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out in the open air, because it was “a time of much rain." In this month the Jews prayed for the rain, which they call The knowledge of this mode of dividing the year illustrates Jore, or the autumnal rain, which was very seasonable for their John X. 22, 23. and accounts for our Lord's walking in the seed. Genebrard pretends that they did not ask for this rain till portico of the temple at the feast of dedication, which was the next month. Perhaps there might be no stated time für celebrated towards the close of the same month.
asking for it; that might depend upon their want of it. The Further, the Jews divided their solar year into four parts, Jews say it was in October; and it was called in general the called by them Tekuphat (that is, revolutions of time), or autumnal rain, which season lasted three months. quarters, which they distinguished by the names of the months with which they commenced : thus, the vernal equi
3. CHISLEU, OR CASLEU. nox is termed Tekuphat Nisan ; the autumnal equinox, Tekupkat Tisri; the winter solstice, Tekuphat Tebeth ; and the The THIRD month of the civil year, the ninth month of the summer solstice, Tekuphat Thammuz. Some critics have ecclesiastical year ; it has thirty days, and corresponds with conjectured that our Lord refers to the intervening space of part of our November and December. four months, from the conclusion of seed-time to the com
1. The new moon. mencement of the harvest, in John iv. 35.
2 Prayers for rain. The following CALENDAR will present to the reader a view 3. A feast in memory of the idols which the Asmonæans threw out of of the entire Jewish Year. It is abridged from Father
6. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxxii. 3. to Gen. xxxvii. I. Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, with additions from the Calen- and the whole book of Obadiah, or from Hos. xii. 12 to the end of the dar printed by Calmet, at the end of his Dictionary of the book. Bible. In it are inserted the festivals and fasts celebrated Jeremiah, which Baruch had written. (Jer. xxxvi. 23.) This fast Dr. Pri
7. A fast, instituted because king Jehoiakim burned the prophecy of by the Jews; including not only those enacted by the law of deaux places on the 29th of this month. But Calmet places it on the sixth Moses, and which are described in a subsequent part of this of this month, and makes the seventh of this month a festival, in memory work, but likewise those which were not established untill of the death of Herod the Great, the son of Antipater. Scaliger will have
it that it was instituted on account of Zedekial's having his eyes put out, after the destruction of the temple, and those which are ob- after his children had been slain in his sight. served by the Jews to the present time. The lessons also 10. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxxvii. I. to Gen. xli. 1. and are introduced which they were accustomed to read in the from Amos ii. 6. to amos iii. 9.
17. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xli. I. to Gen. xliv. 18. and synagogues.-Those days, on which no festival or fast was from 1 Sam. jii. 15. to the end of the chapter. celebraied, are designedly omitted.
25. The dedication of the temple. This seast lasted eight days.
The lessons for this day were from Gen. xliv. 18. to Gen. xlvii. 27. and
from Ezek. xxxvii. 15. to the end of the chapter. 1. TISRI, FORMERLY CALLED ETHANIM.
4. THEBETH, OR TEBETH. The First month of the civil year, the seventh month of the The Fourth month of the civil year, the tentu month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with
ecclesiastical year; it has but twenty-nine days, and cor
responds with part of our December and January. part of our September and October.
1. The new moon. 1 Rosch Hase hana, the beginning of the civil year. The feast of trum
3. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xlvii. 27. to the end of the puts commanded in Leviticus. (Lev. xxiii. 24, 25. Num. xxix. 1. Jer. book, and the thirteen first verses of the second chapter of the first book
of Samuel. 3. The fast of Gedaliah; because Gedaliah, the son of Ahikam, and ali
8. A fast on account of the translation of the Bible into Greek. Philo, in the Jews that were with him, were slain at Mizpah. (2 Kings Xxv, 25.) his life of Moses, says, that the Jews of Alexandria celebrated a feast on This is the fast that Zechariah calls the fast of the seventh month. (Zech. this day, in memory of the 72 Interpreters. But the Jews at present abo. wu. 19.)
minate that version. 5. A fast. Twenty Israelites were killed: Rabbi Akiba, the son of Jo.
9. A fast, the reason of which is not mentioned by the Rabbins. seph, was loaded with irons, and died in prison 1 A fast, appointed on account of the golden calf. (Exod. xxxii. 6, 7, 8.) salem. (2 Kings xxv.)
10. A fast on account of the siege which the king of Babylon laid to Jeru. The lessons for this day were from Deut. xxvi. I. to Deut. xxix. and the
11. The lessons were the first five chapters of Exodus, and with them lath chapter of Isaiah.
froin Isa. xxvii. 6. to Isa, xxvii. 14. or else from Jer. i. 1. to Jer, ij. 4. 10. The last of expiation. (Lev. xxiii. 27.) 14 The lessons for this day were from Deut. xxix. 10. to Deut. xxxi. 1. from Ezek. xxviii. 25. to Ezek xxx. I.
17. The lessons for this day were from Exod. vi. 1. to Exod. x. 1. and when the year had most Sabbaths; and when fewest, the book was finished
25. The lessons for this day were from Exod. x. 1. to Exod xiii. 17. and ca this day. And from Isa. lxi. I to Isa. Ixiii. 10.
from Jer. xlvi. 13. to the end of the chapter. 15. The feast of tabernacles. (Lev. xxiii. 34, 35.) it lasted seven days, 2. A fast in memory of Rabbi Simeon's having driven the Sadducees exclusive of the octave or eighth day.
out of the Sanhedrin, where they had the upper hand in the time of Alex. 21. Hosanna Rabba, the seventh day of the seast of tabernacles; or the ander Jannæus; and his having introduced the Pharisees in their room. feast of branches.
