(3.) “The several circumstances related by the four evan-show: Agrippa being a Syrian, and king of a large country gelists as accompanying the crucifixion of Jesus were con- in Syria. formable to the Roman custom in such executions; and, When Pilate had pronounced the sentence of condemnafrequently occurring in ancient authors, do not only reflect tion on our Lord, and publicly adjudged him to be crucified, beauty and lustre upon these passages, but happily corrobo- he gave orders that he should be scourged. Then Pilate took rate and confirm the narrative of the sacred penmen.” We Jesus and scourged him. And when he had scourged Jesus, says will exhibit before our readers a detail of these as they are another of the evangelists, he delivered him to be crucified. specified by the evangelists.

Among the Romans, scourging was always inflicted previ. Every mark of infamy that malice could suggest was ac- ously to crucifixion. Many examples might be produced of cumulated on the head of our Redeemer,. While he was in this custom. Let the following suffice. Livy, speaking of the high-priest's house, they did spit in his face and buffeted the fate of those slaves who had confederated and taken up him, and others smote him with the palms of their hands, say- arms against the state, says, that many of them were slain, ing, Prophecy unto us, thou Christ, who is he that smote thee? many taken prisoners, and others, after they had been whip(Matt. xxvi. 67, 68. Mark xiv. 65.) Pilate, hearing that ped or scourged, were suspended on crosses. Philo, relating our Lord was of Galilee, sent him to Herod; and before he ihe cruelties which Flaccus the Roman prefect exercised upon was dismissed by him, Herod, with his men of war, set him at the Jew. of Alexandria, says, that after they were mangled nought; and mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe. and torn with scourges in the theatres, they were fastened (Luke xxiii. 11.) He was insulted and mocked by the sol- to crosses. Josephus also informs us, that at the siege of diers, when Pilate ordered him to be scourged the first time; Jerusalem great numbers of the Jews were crucified, after that by that lesser punishment he might satisfy the

Jews and they had been previously whipped, and had suffered every save his life, as is related by St. John. After Pilate had wanton cruelty. condemned him to be crucified, the like indignities were re- “ After they had inflicted this customary flagellation, the peated by the soldiers, as we are assured by two evangelists. evangelist informs us that they obliged our Lord to carry to (Matt. xxvii

. 27–31. Mark xv. 16–20.), And they stripped the place of execution the cross, or, at least, the transverse him, and put on him a scarlet robe, and when they had platted beam of it, on which he was to be suspended. Lacerated, a crown of thorns, they put it on his head, and a reed in his therefore, with the stripes and bruises he had received, faint right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked with the loss of blood, his spirits exhausted by the cruel inhim, saying, Hail! king of the Jews. And they spit upon sults and blows that were given him when they invested him, and took the reed, und smote him on the head.

