 21. Ezek, xvii. 18.) The Hindoos to this between the parts thus thrown on each side of it. This day ratify an engagement by one person laying his right behaviour of the Algerines may be taken as a pretty accurate hand on the hand of the other.3 Sometimes, also, the cove- counterpart to that of making a covenant with death and with nant was ratified by erecting a heap of stones, to which a imminent danger of destruction, by appeasing the angry suitable name was given, referring to the subject-matter of gods. the covenant (Gen. xxxi. 44—54.); that made between Abra- Festivities always accompanied the ceremonies attending ham and the king of Gerar was ratified by the oath of both covenants. Isaac and Abimelech feasted at making their parties, by a present from Abraham to the latter of seven ewe covenant (Gen. xxvi. 30.), And he made them a feast, and lambs, and by giving a name to the well which had given they did eat and drink. (Gen. xxxi. 54.) Jacob offered sacrioccasion to the transaction. (Gen. xxi. 22–32.) It was,fice upon the mount, and called his brethren to eat bread. This moreover, customary to cut the victim (which was to be practice was also usual amongst the heathen nations.? offered as a sacrifice upon the occasion) into two parts, and so placing each half upon two different altars, to cause those

• This remarkable practice may be clearly traced in the Greek and who contracted the covenant to pass between both. (Gen.

Latin writers. Homer has the following expression :xv. 9, 10. 17. Jer. xxxiv. 18.) This rite was practised both

Iliad, lib. ii. ver. 124.

Having cut faithful oaths. 1 In like manner Charles, mayor of the palace to the king of France, Eustathius explains the passage by saying, they were oaths relating to received the name of Martel

, or ine Hammer, from the irresistible blows important matters, and were made by the division of the victim. See also he is said to have given to the Saracens or Moors, who were utterly dis. Virgil, En. viii. ver. 640. counfited in the memorable battle fought near Poictiers, in 733.–Another,

& Travels, p. 18. and more generally received origin of the appellation Maccabees, bas Burder's Oriental Customs, vol. ji. p. 81.-Fifth edition. See cxamples been given in p. 50. supra.


of the ancient mode of ratifying covenanis, in Homer. Il. lib. iii. verses Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 320–322.

103—-107. 245. et seq. Virgil, Æn. lib. viii. 641. xii. 169. et seq. Dionysius • Ward's View of the History, &r. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 328. Halicarnassensis, lib. v. c. 1. Hooke's Roman History, vol. I. p. 67,

> No. 129.

Afterwards, when the Mosaic law was established, and cup, said, This is signifies or represents) my blood of the the people were settled in the land of Canaan, the people New Covenant, which is shed for many, for the remission of feasted, in their peace offerings, on a part of the sacrifice, in sins. (Matt. xxvi. 28.). By this very remarkable exprestoken of their reconciliation with God (Deut. xii. 6, 7.): and sion, Jesus Christ teaches us, that as his body was to be thus, in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, we renew our broken or crucified, užtep npear, in our stead, so his blood was to covenant with God, and (in the beautiful language of the be poured out (ex Xuroulevor, a sacrificial term) to make an atonecommunion office of the Anglican church)," we offer and ment, as the words remission of sins evidently imply; for present ourselves, our souls and bodies, to be a reasonable, without shedding of bwod there is no remission (Heb. ix. 22.), holy, and lively sacrifice" unto Him, being at His table nor any remission by shedding of blood but in a sacrificial feasted with the bread and wine, the representation of the way. Compare Heb. ix. 20. and xiii. 12. sacrifice of Christ's body and blood; who by himself once III. What treaties or covenants were between the high offered upon the cross has made a full, perfect, and sufficient contracting powers who were authorized to conclude them, sacrifice, oblation, and atonement for the sin of the whole that contracts of bargain and sale are between private indiworld.

viduals. Sometimes the parties to the covenant were sprinkled with Among the Hebrews, and long before them among the the blood of the victim. Thus Moses, after sprinkling part Canaanites, the purchase of any thing of consequence was of the blood on the altar, to show that Jehovah was a party concluded and the price paid, at the gate of the city, as the to the covenant, sprinkled part of it on the Israelites, and seat of judgment, before all who went out and came in. said unto them, Behold the blood of the covenant which the (Gen. xxiii. 16–20. Ruth iv. 1, 2.) As persons of leisure, Lord hath made with you. (Exod. xxiv, 6. 8.) To this and those who wanted amusement, were wont to sit in the transaction St. Paul alludes in his Epistle to the Hebrews gates, purchases there made could always be testified by (ix. 20.), and explains its evangelical meaning.