The lessons for this day were from Gen. i. 1. to Gen. vi. 9. and from Isa. xl 5 to Isa. xlii. 11.
5. SEBAT, SHEVET, OR SHEBAT. 22 The octave of the feast of tabernacles. (Lev. xxiii. 36.) 2. The solemnity of the law, in memory of the covenant and death of The Fifth month of the civil year, the ELEVENTH month of the
Os tbis day Sobmon's dedication was finished. (1 Kings viii. 65.) ecclesiastical year ; it has thirty days, and corresponds with
The lessons were from Gen. vi. 9. to Gen. xii, 1. and from Isa. liv. 1. to Isa lv. 5.
part of our January and February, D. On mis day the lessons were from Gen. xii. 1. to Gen. xviii. 1. and
1. The new moon. In this month the Jews began to reckon the years fron la il. 27. to Isa. xli. 17. (This day is the fast held in commemoration of the murder of Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar inade governor or they had been planted ihree years. Calmet fixes the beginning of this
of the trees which they planted, whose fruit was not to be eaten till after Judæa, after he had destroyed Jerusalem, according to Dr. Prideaux.
year of trees to the 15th day of this month.
2. A rejoicing for the death of Alexander Jannæus. 2. MARCHESVAN
3. Now is read from Exod. xiii. 17. to Exod. xviii. 1. and from Judg. iv. 4.
to Judg. vi. 1. The second month of the civil year, the EIGHTH month of the A fast in memory of the death of the elders who succeeded Joshua. ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and cor- (Judg. 11. 10.)
8. A fast, because on this day died the just men who lived in the days of responds with part of our October and November.
Joshua. (Judg. ii. 10.)
10. The lessons were from Exod. xviii. 1. to Exod. xxl. 1. and the whole 1. The new moon (Calmet observes, in the Jewish Calendar, at the end sixth chapter of Isaiah. of bis Dietionary of the Bible, that the Jews always made two new moons 17. The lessons for this day were from Exod. xxi. 1. to Exod. xxv. I. and for every rooth; the first of which was the last day of the preceding Jer. xxxiv. from ver. 8. to the end of the chapter. booth; and the first day of the month was the second new moon or that
23. A fast in memory of the insurrection o1 the other tribes against that Donth.)
of Benjamin, on account of the death of the Levite's wise. (Judg. xx.) 2. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xviii. 1. to Gen. xxiii. 1. and
26. Now is read, from Exod. xxv. 1. to Exod. xxvii. 20. and from 1 Sam, v, from 2 Sam. iv. 1. to 2 Sam. iv. 38.
12. to 1 Sam. vi. 14. 6. A fast, appointed on account of Zedekiah's having his eyes put out by the cornrnand of Nebuchadnezzar, after he had seen his children slain be from the 10th verse to the end of the chapter.
29. Now is read, from Exod. xxvii. 20. to Exod. xxx. 11. and Ezek, xliii. fore his face. (2 Kings xxv. 7. Jer. lii. 10.)
The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxiii. I. to Gen. xxv. 19. and from 1 Sam. i I. to 1 Sam. 1. 32.
6. ADAR, 15. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxv. 19. to Gen. xxviii. 10. and frora Mal. 1. 1. to Mal. ii. 8.
The sixth month of the civil year, the TWELFTH month of the 19. Past to expiate the crines committed on account of the feast of ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and cortabernacles. 23. A fast in memory of the stones of the altar which the Gentiles pro
responds with part of our February and March. faned. I Mac. iv. 46. The lessons for this day were from Gen. xxviii. 10. to Gen. xxxii. 3. and
1. The new moon. Genebrard places the first-fruits on this day. from Hos xi. 7. to Hos. xiv. 3.
3. The lessons for this day were from Exod. xxx. 11. to Exod. xxxv. I. and
from 1 Sam. xviii. 1. to 1 Sam. xviii. 39. 5. A fast in memory of some places which the Cuthans seized, and were recovered by the Israelites after the captivity.
7. A fase on account of the death of Moses, the lawgiver of the Jews.
(Deut. xxxiv. 5, 6.) Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. i. p. 155. et seq. - Prideanr's Connec!ion, part i. book i. under the year 588.
3 Connection, part i. book i. under the year 685.
9. A fast. The schools of Schammai and Hillel began to be divided on
10. THAMMUZ, OR TAMMUZ. this day.
12. The lessons are from Exod. xxxv. 1. to Exod. xxxviii. 21. and from The TENTA month of the civil year, the fourth month of the 1 Sam. xvii. 13. to 1 Sam. xvii. 26. (This day is also a feast in memory of the death of Hollianus and Pípus, two proselytes and brothers, who chose
ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and corrather to die than violate the law.)i
responds with part of our June and July. 13. A festival on account of the death of Nicanor. (2 Macc. xv. 37.) Genebrard places the fast of Esther (Esth. iv. 16.) on this day.
1. The new moon. 14. Purim the first, or the Little Feast of Lots.
3. The lessons were from Num. xiii. 1. to Num. xvi. 1. and the 2d chap. 15. Purim the second, or the Great Feast or Lots. (Esth. ix. 18.) An ac.
ter of Joshua. count of these festivals is given in a subsequent part of this volúme.
10. The lessons were from Num. xvi. 1. to Num. xix. i. and from 1 Sam. The dedication of the temple of Zorobabel (Ezra vi. 16.) was made in this xi. 14. to 1 Sam. xii. 23. inonth, but the day is not known.