him with robes of mock royalty, and oppressed with the inThese are tokens of contempt and ridicule which were in cumbent weight of his cross; in these circumstances our use at that time. Dio, among the other indignities offered Saviour was urged along the road. We doubt not but in to Sejanus the favourite of Tiberius (in whose reign our this passage to Calvary every indignity was offered him. Saviour was crucified), as they were carrying him from the This was usual. Our Lord, fatigued and spent with the senate-house to prison, particularly mentioned this,_" That treatment he had received, could not support his cross. The they struck him on the head.” But there is one instance of soldiers, therefore, who attended him, compelled one Simon, ridicule which happened so soon after this time, and has so a Cyrenean, who was coming from the country to Jerusagreat a resemblance to that to which our Saviour was ex- lem, and then happened to be passing by them, to carry it for posed, that it deserves to be stated at length. Caligula, the him. The circumstance here mentioned of our Lord bearing successor of Tiberius, had, in the very beginning of his reign, his cross was agreeable to the Roman custom. Slaves and given Agrippa the tetrarchy of his uncle Philip, being about malefactors, who were condemned to this death, were comthe fourth part of his grandfather Herod's dominions, with pelled to carry the whole or part of the fatal gibbet on which the right of wearing a diadem or crown. When he was they were destined to die. This constituted a principal part setting out from Rome to make a visit to his people, the em- of the shame and ignominy of such a death. *Cross-bearer peror advised him to go by Alexandria as the best way. was a term of the last reproach among the Romans. The When he came thither he kept himself very private: but the miserable wretch, covered with blood, from the scourges that Alexandrians having got intelligence of his arrival there, and had been inflicted upon him, and groaning under the weight of of the design of his journey, were filled with envy, as Philo his cross, was, all along the road to the place of execution, says, at the thoughts of a Jew having the title of king. loaded with every wanton cruelty, So extreme were the They had recourse to various expedients, in order to mani- misery and sufferings of the hapless criminals who were fest their indignation: one was the following:-“There condemned to this punishment, that Plutarch makes use of it was,” says Philo,2 “one Carabas, a sort of distracted fellow, as an illustration of the misery of sin, that every kind of that in all seasons of the year went naked about the streets. wickedness produces its own particular torment'; just as He was somewhat between a madman and a fool, the com- every malefactor, when he is brought forth to execution, carmon jest of boys and other idle people. This wretch they ries his own cross. He was pushed, thrown down, stimubrought into the theatre, and placed him on a lofty seat, that lated with goads, and impelled forward by every act of insohe might be conspicuous to all; then they put a thing made lence and inhumanity that could be inflicted.9 There is of paper on his head for a crown, the rest of his body they great reason to think that our blessed Redeemer in his way covered with a mat instead of a robe, and for a sceptre one to Calvary experienced every abuse of this nature, especially put into his hand a little piece of reed which he had just when he proceeded slowly along, through languor, lassitude, taken up from the ground. Having thus given him a mimic and faintness, and the soldiers and rabble found his strength royal dress, several young fellows with poles on their shoul- incapable of sustaining and dragging his cross any farther. ders came and stood on each side of him as his guards. Then On this occasion we imagine that our Lord suffered very there came people toward him, some to pay their homage to cruel treatment from those who attended him. Might not the him, others to ask justice of him, and some to know his will scourging that was inflicted, the blows he had received from and pleasure concerning affairs of state: and in the crowd the soldiers when in derision they paid him homage, and the were loud and confused acclamations of Maris, Maris; that abuse he suffered on his way to Calvary, greatly contribute being, as they say, the Syriac word for Lord, thereby inti- to accelerate his death, and occasion that speedy dissolution mating whom they intended to ridicule by all this mock at which one of the evangelists tells us Pilate marvelled?

6 When the malefactor had carried his cross to the place law, Cursed is every one who is hanged on a cross. Justin Martyr, Dialog. cum Tryphone, p. 1. edit. Jebb. London, 1719. See also pages 272 283.

* Multi occisi, multi capti, alii verberati crucibus affixi. Livii, lib. See also Eusebii Hist. Eccl. pp. 171. 744. Cantab. Various opinions have been offered concerning the species of thorn, * Philo in Flac. p. 529. edit. Mangey. See also pages 527, 528. ejusdem intended by the sacred writers. Bartholin wrote an elaborate dissertation editionis. The Roman custom was to scourge before all executions. The De Spinea Corona, and Lydius has collected the opinions of several magistrates bringing them out into the forum, after they had scourged them writers in his Florum Sparsio ad Historiam Passionis Jesu Christi. (Ana- according to custom, they struck off their heads. Polybii Hist. lib. i. p. 10. lect pp. 13—17.) The intelligent traveller Hasselquist says, that the naba tom, i. edit. Gronovii. 1670. or nabka of the Arabians " is in all probability the tree which afforded the crown of thorns put on the head of Christ : it grows very cominonly lib. ii. cap. 14. $9. p. 182. Haverc.

Josephus de Bello Jud. lib. v. c. 2. p. 353. Havercamp. Bell. Judiac. in the East. This plant was very fit for the purpose; for it has many & Vid. Justi Lipsii de Cruce, lib. ii. cap.6. p. 1180. Vesaliæ. SMALL AND SHARP SPINES which are well adapted to give pain. The crown . Plutarch de tardà Dei vindictà, p. 982. edit. Gr. 8vo. Steph. Dionysii might easily be made of these soft, round, and pliant branches; and what Halicar. lib. vii. tom. I. p. 456. Oxon. 1704. in my opinion seems to be the greatest proof is, that the leaves very much resemble those of ivy, as they are of a very deep green. Perhaps the

& O carnificium cribrum, quod credo fore : enemies of Christ would have a plant somewhai resembling that with

Ita te forabunt patibulatum per vias which emperors and generals were used to be crowned, that there might Stimulis, si huc reveniat senex. be calumny even in the punishment." Hasselquist's Voyages and Travels

Plautus Mostel. Act. i. sc. 1. ver. 53. edit. var. 1684. in the Levant, pp. 38, 289.