numerous witnesses. From Ruth iv. 7-11. we learn another The Scythians are said to have first poured wine into an singular usage on occasions of purchase, cession, and exearthen vessel, and then the contracting parties, cutting their change, viz. that in earlier times, the transfer of alienable arms with a kr.ife, let some of the blood run into the wine, property was confirmed by the proprietor plucking off his with which they stained their armour. After which they shoe at the city gate, in the presence of the elders and other themselves, together with the other persons present, drank witnesses, and handing it over to the new owner. The of the mixture, uttering the direst maledictions on the party origin of this custom it is impossible to trace: but it had who should violate the treaty.'

evidently become antiquated in the time of David, as the Another mode of ratifying covenants was by the superior author of the book of Ruth introduces it as an unknown contracting party presenting to the other some article of his custom of former ages. own dress or arms. Thus, Jonathan stripped himself of the In process of time the joining or striking of hands, already robe that was upon him, and gave it to David, and his gar- mentioned with reference to public treaties, was introduced ments, even to the sword, and to his bow, and to his girdle. as a ratification of a bargain and sale. This usage was not (1 Sam. xviii. 4.) The highest honour, which a king of unknown in the days of Job (xvii. 3.), and Solomon often Persia can bestow upon a subject, is to cause himself to alludes to it. (See Prov. vi. 1. xi. 15. xvii. 18. xx. 16. be disapparelled, and to give his robe to the favoured indi- xxii. 26. xxvii. 13.) The earliest vestige of written instruridual.2

ments, sealed and delivered for ratifying the disposal and In Num. xviii. 19. mention is made of a covenant of salt. transfer of property, occurs in Jer. xxxii

. 10–12., which the The expression appears to be borrowed from the practice of prophet commanded Baruch to bury in an earthen vessel in ratifying their federal engagements by salt; which, as it not order to be preserved for production at a future period, as only imparted a relish to different kinds of viands, but also evidence of the purchase. (14, 15.) No mention is expreserved them from putrefaction and decay, became the pressly made of the manner in which deeds were anciently emblem of incorruptibility and permanence. It is well cancelled. Some expositors have imagined that in Col. ii. known, from the concurrent testimony of voyagers and 14. Saint Paul refers to the cancelling of them by blotting travellers, that the Asiaties deem the eating together as a or drawing a line across them, or by striking them through bond of perpetual friendship: and as salt is now (as it with a nail : but we have no information whatever from anciently was) a common article in all their repasts, it may antiquity to authorize such a conclusion. be in reference to this circumstance that a perpetual covenant IV. It was customary for those who appealed to the Deity is terined a corenant of salt; because the contracting parties in attestation of any thing, to hold up their right hand ate together of the sacrifice offered on the occasion, and the towards heaven; by which action the party, swearing, or whole transaction was considered as a league of endless making oath, signified that he appealed to God to witness friendship.}. In order to assure those persons to whom the the truth of what he averred. Thus Abram said to the king divine promises were made, of their certainty and stability, of Sodom-I have Lift UP MY HAND unto the Lord the most the Almighty not only willed that they should have the force high God, the possessor of heaven and earth, ..... that I will of a covenant; but also vouchsafed to accommodate himself not take any thing that is thine. (Gen. xiv. 22, 23.) Hence (if we may be permitted to use such an expression) to the the expression, to lift up the hand,” is equivalent to making received customs. Thus, he constituted the rainbow a sign oath. In this form of scriptural antiquity, the angel in the of his covenant with mankind that the earth should be no Apocalypse is represented as taking a solemn oath. (Rev. more destroyed by a deluge (Gen. ix. 12–17.); and in a x. 5.)S vision appeared to Abraham to pass between the divided Among the Jews, an oath of fidelity was taken by the pieces of the sacrifice, which the patriarch had offered. servant's putting his hand under the thigh of his lord, as (Gen. xv. 12—17.) Jehovah further instituted the rite of Eliezer did to Abraham (Gen. xxiv. 2.); whence, with no circumcision, as á token of the covenant between himself great deviation, is perhaps derived the form of doing homage and Abraham (Gen. xvii. 9–14.); and sometimes sware by at this day, by putting the hands between the knees, and himself (Gen. xxii. 16. Luke i. 73.), that is, pledged his within the hands of the liege. Sometimes an oath was eternal power and godhead for the fulfilment of his promise, accompanied with an imprecation, as in 2 Sam. iii. 9. 35. there being no one superior to himself to whom he could Ruth i. 17. 1 Kings ii. 23. 2 Kings vi. 31.: but sometimes make appeal, or by whom he could be bound. Saint Paul the party swearing omitted the imprecation, as if he were beautifully illustrates this transaction in his Epistle to the afraid, and shuddered to utter it, although it was, from other Hebrews. (vi. 13—18.) Lastly, the whole of the Mosaic sources, sufficiently well understood. (Gen. xiv. 22, 23. constitution was a mutual covenant between Jehovah and the Ezek. xvii. 18.) At other times he merely said, “ Let God Israelites; the tables of which being preserved in an ark, be a witness ;” and sometimes affirmed, saying, “As surely as the latter was thence termed the ark of the covenant, and as God liveth.(Jer. xlii. 5. Ruth iii. 13. 1 Sam. xiv. 45. xx. (we have just seen) the blood of the victims slain in ratifica- 3. 21.) tion of that covenant, was termed the blood of the covenant. These remarks apply to the person who uttered the oath (Exod. xxiv. 8. Zech. ix. 11.). Referring to this, our