14. A feast for the abolition of a pernicious book of the Sadducees against 18. Now is read from Exod. xxxviii. 21. to the end of the book; and from the oral law and tradition. 1 Sam. vii. 50, to 1 Sam. viii. 21.
17. The fast of the fourth month, because the tables of the law were 20. A fast in memory of the rain obtained of God, by one Onias Ham- broken, the perpetual sacrifice ceased, Epistemon burned the law, and set magel, in a time of great dearth.
up an idol in the temple 9 (Exod. xxxii. 19.) 25. The lessons were the first five chapters of Leviticus, and from Isa. 19. The lessons were from Num. xix. 1. to Num. xxij. 2. and the 11th xliii. 21. to Isa. xliv. 24.
chapter of Judges to the 31th verse. 28. A feast. The Grecian edict, which forbade the Jews the use of cir- 26. The lessons were fronu Num. xxii. 2. to Num. xxv. 10. and from Mic. cumcision, recalled.
v. 7. to Mic. vi. 9. The intercalary month was inserted here, when the year was to consist 29. The lessons were from Num. xxxv. 10. to Num. XX. 2. and from 1 Sam. of thirteen lunar months; and the month so added was called Ve-Adar, that xviii. 46. to the end of the chapter. is, the second Adar.
11. AB. 7. ABIB, OR NISAN.
The ELEVENTH month of the civil year, the Fifth month of the The SEVENTH month of the civil year, the FIRST month of the ecclesiastical year; it has thirty days, and corresponds with
ecclesiastical year ; it has thirty days, and corresponds with part of our July and August. part of our March and April.
1. The new moon. A fast on account of the death of Aaron the high1. The new moon. A fast on account of the death of the children of priest. (Num. xxxiii. 38.) Aaron. (Lev. x. 1.)
3. The lessons were from Num. Xxx. 2. to Num. xxxiji. 1. and from 3. The lessons were from Lev. vi. 1. to Lev. ix. 1. and from Jer. vii, 21. Jer. i. 1. to Jer. ii. 4. to Jer, viii. 4.
9. The fast of the fifth month, because the temple was first burnt by the 10. A fast on account of the death of Miriam. (Num. xx. 1.) On this day Chaldees, and afterwards by the Romans, on this day; and because God every one provided himself with a lamb against the 14th.
on this day declared in the time of Moses that none of those who came 12 The lessons were from Lev. ix. 1. to Lev. xii. 1. and from 2 Sam, vi. 1. out of Egypt should enter into the land of promise. (Num. xiv. 29. 31.) to 2 Sam. vii. 17.
12. The book of Numbers is now finished; and from Jer. ii. 4. to Jer. 14. The passover. The Jews now burn all the leavened bread they have ii. 29. is also read. in their houses.
18. A fast, because in the time of Ahaz the evening lamp went out. Ge15. The feast of unleavened bread.
nebrand calls this lamp the Western Lamp. 16. The morrow after the feast of the passover. On this second day the 20. Deuteronomy is begun, and read from i. 1. to iii. 23. and the lst chapJews offered up to God the Omer, that is, the sheaf of the new barley ter of Isaiah to verse 28. harvest, which was cut and carried into the temple with much ceremony. 21. Selden asserts that this was the day that all the wood which was The fifty days of pentecost were reckoned from this day.
wanted in the temple was brought into it; but others think that this was 19. The lessons were from Lev. xii. 1. to Lev. xiv. I. and from 2 Sam. iv. done in the next month. 42. to 2 Sam. v. 20.
24. A feast for the Maccabees having abolished that law of the Sadducees 2. The last day of the feast of unleavened bread.
whereby sons and daughters inherited alike. 26. A fast for the death of Joshua. (Josh. xxiv. 29.)
28. The lessons were from Deut. iii. 23. to Deut. vii. 12. and Isa. xl. to 27. The lessons were from Lev. xiv. 1. to Lev. xvi. 1. and 2 Sam. vii. 3. verse 27. to the end of the chapter. 29. Genebrard observes, that the Jews in this month prayed for the
12. ELUL. , or rain (Deut. xi. 14. Zech. X. 1.) This is that rain which the Hebrews call The TWELFTH month of the civil year, the sixth month of Malkosh, that is, the rain which prepares for the harvest, and makes the the ecclesiastical year ; it has but twenty-nine days, and grain swell.
corresponds with part of our August and September. 8. JYAR, OR ZIF.
1. The new moon. The EIGHTH month of the civil year, the SECOND month of the
3. The lessons were from Deut. vii. 12. to Deut. xi. 26. and from Isa. xlix.
14. to Isa. li. 4. ecclesiastical year; it has only twenty-nine days, and cor- 7. The dedication of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah. responds with part of our April and May.
12. The lessons were from Deut. xi. 27. to Deut. xvi. 18. and from Isa.
liv. 11. to Isa. Iv. 4. 1. The new moon.
17. A fast, because of the death of the spies who brought up the evil 3. The lessons were from Lev. xvi. 1. to Lev. xix. 1. and 17 verses of report of the land of proinise. (Num. xiv. 36, 37.) Ezek. xxii.
20. The lessons were from Deut. xvi. 18. to Deut. xxi. 10. and from Isa. 10. A fast for the death of Eli, and the taking of the ark. (1 Sam. iv. 18.) li. 12. to Isa. lii. 18.