• Nec dubium est quin impulerint, dejecerint, erexerint, per sævitiam In Flacc. p. 970.

ant per lusum. Lipsius de Cruce, tom. vi. p. 1180. Vesalia.

378. 392

xxxiii. 36,

of execution, a hole was dug in the earth, in which it was whom Petronius Arbiter mentions, were crucified by order to be fixed; the criminal was stripped, a stupefying potion of the governor of the province without the city. This was was given him, the cross was laid on the ground, the wretch the custom, likewise, in Sicily, as appears from Cicero.6 distended upon it, and four soldiers, two on each side, at the “ It was customary for the Romans, on any extraordinary same time were employed in driving four large nails through execution, to put over the head of the malefactor an inscripbis hands and feet. After they had deeply fixed and riveted tion denoting the crime for which he suffered. Several examthese nails in the wood, they elevated the cross with the ples of this occur in the Roman history.” It was also usual agonizing wretch upon it; and in order to fix it more firmly at this time, at Jerusalem, to post up advertisements, which and securely in the earth, they let it violently fall into the were designed to be read by all classes of persons, in several cavity they had dug to receive it. This vehement precipita- languages. Titus, in a message which he sent to the Jews tion of the cross must give the person that was nailed to it a when the city was on the point of falling into his hands, and most dreadful convulsive shock, and agitate his whole frame by which he endeavoured to persuade them to surrender, in a dire and most excruciating manner. These several par- says : Did you not erect pillars, with inscriptions on them in ticulars the Romans observed in the crucifixion of our Lord. the Greek and in our (the Latin) language, “ Let no one Upon his arrival at Calvary he was stripped : a stupefying pass beyond these bounds ???ş “ In conformity to this usage, draught was offered him, which he refused to drink.' This, an inscription by Pilate's order was fixed above the head of St. Mark says, was a composition of myrrh and wine. The Jesus, written in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, specifying what design of this potion was, by its inebriating and intoxicating it was that had brought him to this end. This writing was quality, to blunt the edge of pain, and stun the quickness of by the Romans called titulus, a title, and it is the very exsensibility. Our Lord rejected this medicated cup, offered pression made use of by the evangelist John, Pilate wrote a him perhaps by the kindness of some of his friends, it being TITLE (979246 TITAON), and put it on the cross. (John xix his fixed resolution to meet death in all its horrors ; not to 19.). After the cross was erected, a party of soldiers was alleviate and suspend its pains by any such preparation, but appointed to keep guard,' and to attend at the place of exeto submit to the death, even this death of crucifixion, with cution till the criminal breathed his last; thus also we read all its attendant circumstances." He had the joy that was that a body of Roman soldiers, with a centurion, were deset before him, in procuring the salvation of men, in full and puted to guard our Lord and the two malefactors that were immediate view. He wanted not, therefore, on this great crucified with him. (Matt. xxvii. 54.) occasion, any thing to produce an unnatural stupor, and throw " While they were thus attending them, it is said, our oblivion and stupefaction over his senses. He cheerfully Saviour complained of thirst. This is a natural circumstance. and voluntarily drank the cup with all its bitter ingredients, The exquisitely sensible and tender extremities of the body which his heavenly Father had put into his hands. Our being thus perforated, the person languishing and faint with Lord was fastened to his cross, as was usual, by four soldiers, loss of blood, and lingering under such acute and excrucitwo on each side, according to the respective limbs they ating torture,—these causes must necessarily produce a veheseverally nailed. While they were employed in piercing his ment and excessive thirst. One of the guards, hearing this hands and feet, it is probable that he offered to Heaven that request, hastened and took a sponge, and filled it from a most compassionate and affecting prayer for his murderers, vessel that stood by, that was full of vinegar. The usual in which he pleaded the only circumstance that could possi- drink of the Roman soldiers was vinegar and water. The bly extenuate their guilt: Father, forgive them, for they know knowledge of this custom illustrates this passage of sacred not what they do! It appears from the evangelist that our history, as it has sometimes been inquired, for what purpose Lord was crucified without the city. And he bearing his cross was this vessel of vinegar? Considering, however, the dewent forth to a place called the place of a skull