+ Schulzii Archæologia Hebraica, cap. 14. de Fæderibus et Contractibus, Saviour, when instituting the Lord's supper, after giving the pp. 130–132. ; Pareau, Antiquitas Hebraica, part ili. $ 2. cap. 3. de Fæde

ribus ct Contractibus, pp. 322–325. Bruning, Antiquitates fiebrææ, cap. · Herodotus, lib. iv. c. 70. vol. i. p. 273. Oxon. 1809. 'Doughtæi Analecta, 26. pp. 242—215. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. i.

***This mode of swearing has descended even to our own times and Harmer's Observations, vol. ii. p. 94. Burder's Or, Cust. vol. i. p. nation, being still used in Scotland, and there allowed by act of Parliament

to those dissenters who are styled Seceders. The solemn League and • Some pleasing facts from modern history, illustrative of the covenant Covenant, in the time of Charles I., was taken in this form." Dean Woodof sal, are collected by the industrious editor of Calmet, Fragments, house, on Rev. x. 5.

• Paley's Mor. and Polit. Philosophy, Book iii. ch. 16. $ 1. VOL. II.




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himself of his own accord. When an oath was exacted, 12 Kings ii. 2. Judg. vi. 13. 15. 1 Kings iji. 17. 26.; a prace
whether by a judge or another, the person who exacted it tice which obtains in Syria to this day. In some instances,
put the oath in form; and the person to whom it was put, persons adjured others by the beasts of the field (Sol. Song
responded by saying, Amen, Amen, so let it be: or gave his ii. 7.), a sort of adjuration which still makes its appearance
response in other expressions of like import, such as ou unas, in the writings of the Arabian poets.2
Thou hast said it. (Num. v. 19–22. 1 Kings xxii. 16. In the time of Christ, the Jews were in the habit of swear-
Deut. xxvii. 15—26.) Sometimes the exacter of the oath ing by the altar, by Jerusalem, by heaven, by the earth, by
merely used the following adjuration, viz. I adjure you by themselves, by their heads, by the gold of the temple, by sacri-
the living God to answer, whether this thing be so or not. And fices, &c. Because the name of God was not mentioned in
the person sworn accordingly made answer to the point in- | these oaths, they considered them as imposing but small, if
quired of. (Num. v. 22. Mait. xxvi. 64.) It should be re- any obligation ;; and we, accordingly, find, that our Saviour
marked here, that although the formulary of assent on the takes occasion to inveigh, in decided terms, against such arts
part of the respondent to an oath was frequently Amen, AMEN, of deception. (Matt. y. 33–37. xxiii. 16–22.) It is against
yet this formulary did not always imply an oath, but, in oaths of this kind, and these alone (not against an oath uttered
some instances, was merely a protestation. As the oath was in sincerity), that he expresses his displeasure, and prohibits
an appeal to God (Lev. xix. 12. Deut. vi. 13.), the taking them. This is clear, since he himself consented to take upon
of a false oath was deemed a heinous crime; and perjury, ac- him the solemnity of an oath (Matt. xxvi. 64.); and since
cordingly, was forbidden in those words, Thou shall not take Paul himself, in more than one instance, utters an adjuration.
the name of the Lord thy God in vain, that is, shalt not call Compare Rom. ix. 1. 2 Cor. i. 23.
God to witness in pretended confirmation of a falsehood. In the primitive periods of their history, the Hebrews re-
(Exod. xx. 6.)