11. The lessons were from Lev. xix. 1. to Lev. xx. 1. and from Amos ix. 7. 21. The festival of wood offering (Tylophoria). to the end; or else frorn Ezek. xx. 2. to Ezek. xxi. 21.
22. A fast in memory of the punishment of the wicked and incorrigible 14. The second passover (Num. ix. 10, 11.) in favour of those who could Israelites. not, or were not suffered to celebrate the passover the last month.
28. The lessons were from Deut. xxi, 10. to Deut. xxvi. 1. and Isa. liv. to 19. The lessons were from Lev. xxi. 1. to Lev. xxv. 1. and from Ezek. iv.
verse 11. 15. to the end of the chapter.
29. This is the last day of the month, on which the Jews reckoned up 23. A feast. Simon takes Gaza, according to Scaliger.
the beasts that had been born, the tenth of which belonged to God. 26. The lessons were from Lev. xxv. 1. to Lev. xxvi. 3. and from Jer. They chose this day on which
to do it, because the first day of the month xxxii. 6. to Jer. xxxii. 28.
Tisri was a festival, and therefore they could not tilhe a flock on that day. 28. A fast for the death of Samuel, who was lamented by all the people. (1 Sam. xxv. 1.) 9. SIVAN, OR SIUVAN.
VI. In common with other nations, the Jews reckoned any The ninth month of the civil year, the THIRD month of the part of a period of time for the whole, as in Exod. xvi. 35.
ecclesiastical year'; it has thirty days, and corresponds with An attention to this circumstance will explain several appapart of our May and June.
rent contradictions in the Sacred Writings: thus, a part of
the day is used for the whole, and part of the year 1. The new moon.
3. The lessons were from Lev. xxvi. 3. to the end of the book, and from Jer. xvi. 19. to Jer. xvii. 15.
In Gen. xvii. 12. circumsion is enjoined to be performed 6. The feast of pentecost, which is also called the feast of weeks, be. when a child is eight days old, but in Lev. xii. 3. on the cause it fell just seven weeks after the morrow after the feast of the eighth day; accordingly, when Jesus Christ is said to have passover.
10. Numbers is begun and read to ch. iv. ver. 21. and from Hosea ii. 10. been circumcised when eight days were accomplished (Luke ii. to Hosea ii. 21. 13. A feast in memory of the victories of the Maccabees over the Bath. the last, which was the constant usage, explains the former
21.), and John the Baptist on the eighth day (Luke i. 59.), surites, 1 Macc. v. 52. 17. A feast for the taking of Cæsarea by the Asmonæans.
passage. Abenezra, an eminent Jewish commentator (on 19. The lessons were from Num. iv. 21. to Num. viii. 1. and from Judg. ii. Lev. xii. 3.), says, that if an infant were born in the last
23. A fast, because Jeroboam forbad the ten tribes, which obeyed him, hour of the day, such hour was counted for one whole day. to carry up their first-fruits to Jerusalem. (1 Kings xii. 27.)
This observation critically reconciles the account of our 25. A fast, on account of the murder of the rabbins, Simon the son of Lord's resurrection in Matt. xxvii. 63. and Mark viii. 31., Gamaliel, Ishmael the son of Elisha, and Ananias the Sagan, that is, the high-priest's vicar.
“ three days after," with that of his resurrection " on the third 26. The lessons were from Num. viii. to Num. xiii. 1. and from Zech. ii. day,” according to Matt. xvi. 21. Luke ix. 22., and accord. 10. to Zech. iv. 6. 27. A fast, because Rabbi Hanina, the son of Tardion, was buint, and about the sixth hour, or noon, the remainder of that day to
ing to fact; for, as our Lord was crucified on Good Friday, with him the book of the law.
Selden. I. iii. c. 13. de Byned. ex Megill. Taanith. Calmet's Calend,
? See Prideaux's Con. p. i. b. 1, under the year 588.
sunset, according to the Jewish computation, was reckoned | would be reckoned not merely one year old, but also in their as one day. Saturday, it is universally admitted, formed the second year, as the expression implies; and those born since second day; and as the third day began on Saturday at sun- the beginning of the year, would be well described by the set, and our Saviour rose about sunrise on the following phrase • and under,' that is, under one year old;—some, two morning, that part of a day is justly reckoned for the third years old, though not born a complete twelvemonth (perhaps, day; so that the interval was " three days and three nights,” in fact, barely six months); others, under one year old, yet or three calendar days current, not exceeding 42 hours, and, born three, four, or five months, and, therefore, a trifle consequently, not two entire days.? This observation also younger than those before described : according to the time illustrates 2 Chron. x. 5. 12. : and the same mode of com- which Herod had diligently inquired of the wise men, in puting time obtains in the East, to this day.
their second year and under."3 In like manner, in some parts of the East, the year ending VII. Besides the computation of years, the Hebrews first on a certain day, any portion of the foregoing year is taken and the Jews afterwards, were accustomed to reckon their for a whole year; so that
, supposing a child to be born in time from some REMARKABLE Æras or epochas. Thus, 1. the last week of our December, it would be reckoned one From Gen. vii. 11. and viii. 13., it appears that they reckyear old on the first day of January, because born in the old oned from the lives of the patriarchs or other illustrious peryear. If this mode of computation obtained among the He- sons: 2. From their departure out of Egypt, and the first brews, the principle of it easily accounts for those anachron- institution of their polity (Exod. xix. 1. xl. 17. Num. i. 1. isms of single years, or parts of years taken for whole ones, ix. 1. xxxiii. 38. 1 Kings vi. 1.): 3. Afterwards, from the which occur in sacred writ: it obviates the difficulties which building of the temple (1 Kings ix. 10. 2 Chron. viii. 1.), concern the half years of several princes of Judah and Israel, and from the reigns of the kings of Judah and Israel : 4. in which the latter half of the deceased king's last year has Then from the commencement of the Babylonian captivity hitherto been supposed to be added to the former half of his (Ezek. i. 1. xxxiii. 21. xl. 1.); and, perhaps, also from successor's first year.