, which is called rision and cruel treatment which Jesus Christ had already in the Hebrew Golgotha. (John xix. 17.) For the place where received from the soldiers, it is by no means improbable that Jesus wus crucified was nigh to the city. (ver. 20.). And the one of them gave him the vinegar with the design of augapostle to the Hebrews has likewise mentioned this circum- menting his unparalleled sufferings. After receiving this, stance: Wherefore Jesus also suffered without the gate. (Heb. Jesus cried with a loud voice, and uttered with all the vehexi. 12.) This is conformable to the Jewish law, and to ex- mence he could exert, that comprehensive word on which a amples mentioned in the Old Testament. (Num. xv. 35.) volume might be written, It is finished! the important work Ind the Lord said unto Moses, The man shall surely be put to of human redemption is finished ; after which he reclined death : all the congregation shall stone him with stones without his head upon his bosom, and dismissed his spirit.” (John the camp. (1 Kings xxi. 13.), Then they carried him [Na- xix. 30. Matt. xxvii. 50.) both] forth out of the city, and stoned him with stones that he The last circumstance to be mentioned relative to the died. This was done at Jezreel, in the territories of the king crucifixion of our Saviour, is the petition of the Jews to of Israel, not far from Samaria. And if this custom was Pilate, that the death of the sufferers might be accelerated, practised there, we may be certain the Jews did not choose with a view to the interment of Jesus. Åll the four evangethat criminals should be executed within Jerusalem, of the lists have particularly mentioned this circumstance. Joseph sanctity of which they had so high an opinion, and which of Arimathea went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus ; they were very zealous to preserve free from all ceremonial then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. And when impurity, though they defiled it with the practice of the most Joseph had taken the body, he laid it in his own new tomb. horrid immoralities. It is possible, indeed, that they might, (Matt. xxvii. 58–60. Mark xv. 45, 46. Luke xxiii. 50–53. in their sudden and ungoverned rage (to which they were John xix. 38–40.). And it may be fairly concluded, the subject in the extreme at this time), upon any affront offered rulers of the Jews did not disapprove of it; since they were to iheir laws or customs, put persons who thus provoked solicitous that the bodies might be taken down, and not hang them to death, upon the spot, in the city, or the temple, or on the cross the next day. (John xix. 31.) The Jews therewherever they found them; but whenever they were calm fore, says St. John, because it was the preparation, that the enough to admit the form of a legal process, we may be bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath-day (for assured that they did not approve of an execution within the

• Quum interim imperator provinciæ latrones jussit crucibus adfigi, se. city. And among the Romans this custom was very com- cundum illam eandem casulam, in qua recens cadaver matrona deflebat mon, at least in the provinces. The robbers of Ephesus, Satyr.c.71.

&'Quid enim attinuit, cum Mamertini more atque instituto suo crucem i Sese multimodis conculcat ictibus, myrrhæ contra presumptione mu- fixisset post urbem in via Pompeia ; te jubere in ea parte figere, quæ ad nitus. Apuleii Metamorph. lib. viii. Again : Obfirmatus myrrhæ pre. fretum spectaret? In Verr. lib. v. c. 66. n. 169. suinptione nullis verberibus, ac ne ipsi quidem succubuit igni. Lib. x. + Dion Cassius, lib. liv. p. 732. edit. Reimar, 1750. See also Suetonius in Apulen Met Usque hodie, says St. Jeroine, Judæi omnes increduli Do- Caligula, c. 32. Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. lib. v. p. 206. Cantab. 1720. minica resurrectionis aceto et selle potant Jesum, et dant ei vinuin myr. • Josephus, de Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 2. $ 4. Thalum, at dum consopiant, et mala eorum non videat. Hieronymus ad • See instances in Suetonius, in Caligula, c. 34. ; and in Domitian, c. 10.