ligiously observed an oath (Josh. ix. 14, 15.); but we find, It was also common to swear by those whose life and pros- that, in later times, they were often accused by the prophets perity were dear to the party making oath. Thus, Joseph of perjury. After the captivity, the Jews became again celeswore by the life of the king (Gen. xlii. 15.); and this prac- brated for the scrupulous observance of what they had sworn tice prevailed 'subsequently among the Hebrews. (1 Sam. to, but corruption soon increased among them: they revived xxv. 26. 2 Sam. xi. 11. xiv. 19. comp. Psal. Ixiii. 91.) A the old forms, the words without the meaning ; and acquired person sometimes swore by himself, and sometimes by the among all nations the reputation of perjurers. life of the person before whom he spoke, as in 1 Sam. 1. 26.

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1. Of Strangers.-II. Of the Aged, Blind, and Deaf.—III. Of the Poor. All wise legislators have deemed it an important branch | the Hebrews, appear to have been placed in favourable cir. of political economy, to direct their attention towards aliens cumstances, At a later period, viz. in the reigns of David and to the poor: and the humanity and wisdom of the Mo- and Solomon, they were compelled to labour on the religious saic regulations in this respect will be found not unworthy edifices, which were erected by those princes; as we may of a divinely inspired legislator.

learn from such passages as these: And Solomon numbered I. STRANGERS are frequently mentioned in the laws of Mo- all the strangers ihat were in the land of Israel, after the num, ses, who specifies two different descriptions of them, viz. 1. bering wherewith David his father had numbered them; and Davin (TOSCHOBIM), or those who had no home, whether they were found a hundred and fifty thousand and three thouthey were Israelites or foreigners; and 2. D'W (GERI.v), or sand and six hundred ; and he set threescore and ten thousand those who were strangers generally, and who possessed no of them to be bearers of burdens, and fourscore thousand to be landed property, though they mighi have purchased houses. hewers in the mountain. (2 Chron. ii. 1. 17, 18. compared Towards both of these classes the Hebrew legislator en- with 1 Chron. xxii. 2.) The exaction of such laborious forced the duties of kindness and humanity, by reminding the services from foreigners' was probably limited to those who Israelites that they had once been strangers in Egypt. (Lev. had been taken prisoners in war; and who, according to xix. 33, 34. Deut. x. 19. xxiii. 7. xxiv. 18.). Hence he or the rights of war as they were understood at that period, dained the same rights and privileges for the Israelites, as for could be justly employed in any offices, however low strangers. (Lev. xxiv. 19–22. Num. ix. 14. xv. 5.) Stran- and however laborious, which the conqueror thought proper gers might be naturalized, or permitted to enter into the con- to impose. In the time of Christ, the degenerate Jews gregation of the LORD, by submitting to circumcision, and re- did not find it convenient to render to the strangers from a nouncing idolatry. (Deut. xxiii. 1—9.) The Edomites and foreign country those deeds of kindness and humanity, which Egyptians were capable of becoming citizens of Israel after were not only their due, but which were demanded in their the third generation. Doeg the Edomite (1 Sam. xxi. 8. behalf by the laws of Moses. They were in the habit of Psal. lii.) was thus naturalized ; and, on the conquest of Idu- understanding by the word neighbour, their friends merely, mæa by the Jews, about 129 years before the birih of Christ, and accordingly restricted the exercise of their benevolence the Jews and Idumeans became one people. It appears, by the same narrow limits that bounded in this case their also, that other nations were not entirely excluded from being interpretation; contrary as both were to the spirit of those incorporated with the people of Israel : for Uriah the Hittite, passages, which have been adduced in the preceding parawho was of Canaanitish descent, is represented as being a fully graph.” naturalized Israelite. But the Ammonites and Moabites, II. In a monarchy or aristocracy, birth and office alone in consequence of the hostile disposition which they had ma- give rank, but in a democracy, where all are on an equal nifested to the Israelites in the wilderness, were absolutely footing, the right discharge of official duties, or the arrival excluded from the right of citizenship.”s