their return from captivity, and the dedication of the second * We are told” (1 Sam. xiii. 1. marg. reading), “ a son temple. In process of time they adopted, 5. The Æra of of one year was Saul in his kingdom: and two years he the Seleucida, which in the books of Maccabees is called reigned over Israel,” that is, say he was crowned in June : the Æra of the Greeks, and the Alexandrian Æra: it began he was consequently one year old on the first of January from the year when Seleucus Nicanor attained the sovereign following, though he had only reigned six months,—the son power, that is, about 312 years before the birth of Jesus of a year. But, after this so following first of January he Christ. This æra the Jews continued to employ for upwards was in the second year of his reign; though, according to of thirteen hundred years.4 6. They were further accustomed our computation, the first year of his reign wanted some to reckon their years from the years when their princes began months of being completed ; in this, his second year, he chose to reign. Thus, in 1 Kings xv. 1. Isa. xxxvi. 1. and Jer. i. three thousand military, &c. guards.
2, 3., we have traces of their anciently computing according ** The phrase (ato dietns) used to denote the age of the to the years of their kings; and in later times (1 Macc. xiii. infants slaughtered at Bethlehem (Matt. ii. 16.) from two 42. xiv. 27), according to the years of the Asmonaan princes. years old and under,' is a difficulty that has been deeply felt of this mode of computation we have vestiges in Matt. by the learned. Some infants two weeks old, some two months, ii. 1. Luke i. 5. and iii. 1. Lastly, ever since the compilaothers two years, equally slain! Surely those born so long tion of the Talmud, the Jews have reckoned their years from before could not possibly be included in the order, whose the creation of the world. purpose was to destroy a child, certainly born within a few
• Calmet's Dictionary, 4to. edit. vol. ij. Supplementary Addenda. months. This is regulated at once by the idea that they • There are in fact two dates assigned to the æra of the Seleucidæ in the were all of nearly equal age, being recently born; some not two books of Maccabees. As Seleucus did not obtain permanent possession long before the close of the old year, others a little time since of the city of Babylon (which had been retaken from him by Demetrius, the beginning of the new year. Now, those born before the surnamed Poliorcétes, or the vanquisher of cities) until the spring of the
year 311 before Christ, the Babylonians fixed the commencement of this close of the old year, though only a few months or weeks, era in the latter year. “The first book of Maccabees computes the years
from April, B. C. 311, as Michaelis has shown in his note on I Macc. x 21. ;
while the second book dates from October, B. c. 312.; consequently, there 1 Dr. Hales, to whom we are partly indebted for the above remark, has is often the difference of a year in the chronology of these books. cred several passages from profane authors, who have used a similar pare 2 Macc. xi. 21. with 1 Macc. vj. 16., and 2 Macc. xiii. I. with 1 Macc. plirase ology. (Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 121, 122.) Similar illustra: vi. 20.). This æra continued in general use among the orientals, with the Lions from rabbinical writers are collected by Bp: Beveridge (on the 39 exception of the Mohammedans, who employed it together with their own Articles, in Art. IV. Works, vol. ix. p. 159. note ), by Dr. Lightfoot (Hor. æra from the flight of Mohammed, B. c. 622. The Jews had no other epoch Heb.io Matt. xii. 40.), and by Reland. (Antiq. Heb. lib. iv. c. I.)
until A. D. 1040; when, being expelled from Asia by the caliphs, and scat. Shortly before the philanthropic Mr. Howard arrived at Constantinople, tered about in Spain, England, Germany, Poland, and other western coun. the grand chamberlain of the city (whose province it was to supply the in- tries, they began to date from the creation, though still without entirely habitants with bread) had been beheaded in a summary way, in the public dropping the æra of the Seleucidæ. The orientals denominate this epoch street, for having furnished, or permitted to be furnished, loaves short of the era of the tico-horned; by which it is generally supposed they mean weight; and his body was exposed for a day and a half, with three light Alexander the Great. But perhaps the name had primary reference to loares beside it to denote his crime. "When Mr. Howard was told that Seleucus; for on some coins he is represented with two horns. See Froethe boiy had lain there for three days, he expressed his surprise that it lich, Annales Syriæ, Tab. ii. Seleuc. Nic. 1. et Tab. iii. 29."—(Jahn's His. has not bred a contagion. He learnt, however, that in point of fact it had tory of the Hebrew Commonwealth, vol. i. pp. 249, 250.) De been left so long, as they were not entire days: for, it being the even- Reland, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 203-215. Schulzii Compendium Archæoloing when the head was struck off, it remained the whole of the second, and giæ Hebraicæ, lib. i. c. 11. pp. 94—107. Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, book was removed early in the succeeding morning, which was accounted the i. ch. 5. vol. i. pp. 138—154. Calmet's Dictionary, articles Day, Week, tird; thus" (as Mr. H.'s biographer very properly remarks) "the manner Month, Year. Jahn, et Ackermann, Archæologia Biblica, &$ 101-103. Jen. of computation, in use at the time of our Saviour's crucifixion and burial, ning's Jewish Antiquities, book iii. ch. 1. See also Waehner's Antiquitates soll subsists among the eastern nations." (Brown's Life of John Howard, Hebræorum, part ii. p: 5. et seq. Pritii Introd. in Nov. Test. pp. 566-575.; Esq. pp. 437, 438. 8vo. edit.)