10 " It is with much propriety that Matthew calls this site accusation: 1 See Dr. Benson's Life of Christ, p. 508.

for it was false, that ever Christ pretended to be king of the Jews, in the : Monet nos quoque non parum evangelista, qui quatuor numerat milites sense the inscription held forth: he was accused of this, but there was no crucifigentes, scilicet juxta quatuor meinbra figenda. Quod clarum etiam proof of the accusation ; however, it was affixed to the cross." Dr. A. e ex tunice partitione, quæ quatuor militibus facienda erat, Cornelii Clarke on Matt. xxvii. 37. Cartii de Clavis Dominicis, p. 35. edit. Antwerpiæ, 1670. The four soldiers 11 Miles cruces asservabat, ne quis corpora ad sepulturam detraheret. who parted his garnients, and cast lots for his vesture, were the four who Petronius, Arbiter, cap. 111. p. 513. edit. Burman. Traject. ad Rhen. 1700. raised him to the cross, each of them fixing a limb, and who, it seerns, for Vid. not. ad loc. this versice had a right to the crucified person's clothes. Dr. Macknight, 12 The Roman soldiers, says Dr. Huxham, drank posca (viz. water and p. 604. second edition, 4to.

vinegar) for their common drink, and found it very healthy and useful. * Credo ego istoc examplo tibi esse eundum actutum extra portam, dis- Dr. Huxham's Method for preserving the Health of Seamen, in his Essay pessis manibus patibulum quem habebie. Plautus in Mil. Glor, acl ii. on Fevers, p. 263. 3d edition. See also Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. ii.

p. 278. See also Macknight in loc.

MUL xxvii.


that Sabbath-day was an high day), besought Pilate that they seem to intimate that it ought not usually to be denied their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken when requested by any, away.

Hence it appears, that burial was ordinarily allowed to Burial was not always allowed by the Romans in these persons who were put to death in Judæa : and the subsequent

For we find that sometimes a soldier was appointed conduct of Pilate shows that it was seldom denied by the to guard the bodies of malefactors, that they might not be Roman governors in that country. There is, moreover, an taken away and buried. However it seems that it was not express command in the law (of which we know that the often refused unless the criminals were very mean and infa- laiter Jews were religiously observant), that the bodies of mous. Cicero reckons it one of the horrid crimes of Verres's those who were hanged should not be suffered to remain all administration in Sicily, that he would take money of parents night upon the tree. (Deut. xxi. 23.)? “ On this account it for the burial of their children whom he had put to death.2 was, that, after the crucifixion, a number of leading men Both Suetonius; and Tacitus represent it as one of the un- among the Jews waited on Pilate in a body, to desire that he common cruelties of Tiberius, in the latter part of his reign, would hasten the death of the malefactors hanging on their that he generally denied burial to those who were put to death crosses. (John xix. 31.) Pilate, therefore, despatched his by his orders at Rome. Ulpian, in his treatise of the duty orders to the soldiers on duty, who broke the legs of the two of a proconsul, says, • The bodies of those who are con- criminals who were crucified along with Christ; but when demned to death are not to be denied to their relations :" and they came to Jesus, finding he had already breathed his last, Augustus writes, in the tenth book of his own life, “ that he they thought this violence and trouble unnecessary ; but one had been wont to observe this custom;"; that is, to grant of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, whose point the bodies to relations. Paulus says, that the bodies of appears to have penetrated into the pericardium, or membrane those who have been punished (with death] are to be given surrounding the heart; for St. John, who says he was an to any that desire them in order to burial.”

eye-witness of this, declares that there issued from the wound It is evident, therefore, from these two lawyers, that the a mixture of blood and water. This wound, had he not been governors of provinces had a right to grant burial to the dead, must necessarily have been fatal. This circumstance bodies of those who had been executed by their order : nay, l St. John saw, and has solemnly recorded and attested,"

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1. Days.-II. Hours.Iatches of the Night.—III. Weeks.-IV. Months.-V. Years, civil, ecclesiastical, and natural.