of OLD AGE, are the only sources of rank. Hence the Mosaic “ In the earlier periods of the Hebrew state, persons who statute in Lev. xix. 32. (before the hoary head thou shalt stand were natives of another country, but who had come, either up, and shalt reverence the aged), will be found suited to the from choice or necessity, to take up their residence among republican circumstances of the Israelites, as well as con

formable to the nature and wishes of the human heart: for : "By your life" is still a common oath in Syria (Burckhardt's Travels

no man has any desire to sink in honour, or to be of less in Syria, p. 40.), but the most common oath in that country is, ^" On my consequence than he was before; and to allow precedence to head.(Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, p. 269.)

old age cannot be a matter that will ever affect a young man . Consult the Koran, Sura lxxxv. 1-3. Lxxxví. 1. 11—13. lxxxix. 144. very sensibly. Nor does Moses confine his attention to the xci. 14-8, &c. 3 Martialis Epigrarnmat. XI. 95.

aged. He extends the protection of a special statute to the • Alber, Hermenent. Vet. Test. pp. 210, 211. Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, DEAF and the blind, in Lev. xix. 14., which prohibits re translated by Mr. Upham, pp. 494, 195. • Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. Ü. pp. 233-239.

o Jahn's Archæologia Biblica, by Upham, p. 197.

viling the one or putting a stumbling-block in the way of the were consumed on the altar: the remainder, after deducting other. In Deut. xxvii. 18. a curse is denounced against him the priest's portion, was appropriated to the sacrifice feasts, who misleads the blind.

to which the Israelites were bound to invite the stranger, the III. With regard to those whom misfortune or other cir- widow, and the orphan. “When any part of these tenths cumstances had reduced to poverty, various humane regula- remained, which they had not been able to bring to the altar tions were made: for though Moses had, by his statutes or to consume as offerings, they were obliged every three relative to the division of the land, studied to prevent any years to make a conscientious estimate of the amount, and, Israelites from being born poor, yet he nowhere indulges the without presenting it as an offering to God, employ it in hope that there would actually be no poor. On the contrary benevolent entertainments in their native cities.” (Deut. he expressly says (Deut. xv. 11.), the Poor shall never cease xii. 5—12. 17–19. xiv. 22—29. xvi. 10, 11. xxvi. 12, out of thy land, and he enjoins the Hebrews to open wide 13.)' their hands to their brethren, to the poor and to the needy in But though Moses has made such abundant provision for their land. He exhorts the opulent to assist a decayed Isra- the poor, yet it does not appear that he has said any thing elite with a loan, and not to refuse even though the sabbati- respecting beggars. The earliest mention of beggars occurs cal year drew nigh (Deut. xv. 7—10.); and no pledge was in Psal. cix. 10. In the New Testament, however, we read to be detained for the loan of money that served for the pre- of beggars, blind, distressed, and maimed, who lay at the servation of his life or health (Deut. xxiv. 12, 13.), or was doors of the rich, by the way sides, and also before the gate necessary to enable him to procure bread for himself and of the temple. (Mark x. 46. Luke xvi. 20, 21, Acts iii. 2.)2 family, as the upper and nether mill-stones. During harvest, But “we have no reason to suppose, that there existed in the owner of a field was prohibited from reaping the corn the time of Christ that class of persons called vagrant begthat grew in its corners, or the after-growth: and the scat- gars, who present their supplications for alms from door to tered ears, or sheaves carelessly left on the ground, equally door, and who are found at the present day in the East, belonged to the poor. After a man had once shaken or although less frequently than in the countries of Europe. beaten his olive trees, he was not permitted to gather the That the custom of seeking alms by sounding a trumpet or olives that still hung on them: so that the fruit, which did horn, which prevails among a class of Mohammedan monasnot ripen until after the season of gathering, belonged to the tics, Kalendar or Karendal