Parcau, Antiquitas Hebraica, pp. 310–318,
ON THE TRIBUTE AND TAXES MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.
I. Annual Payments made by the Jews for the support of their Sacred Worship.-II. Tributes paid to their own Sovereigns.
III. Tributes and Customs paid by them to foreign Powers.--Notice of the Money-changers.-IV. Account of the Publicans or Tar-gatherers.
As no government can be supported without great charge, (Luke ii. 1--5.): and afterwards, when Judæa was reduced it is but just that every one who enjoys his share of protec. into a Roman province, on the dethronement and banishment tion from it, should contribute towards it maintenance and of his son Archeläus, the Romans imposed on the Jews not support.
only the annual capitation tax of a denarius (pepes), but also 1. On the first departure of the Israelites from Egypt, be- 'a tax on goods imported or exported (792cs), and various fore any regulation was made, the people contributed, on any other taxes and burthens. To this capitation tax the evangeextraordinary occasion, according to their ability, as in the lists allude in Matt. xxii. 17. and Mark xii. 14. where it is case of the voluntary donations for the tabernacle, (Exod. termed veulouer unvocu (numisma censsús), or the tribute money ; xxv. 2. xxxv. 5.) After the tabernacle was erected, a pay- and as this tax appears from Matt. xxii. 20, 21. to have been ment of half a shekel was made by every male of twenty paid in Roman coin, the Jews paid it with great reluctance; years of age and upwards (Exod. xxx. 13, 14.), when the and raised various insurrections on account of it. Among census, or sum of the children of Israel, was taken: and on these malcontents, Judas, surnamed the Gaulonite or Galithe return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity, an læan, distinguished himself: he pretended that it was not annual payment of the third part of a shekel was made, for lawful to pay tribute to a foreigner; that it was the badge of the maintenance of the temple-worship and service. (Neh. actual servitude, and that they were not allowed to own any x. 32.) Subsequently, the enactment of Moses was deemed for their master who did not worship the Lord. These sentito be of perpetual obligation, and in the time of our Saviour ments animated the Pharisees, who came to Christ with the two drachmæ, or half a shekel, were paid by every Jew, insidious design of ensnaring him by the question, whether whether native or residing in foreign countries : besides it was lawful to pay tribute to Cæsar or not? Which queswhich, every one, who was so disposed, made voluntary tion he answered with equal wisdom and regard for the offerings, according to his ability. (Mark xii, 41–44.) Roman government. (Matt. xxii, 17—21.) With these senHence vast quantities of gold were annually brought to timents the Jews continued to be animated long after the Jerusalem into the temple, where there was an apartment ascension of Jesus Christ; and it should seem that some of called the Treasury (racoquaexcr), specially appropriated to the first Hebrew Christians had imbibed their principles. their reception. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Vespa- In opposition to which, the apostle Paul and Peter in their sian, by an edict, commanded that the half shekel should in inimitable epistles strenuously recommend and inculcate on future be brought by the Jews, wherever they were, into the all sincere believers in Jesus Christ, the duties of submiscapitol.5 In addition to the preceding payments for the sup- sion and obedience to princes, and a conscientious disport of their sacred worship, we may notice the first-fruits charge of their duty, in paying tribute. (Rom. xiii. 7. 1 Pet. and tenths, of which an account is found in Part III. chap. ii. 13.) iv. infra.
To supply the Jews who came to Jerusalem from all parts II. Several of the Canaanitish tribes were tributary to the of the Roman empire to pay the half-shekel with coins cur. Israelites even from the time of Joshua (Josh. xvi. 10. xvii. rent there, the money-changers (xonavessous), stationed them13. Judg. i. 28. 33.) whence they could not but derive con- selves at tables, in the courts of the temple, and chiefly, it siderable wealth. The Moabites and Syrians were tributary should seem, in the court of the Gentiles, for which they to David (2 Sam. viii. 2. 6.): and Solomon at the beginning exacted a small fee, kolbon (xona.ubos). It was the tables on of his reign compelled thé Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, which these men trafficked for this unholy gain, which were Hivites, and Jebusites, who were left in the country, to pay overturned by Jesus Christ. (Matt. xxi. 12.)? him tribute, and to perform the drudgery of the public works The money-changers (called Tplikttas in Matt. xxi. 12. which he had undertaken, and from which the children of and xspustiso in John ii. 14.) were also those who made a Israel were exempted. (1 Kings ix. 21, 22. 33. 2 Chron. viii. profit by exchanging money. They supplied the Jews, who 9.) But towards the end of his reign he imposed a tribute came from distant parts of Judæa and other parts of the Roon them also (1 Kings v. 13, 14. ix. 15. xi. 27.), which man empire, with money, to be received back at their alienated their minds, and sowed the seeds of that discontent, respective homes, or which, perhaps, they had paid before which afterwards ripened into open revolt by the rebellion of they commenced their journey. It is likewise probable that Jeroboam the son of Nebat.