Jewish Calendar.-VI. Parts of the Time taken for the Whole.-VII. Remarkable Æras of the Jews. It is well known that, in the perusal of ancient authors, and two denominations for them. The one they called the we are liable to fall into many serious mistakes, if we con- civil, the other the natural day; the civil day was from midsider their modes of computing time to be precisely the same night to midnight; and the natural day was from the rising to as ours: and hence it becomes necessary that we observe the setting sun.10' The natural day of the Jews varied in their different notations of time, and carefully adjust them to length according to the seasons of the year: the longest day our own. This remark is particularly applicable to the sacred in the Holy Land is only fourteen hours and twelve minutes writers, whom sceptics and infidels have charged with vari- of our time; and the shortest day, nine hours and forty-eight ous contradictions and inconsistencies, which fall to the ground minutes. This portion of time was at first divided into four as soon as the various computations of time are considered parts (Neh. ix. 3.); which, though varying in length accordand adapted to our own standard. The knowledge of the ing to the seasons, could nevertheless be easily discerned different divisions of time mentioned in the Scriptures will from the position or appearance of the sun in the horizon. elucidate the meaning of a multitude of passages with regard Afterwards the natural day was divided into twelve hours, to seasons, circumstances, and ceremonies.

which were measured from dials constructed for that purpose. 1. The Hebrews computed their Days from evening to Among these contrivances for the measurement of time, the evening, according to the command of Moses. (Lev. xxiii. sun-dial of Ahaz is particularly mentioned in 2 Kings xx. 32.) It is remarkable that the evening or natural night pre- 11.11. Jahn thinks it probable that Ahaz first introduced it cedes the morning or natural day in the account of the creation from Babylon.12 (Gen. i. 5, &c.): whence the prophet Daniel employs the II. The earliest mention of Hours in the Sacred Writings compound term evening-morning (Dan. viii. 14. marginal occurs in the prophecy of Daniel (iii. 6. 15. v. 5.): and as reading) to denote a civil day in his celebrated chronological the Chaldæans, according to Herodotus, 13 were the inventors prophecy of the 2300 days; and the same portion of time is of this division of time, it is probable that the Jews derived termed in Greek νυχθημερον.

their hours from them. It is evident that the division of hours The Romans had two different computations of their days, was unknown in the time of Moses (compare Gen. xv. 12. · See the passage cited from Petronius Arbiter, in note 11, p. 71.

xviii. 1. xix. 1. 15. 23.); nor is any notice taken of them by Rapiunt eum ad supplicium dii patrii: quod iste inventus est

, qui e the most ancient of the profane poets, who mentions only complexu parentum abreptos filios ad necem duceret, et parentes pre- the morning or evening or mid-day.14 With Homer corres

Nemo punitoruin non et in Gemonias adjecius uncoque tractus. Vit. ponded the notations of time referred to by the royal Psalmist, Tiber. c. 61.

who mentions them as the times of prayer. (Psal. lv. 17.) • Et quia damnati, publicatis bonis, sepulturà prohibebantur. Ann. lib. The Jews computed their hours of the civil day from six in 6. c. 29. • Corpora eorum qui capite damnantur cognatis ipsorum neganda non

the morning till six in the evening: thus their first hour corsunt : et id se observasse etiam D. Aug. lib. x. de vita sua, scribit. Hodie responded with our seven o'clock; their second to our eight; autem eorum, in quos animadvertitur, corpora non aliter sepeliuntur, quam their third to our nine, &c. si fuerit petitum et perinissum; et nonnunquam non permittitur, maxime majestatis causii damnatorum. 1. i. ff. de cadaver. Punit.