, prevailed also in the time of poor. (Lev. xix. 9, 10. Deut. xxiv. 19, 20, 21. Ruth ii. 2-Christ, may be inferred from Matt. vi. 2. ; where the verb 19.). Further, whatever grew during the sabbatical year, in omations, which possesses the shade of signification, that the fields, gardens, or vineyards, the poor might take at plea- would be attached to a corresponding word in the Hiphil sure, having an equal right to it with the owners of the land. form of the Hebrew verbs, is to be rendered transitively, as Another important privilege enjoyed by the poor was, what is the case with many other verbs in the New Testament. were called second tenths and second firstlings. “Besides the There is one thing characteristic of those orientals, who are tenth received by the Levites, the Israelites were obliged to reduced to the disagreeable necessity of following the vocaset apart another tenth of their field and garden produce; and tion of mendicants, which is worthy of being mentioned ; in like manner, of their cattle, a second set of offerings, for they not appeal to the pity or the alms-giving spirit, the purpose of presenting as thank offerings at the high fes- but to the justice of their benefactors. (Job xxii. 7. xxxi. tivals." Or these thank offerings only certain fat pieces 16. Prov. iii. 27, 28.)"3






I The earliest Wars, predatory Excursions.—II. Character of the Wars of the Israelites.-Their Levies how raised.

Mosaic Statutes concerning the Israelitish Soldiers.—III. Divisions, and Officers of the Jewish Armies ;—which were sometimes conducted by the Kings in Person.— Military Chariots.-IV. Encampments.-V. Military Schools and Training.VI. Defensive Arms.–VII. Offensive Arms.-VIII. Fortifications.-IX. Mode of declaring War.-X. Military Tactics.Order of Battle.Treatment of the Slain, of captured Cities, and of Captives.—XI. Triumphant Reception of the Conquerors.—XII. Distribution of the Spoil-Military Honours conferred on eminent Warriors.-A military Order established by David.—XIII. Trophies.

I. THERE were not wanting in the earliest ages of the discomfited them. (Gen. xiv. 14–16. The other patriarchs world men who, abusing the power and strength which they also armed their servants and dependants, when a conflict possessed to the purposes of ambition, usurped upon their was expected. (Gen. xxxii. 7–12. xxxiii. 1.)* weaker neighbours. Such was the origin of the kingdom II. Although the Jews are now the very reverse of being founded by the plunderer Nimrod (Gen. x. 8—10.), whose a military people (in which circumstance we may recognise name signifies a rebel; and it was most probably given him, the accomplishment of prophecy), yet anciently they were from his rejection of the laws both of God and man, and eminently distinguished for their prowess. But the notices supporting by force a tyranny over others. As mankind concerning their discipline, which are presented to us in the continued to increase, quarrels and contests would naturally Sacred Writings, are few and brief. arise, and, spreading from individuals to families, tribes and The wars in which the Israelites were engaged, were of nations, produced wars. Of the military affairs of those two kinds, either such as were expressly enjoined by divine times we have very imperfect notices in the Scriptures. • This section is chiefly translated from Calmet's Dissertation sur la These wars, however, appear to have been nothing more Milice des anciens Hebreux, inserted in the third volume of his Commenthan predatory incursions, like those of the modern Waha- taire Litterale sur la Bible, and also in vol. i. pp. 205–20. of his Dissertabees and Bedouin Arabs, so often described by oriental tra-judgment of the celebrated tactician, the Chevalier Folard, discusses the

tions qui peuvent servir de Prolegomenes de l'Ecriture ; which, in the vellers. The patriarch Abraham, on learning that his kins- military affairs of the Hebrews with so much accuracy and knowledge, as man Lot had been taken captive by Chedorlaomer and his o leave scarcely any room for additions. (Dissertation on the Military

Tactics of the Hebrews, in vol. iii. p. 535. of the folio English translation confederate emirs or petty kings, mustered his trained ser- of Calmet's Dictionary.) The Dissertation of the Chevalier Folard has vants, three hundred and eighteen in number; and coming also been consulted; together with Alber's Inst. Herm. Vet. Test. tom. I. against the enemy by night, he divided his forces, and totally pp.239:347.; Schulzii Archæologia Hebraica, pp. 132–146. ; Jahn, Arche

ologia Biblica, ss 206–296. ; Ackermann, Archæologia Biblica, $$ 260-288.; 1 Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. ii. pp. 254–259.