they exchanged foreign coins for such as were current at III. Afterwards, however, the Israelites, being subdued by Jerusalem. other nations, were themselves compelled to pay tribute to IV. Among the Romans, the censors let their taxes by their conquerors. Thus Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, public auction ; and those who farmed them were called imposed a tribute of one hundred talents of silver and a Publicani, or PUBLICANS. These farmers-general were talent of gold. (2 Kings xxiii. 33. 35.) After their return usually Roman knights, who had under them inferior col. from captivity, the Jews paid tribute to the Persians, under lectors: Josephus has made mention of several Jews who whose government they were (Ezra iv. 13.), then to the were Roman knights, whence Dr. Lardner thinks it probaGreeks, from which, however, they were exonerated, when ble that they had merited the equestrian rank by their good under the Maccabees they had regained their liberty. In services in collecting some part of the revenue. The collater times, when they were conquered by the Roman arms tectors of these tributes were known by the general name of under Pompey, they were again subjected to the payment of Tecoves, that is, tax-gatherers, in our authorized version rentribute, even though their princes enjoyed the honours and dered PublicÁNS. Some of them appear to have been redignities of royalty, as was the case with Herod the Great ceivers-general for a large district, as Zaccheus, who is styled
a chief publican (ApXiten cvns), Matthew, who is termed sim· The materials of this chapter, where other authorities are not cited, ply a publican (Tenevns), was one who sat at the receipt of are derived from Schulz's Archæologia Hebraica, c. 13. de vectigalibus et custom where the duty was paid on imports and exports. tributis, and Pareau's Antiquitas llebraica, part iii. sect. ii. c. 5. de tributis (Matt. ix. 9. Luke v. 29. Mark ii. 14.) 'These officers, at et vectigalibus. 9 Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. vii. c. 6. $6. Philonis Judæi Opera, tom. ii.
• Grotius, Hammond, and Whitby, on Matt. xxi. 12. Dr. Lightfoot's : A singular law was in force in the time of Jesus Christ, prohibit. Works, vol. ii. p. 225. in Ceylon," Moormen, whose business it is to give ing one mite (7.57 TON) from being cast into the treasury. The poor cash for notes, may be seen sitting in public places, with heaps of coin widow, therefore, who in Mark xii. 42. is said to have casi in two mites, before them. On observing a person with a note, or in want of their ser. gave the smallest sum permitted by the law. Schoetgen, Horæ Hebraicæ, vices, they earnestly solicit his attention." Callaway's Oriental Observavol. i. p. 250. Townsend's Harinony of the New Testament, vol. 1. p. 114. tions, p. 68.
Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiv. c. 1.52 Cicero, Orat. pro Flacco, c. 28. • Cicero, in Verrem, lib. iii. c. 72. Orat. pro Planco, c. 9. De Petitione Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. vii. c. 6. $ 6.
Consulatus, c. 1. Tacit. Annal. lib. iv. c. 6. Adam's Roman Antiquities, • 1 Macc. x. 29, 30. xi. 35, 36. xv. 5. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xiii. c. 2 pp. 25. 60. 3. c. 4. $ 9. c. 6. $6.
o De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 14. $ 9.
least the inferior ones (like the rahdars, or toll-gatherers, in , often expressed by the Jews in the evangelical histories modern Persia,' and the mirigees, or collectors of customs, in against the collectors of the taxes or tribute.3 Asia Minor,? were generally rapacious, extorting more than The parable of the Pharisee and the Publican (Luke xviii. the legal tribute ; whence they were reckoned infamous 10—13.) will derive considerable illustration from these ciramong the Greeks, and various passages in the Gospels show cumstances. Our Saviour, in bringing these two characters how odious they were to the Jews (Mark ii. 15, 16. Luke together, appears to have chosen them as making the strongest iii. 13.), insomach that the Pharisees would hold no com- contrast between what, in the public estimation, were the munication whatever with them, and imputed it to our Saviour extremes of excellence and villany. The Pharisees, it is as a crime that he sat at meat with publicans. (Matt. ix. 10, 11. well known, were the most powerful sect among the Jews, xi. 19. xxi. 31, 32.) The payment of taxes to the Romans was and made great pretences to piety: and when the account of accounted by the Jews an intolerable grievance: hence those the Persian rahdars, given in the preceding page, is recolwho assisted in collecting them were detested as plunderers lected, it will account for the Pharisee, in addressing God, in the cause of the Romans, as betrayers of the liberties of having made extortioners, and the unjust, almost synonymous their country, and as abettors of those who had enslaved it; terms with publicans; because, from his peculiar office, the this circumstance will account for the contempt and hatred so rahdar is almost an extortioner by profession.
ON THE GENEALOGICAL TABLES OF THE HEBREWS, AND PUBLIC MEMORIALS OF EVENTS.