The knowledge of this circumstance will illustrate several . Corpora animadversorum quibuslibet petentibus ad sepulturam danda passages of Scripture, particularly Matt. XX., where the third,

See an instance, incidentally mentioned by Josephus. De Bell. Jud. 10 Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. ii. c. 77. ; Censorinns de Die Natali, c. 23. ; Macro. lib. iv. c. 5. $2.

bius Saturnal. lib. iii. c. 3. See also Dr. Ward's Dissertations on several And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true; and he knoweth passages of Scripture, p. 126.; and Dr. Macknight's Harmony, vol. i. Prethat he saith true, that ye might believe. John xix. 35.

lim. Obs. v. Adam's Roman Antiquities, p. 305. • Tacitus, speaking of the ancient Germans, takes notice that their 11 Few topics have caused more discussion among biblical commentators account of time differs from that of the Romans; and that instead of days than the sun-dial of Ahaz. As the original word signifies, properly, steps they reckoned the number of nights. De Mor. Germ. c. 11. So also did the or stairs, many have imagined that it was a kind of ascent to the gate of ancient Gauls (Cæsar de Bell. Gall. lib. vi. c. 17.); and vestiges of this an. the palace, marked at proper distances with figures showing the division cient practice still remain in our own country. We say last Sunday se'n. of the day, rather than a regular piece of dial-work. On this subject the night or this day fortnight. The practice of computing time by nights, reader will find some very ingenious and probable illustrations, together instead of days, obtains among the Mashoos, an inland nation, dwelling in with a diagram, in Dr. A Clarke's Commentary, on 2 Kings XX. the interior of South Africa. Travels by the Rev. John Campbell, vol. i. 19 Jahn, Archæol. Hebr. $ 101.

13 Lib. ij. c. 109 p. 182 (London, 1822. 8vo.)

'Hw5, n doon, pestov in je cp.-Hom. II. lib. xxi. 3.

sunt. I. iii. eod.

sixth, ninth, and eleventh hours (ver. 3. 5. 6. 9.) respectively our passover," the antitype of the paschal lamb, “expired at denote nine o'clock in the morning, twelve at noon, three and the ninth hour, and was taken down from the cross at the five in the afternoon; see also Acts ii. 15. iii. 1. x. 9. 30. eleventh hour, or sunset.'' The first three hours (from six to nine) were their morning: III. Seven nights and days constituted a Week; six of during the third hour, from eight to nine, their morning sacri- these were appropriated to labour and the ordinary purposes fice was prepared, offered up, and laid on the altar precisely of life, and the seventh day or Sabbath was appointed by God at nine o'clock; this interval they termed the preparation to be observed as a day of rest, because that on it he had restea (T2525un). Josephus confirms the narrative of the evange- from all his work which God had created and made. (Gen. ii. lists. As the Israelites went out of Egypt at the vernal 3.) This division of time was universally observed by the equinox, the morning watch would answer to our four o'clock descendants of Noah; and some eminent critics have conjec. in the morning.

tured thatit was lost during the bondage of the Israelites in Before the Captivity the night was divided into three parts Egypt, but was revived and enacted by Moses agreeably to or WATCHES. (Psal. Ixiii. 6. xc. 4.) The first or beginning the divine command. This conjecture derives some weight of watches is mentioned in Lam. ii. 19.; the middle-watch from the word Sabbat or Sabbata, denoting a week among in Judy. vii. 19., and the morning-watch, or watch of day- the Syrians, Arabians, Christian Persians, and Ethiopians, break, in Exod. xiv. 24. It is probable that these watches as in the following ancient Syriac Calendar, expressed in varied in length according to the seasons of the year : conse- Hebrew characters : 9 quently those who had a long and inclement winter watch to

Nnov-on... One of the Sabbath, or Week...

.Sunday. encounter, would ardently desire the approach of morning

Nnauhin... Two of the Sabbath.... ..Monday. light to terminate their watch. This circumstance would

Anav-nyn... Three of the Sabbath.. .Tuesday. beautifully illustrate the fervour of the Psalmist's devotion

NDJV-NyaON... Four of the Sabbath.

..Wednesday. (Psal. cxxx. 6.) as well as serve to explain other passages of the Old Testament. These three watches are also men

Xnau-KPDN... Five of the Sabbath..


. Friday. tioned by various profane writers.

insuon .. Eve of the Sabbath. During the time of our Saviour, the night was divided into

Anon. The Sabbath.....