Home's Hist. of the Jews, vol. ii. pp. 303–316.; Bruning, Antiq. Hebr. pp.

74–91.; Carpzovii Antiquitates Gentis Hebrææ, pp. 665—671. · Jahn's Archæologia, by Upham, p. 198.

· See Lev. xxvi. 36. Deut. xxviii. 65, 66.

, Ibid.



command, or such as were voluntary and entered upon by mode of selection. Hence we read in the Scriptures of the prince for revenging some national affronts, and for the choosing the men, not of levying them. In like manner, honour of his sovereignty. Of the first sort were those un- under the Roman republic, all the citizens of the military age dertaken against the seven nations of Canaan, whom God (seventeen to forty-six years) were obliged to serve a certain had devoted to destruction, viz. the Hittites, the Amorites, number of campaigns, when they were commanded. On the the Canaanites (strictly so called), the Perizzites, the Hi- day appointed, the consuls held a levy (delectum habebant), vites, the Jebusites, and the Girgashites. These the Israel- by the assistance of the military or legionary tribunes; when ites were commanded to extirpate, and to settle themselves it was determined by lot in what manner the tribes should in their place. (Deut. vii. 1, 2. and xx. 16, 17.) There were be called. The consuls ordered such as they pleased to be indeed other nations who inhabited this country in the days cited out of each tribe, and every one was obliged to answer of Abraham, as may be seen in Gen. xv. 19, 20. But these to his name under a severe penalty. On certain occasions, had either become extinct since that time, or being but a some of the most refractory were put to death. To the small people were incorporated with the rest. To these above described mode of selecting troops, our Saviour alluded, seven nations no terms of peace could be offered ; for, being when he said that many are culled, but few chosen (Matt. xx. guilty of gross idolatries and other detestable vices of all 16.): the great mass of the people being convened, choice kinds, God thought, them unfit to live any longer upon the was made of those who were the most fit for service. face of the earth. These wars, thus undertaken by the com- This mode of selecting soldiers accounts for the formation mand of God, were called the wars of the Lord, of which a of those vast armies, in a very short space of time, of which particular record seems to have been kept, as mentioned in we read in the Old Testament. The men of Jabesh Gilead, Num. xxi. 14.

whó, in the beginning of Saul's reign, were besieged by the In the voluntary wars of the Israelites, which were un- Ammonites, had only seven days' respite given them to send dertaken upon some national account, such as most of those messengers to the coasts of Israel, after which, if no relief were in the times of the Judges, when the Moabites, Philis- came to them, they were to deliver up the city and have tines, and other neighbouring nations invaded their country, their eyes put out, which was the best condition, it seems, and such as that of David against the Ammonites, whose they could procure. (1 Sam. xi. 1, 2, 3.) As soon as Saul king had violated the law of nations by insulting his ambas- was informed of it, he, by a symbolical representation of cutsadors,—there were certain rules established by God, which ting a yoke of oxen in pieces, and sending them all over were to regulate their conduct, both in the undertaking and Israel, signified what should be done to the oxen of such as carrying on of these wars. As, first, they were to proclaim did not appear upon this summons. In consequence of this peace to them, which, if they accepted, these people were to summons, we find that an army of three hundred and thirty become tributaries to them; but if they refused, all the thousand men was formed, who relieved the place within the males, upon besieging the city, were allowed to be slain, if seven days allowed them. In like manner, when the chilthe Israelites thought fit; but the women and little ones were dren of Israel had heard of the crime that was committed to be spared, and the cattle with the other goods the city by the inhabitants of Gibeah against the Levite's concubine, were to belong, as spoil, to the Israelites. (Deut. xx. 10– it is said, that they resolved not to return to their houses uill 15.) Secondly, in besieging a city they were not to commit they had fully avenged this insult (Judg. xx. 8.), and acunnecessary waste and depredations; for though they were cordingly, upon the tribe of Benjamin's refusing to deliver allowed to cut down barren trees of all sorts, to serve the up these men, an army was soon gathered together of four purposes of their approaches, yet they were obliged to spare hundred thousand men of war. (verse 17.) Nor was the prothe fruit trees, as being necessary to support the lives of the viding of their armies with necessaries any impediment to inhabitants in future times, when the little rancour, which these sudden levies ; for in the beginning of the Jewish was the occasion of their present hostilities, should be re- republic, their armies consisting altogether of infantry, every moved and done away. (Deut. xx. 19, 20.)