I. On the Genealogical Tables of the Hebrews.-II. Public Memorials of Events. 1. The Hebrews were very careful in preserving their and Babylon, or in any other place whithersoever their priests GENEALOGIES, or the history of the successions of families. were carried, were careful to preserve their genealogies. Vestiges of these histories of families appear in Gen. v. and Such priests after the captivity as could not produce their X. In proportion as the Hebrews increased in numbers dur- genealogies were excluded from the sacerdotal office. Hence, ing their residence in Egypt, it became an object of growing when in Heb. vii. 3. Melchizedek is said to have been with importance carefully to preserve the genealogical tables of out descent (igevecenegntos, that is, without genealogy), the meanthe whole nation, in order that each tribe might be kept per- ing is, that his name was not found in the public genealogical feetly distinct. The charge of these genealogies was, most registers : his father and mother, and ancestors were unknown, probably, confided, in the first instance, to the shoterim, or whence his priesthood was of a different kind, and to be reseribes, of whom a short account is given in p. 42. supra, and garded differently from that of Aaron and his sons. afterwards to the Levites; at least in the time of the kings, From similar public registers Mathew and Luke derived we find that the scribes were generally taken from the tribe the genealogies of our Saviour; the former of which, from of Levi. (1 Chron. xxiii
. 4. 2 Chron. xix. 8–11. xxxiv. 13.) Abraham to Jesus Christ, embraces a period of nearly two ** This was a very rational procedure, as the Levites devoted thousand years, while the genealogy of Luke, from Adam to themselves particularly to study; and, among husbandmen Christ, comprises a period of about four thousand years. It and unlearned people, few were likely to be so expert in is well known that the Jews carried their fondness for writing, as to be intrusted with keeping registers so impor- genealogies to great excess, and prided themselves on tracing tant. In later times the genealogical tables were kept in the their pedigrees up to Abraham. Jerome says that they were temple."'s
as well acquainted with genealogies from Adam to ZerubWhatever injury the public genealogies might have sus-babel as they were with their own names.? Against such tained in consequence of the Babylonish captivity, it was re- unprofitable genealogies Paul cautions Timothy (i Tim. i. 4.) paired on the restoration of the Jewish polity, as far at least and Titus. (iii. 9.) Since the total dispersion of the Jews in as was practicable. (Ezra ii. viii. 1-14. Neh. vii. xii.) the reign of Adrián, the Jews have utterly lost their ancient Hence it is, that a very considerable portion of the first book genealogies. of Chronicles is composed of genealogical tables: the com- In exhibiting genealogical tables with any specific design, parison of which, as well as of the genealogy recorded in some of the sacred writers, for the sake of brevity, omitted Gen. v. with the tables in Matt. i. and Luke iii. will contri- names which were of less importance, and distributed the bute materially to show the fulfilment of the prophecies re- genealogies into certain equal classes. Examples of this lative to the advent of the Messiah. Josephus states that the kind occur in Exod. vi. 14—24. 1 Chron. vi. 12–15. comJews had an uninterrupted succession of their high-priests pared with Ezra i. 5. and in Matt. i. 17. The Arabs have preserved in their records for the space of nearly two thou- not unfrequently taken a similar liberty in their genealogies.8 sand years; and that the priests in Judæa, and even in Egypt II. From the remotest ages, mankind have been desirous
of perpetuating the memory of remarkable events, not only : The randars, or toll-gatherers, are appointed to levy a toll upon for their own benefit, but also in order to transmit them to with so much brutality and extortion, as to be execrated by all travellers. posterity; and in proportion to the antiquity of such events Tre puslice of the highways is confident to them, and whenever any goods has been the simplicity of the Public Memorials employed are stolen, they are ineant to be the instruments of restitution ; but when to preserve the remembrance of them. When, therefore, any they are put to the test, are found to be inefficient. None but a man, in remarkable event befell the patriarchs, they raised either a w are farine, consequently extortion ensues; and as most of the rabdars rude stone or a heap of stones in the very place where such receive no other emolument than what they can exact over and above the event had happened. (Gen. xxviii. 18. xxxi. 45, 46.) Somepras ribed dnes from the traveller, their insolence is accounted for on the times, also, they gave names to places importing the nature are tant, and the detestation in which they are held on the other.” | of the transactions which had taken place (Gen. xvi. 14. xxi. Morier's second Journey, p. 70.
2 st Smyrna the mirigee sits in the house allotted to him, as Matthew sat 31. xxii. 14. xxviii. 19. xxxi. 47–49.); and symbolical names at the receipt of custom (or in the customn-house of Capernaum); "and receives the money which is due from various persons and cominodities,
were sometimes given by them to individuals. (Gen. xxv. entering into the city. The exactions and rude behaviour of these men 26. 30.) To this usage the Almighty is represented as vouchsays Mr. Hanley, who experienced both are just in character with the safing to accommodate himself, in Gen. xvii. 5. 15. and conduct of the publicans uientioned in the New Testament.”.... When men
xxxii. 28, 29. ale guilty of such conduct as this, no wonder that they were detested in anxiant times, as were the publicans; and in modern times, as are the Conformably to this custom, Moses enjoined the Israelites (Hartley's Researches in Greece, p. 239.)
to erect an altar of great stones on which the law was to be * Laruiner's Cruciblity, part i, book i, c. 2. $110, 11, Carpzovii Appara: inscribed, after they had crossed the river Jordan (Deut. trs Antiquitatum Sacri Codicis, pp. 29, 30. As the Christians subsequently Pre oiten irsuned Galilæans, and were represented as a people hostile In all overnment, and its necessary supports, St. Paul in Rom. xiii. 6. sta- & Josephus against A pion, book i. $ 7. dously obviatrs this slander; and enjoins the payment of tribute to civil 1 Valpy's Gr. Test. vol. iii. p. 117. guvernors, berause, as all governments derive their authority from God, & Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 318-320. Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. p. 4). reless arr his ministers, attending upon this very thing, viz. the public ad: The ecclesiastical historian Eusebius, on the authority of Julius
Africaministration, to protect the good and to punish the evil doer. (Gilpin and nus, a writer of the third century, relates that Herod, misnamed the Valps on Rom. xii. 6.)
Great, committed to the flames all the records of the Jewish genealogies; • Morier's Second Journey, p. 71.
but Carpzov has shown that this narrative is pot worthy at credii. Anti• Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. I. p. 230.
quitates Gentis Hebrææ, p. 36.