one served at their own expense, and ordinarily carried their The Israelites, in the beginning of their republic, appear own arms and provisions along with them. And thus we to have been a timorous and cowardly people; their spirits find that Jesse sent a supply of provisions by David to his were broken by their bondage in Egypt; and this base temper other three sons that were in Saul's camp (1 Sam. xvii. 13. soon appeared upon the approach of Pharaoh and his army, 17.), which gave David an opportunity of engaging Goliath ; before the Israelites passed through the Red Sea, which made and this was the ief reason why their wars in those days them murmur so much against Moses. (Exod. xiv. 10, 11, were ordinarily but of a short continuance, it being hardly pos12.) But in no instance was their cowardice more evident, sible that a large body could subsist long upon such provisions than when they heard the report of the spies concerning the as every one carried along with him. After the time of Soloinhabitants of the land, which threw them into a fit of mon, their armies became vastly numerous : we read that despair, and made them resolve to return into Egypt, not- Abijah king of Judah had an army of four hundred thousand withstanding all the miracles wrought for them by God. men, with which he fought Jeroboam king of Israel, who had (Num. xiv. 1–6.) It was on this account that David, who double that number (2 Chron. xiii. 3.), and it is said there was well acquainted with their disposition, says, that they got were five hundred thousand killed of Jeroboam's army. (yer. not the land in possession by their own sword, neither did their 17.) Asa king of Judah had an army of nearly six hundred own arm save them, but thy right hand and thine arm, and the thousand men, when he was attacked by Zerah the Ethiopian light of thy countenance, because thou hadst a favour unto with a host of a million of men. (2 Chron. xiv. 8, 9.) Jethem. (Psal. xliv. 3.)

hoshaphat king of Judah had eleven hundred and sixty thouAfter their departure from Egypt, the whole of the men, sand men, without reckoning the garrisons in his fortified from twenty years and upwards, until the age of fifty (when places. (2 Chron. xvii. 14–19.), they might demand their discharge if they chose), were lia- Various regulations were made by Moses concerning the ble to military service, the priests and Levites not excepted. Israelitish soldiers, which are characterized by equal wis(Num. i. 3. 22. 2 Sam. xxiii. 20. 1 Kings ii. 35.) Like the dom and humanity. Not to repeat what has already been militia in some countries, and the hardy mountaineers of Le noticed above, we may remark' that the following classes banon at this day,' they were always ready to assemble at of persons were wholly exempted from military service the shortest notice. If the occasion were extremely urgent, (Deut. xx. 5–8. xxiv. 5.); viz. affecting their existence as a people, all were summoned to 1. He, who had built a new house, and had not dedicated war; but ordinarily, when there was no necessity for con- it, was to return home, lest he should die in battle, and anvoking the whole of their forces, a selection was made. Thus other man dedicate it. From the title of Psal. xxx.- Psalm Joshua chose twelve thousand men, in order to attack the or Song at the dedication of the house of David,—it was evi. Amalekites (Exod. xvii. 9, 10.) : in the war with the Midi- dently a custom in Israel to dedicate a new house to Jehoanites, one thousand men were selected out of each tribe vah, with prayer, praise, and thanksgiving, in order that he (Num. xxxi. 4,5.), and in the rash assault upon the city of might obtain the divine blessing. ài, three thousand men were employed. (Josh. vii. 3, 4.) 2. Those who had planted a vine or olive yard, and who The book of Judges furnishes numerous instances of this had not yet eaten of its produce.

3. Every man who had betrothed a wife and had not taken 1 A recent learned traveller in the Joly Land, describing the present her home. It is well known, that among the Jews a consistate of Mount Lebanon, says, that, “ of the peasants, great numbers derable time sometimes elapsed between the espousal or bea soldier, and would in case of need muster as such : the gun which serves trothing of the parties and the celebration of a marriage. him for field-sport and sustenance is ready for the call of war; and his When the bridegroom had made proper preparations, the discipline consists in the bracing, hardy habits of a mountaineer." Rev. W. Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, p. 74. (London, 1825. 8vo.)

9 Dr. Adani's Roman Antiquities, pp. 362, 363. fifth edit.

carry arins.

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