...Saturday. four watches, a fourth watch having been introduced among

The high antiquity of this calendar is evinced by the use the Jews from the Romans, who derived it from the Greeks. of the cardinal numbers, one, two, three, &c. instead of the

The second and third watches are mentioned in Luke xii. 38.; ordinals, first, second, third, &c. following the Hebrew idiom; the fourth in Matt. xiv. 25.; and the four are all distinctly as in the account of the creation, where we read in the origimentioned in Mark xiii. 35. Watch, therefore, for ye know nal, “ one day-two day-three day,” &c. ; where the Sepnot when the master of the house cometh ; at even (ote, or the tuagint retains it in the first, calling it mpenze perce. It is relate watch), or at MIDNIGHT (MES CVORTICU), or at the cock-crow-markable that all the evangelists follow the Syriac calendar, ING (238* TEPP39.25), or in the MORNING ( 7pm, the early watch). both in the word 466uta, used for a week,” and also in reHere, the first watch was at even, and continued from six tiíi taining the cardinal number wise on66stav, " one of the week," nine; the second commenced at nine and ended at twelve, or to express the day of the resurrection. (Matt. xxviii. 1. Mark midnight; the third watch, called by the Romans gallicinium, xvi. 2. Luke xxiv. 1. John xx. 1.) Afterwards Mark adopts lasted from twelve to three ; and the morning watch closed at the usual phrase, #pern 0-66x78, " the first of the week(Mark six. A double cock-crowing, indeed, is noticed by St. Mark xvi. 9.), where he uses the singular 726627cv for a week ; and (xiv. 30.), where the other evangelists mention only one.

so does Luke, as NnSTEUU dis T8 0466478, " I fast twice in the Matt. xxvi. 34. Luke xxii. 34. John xiii. 38.) But this week.(Luke xviii. 12.) may be easily reconciled. The Jewish doctors divided the The Syriac name for Friday, or the sixth day of the week, cock-crowing into the first, second, and third; the heathen is also adopted by Mark, who renders it apou662tcr," sabbathnations in general observed only two. As the cock crew the eve” (xv. 42.), corresponding to Tupacken, preparation-day.second time after Peter's third denial, it was this second or (Matt. xxvii. 62. Mark xv. 42. Luke xxiii. 54. John xix. principal cock-crowing (for the Jews seem in many respects 31.) And Josephus also conforms to this usage, except that to have accommodated themselves to the Roman computa- he uses or66278 in the singular sense, for the Sabbath-day, in tion of time) to which the evangelists Matthew, Luke, and his account of a decree of Augustus, exempting the Jews of John refer. Or, perhaps, the second cock-crowing of the Asia and Cyrene from secular services, . 0266251, n on tipo Jews might coincide with the second of the Romans.5 ταυτης παρασκευη, απο της ώρας εννατης. “ On the Sabbath-day, or It may be proper to remark that the word hour is frequently

on the preparation-day before it, from the ninth hour."10 The used with great latitude in the Scriptures, and sometimes im- first three evangelists also use the plural ou66tta, to denote plies the space of time occupied by a whole watch. (Matt. the Sabbath-day: (Matt. xii. 5–11. Mark i. 21. and ii. 23. xxv. 13. xxvi. 40. Mark xiv. 37. Luke xxii. 59. Rev. iii. Luke iv. 16, &c.) Whereas John, to avoid ambiguity, ap3.) Perhaps the third hour mentioned in Acts xxiii. 23. was propriates the singular quo6trov to the Sabbath-day, and the a military watch of the night.6

plural oublata to the week. (John v. 9–16. vii. 22, &c. xx. 1.) The Jews reckoned two evenings : the former began at the

The second Sabbath after ihe first (Luke vi. 1.), deutepotputov, pinth hour of the natural day, or three o'clock in the after- or rather the second prime Sabbath, concerning which compoon; and the latter at the eleventh hour. Thus the pas- the first Sabbath after the second day of unleavened bread or

mentators have been so greatly divided, appears to have been chal lamb was required to be sacrificed between the evenings (Exod. xii. 6. Lev. xxiii. 4.); which Josephus tells us, the of the passover week. Besides weeks of days, the Jews had Jews in his time did, from the ninth hour until the eleventh. | weeks of seven years (the seventh of which was called the Hence the law, requiring the paschal lamb to be sacrificed sabbatical year); and weeks of seven times seven years, or " at even, at the going down of the sun” (Deut. xvi. 6.), ex- or of forty-nine years, which were reckoned from one jubilee pressed both evenings. It is truly remarkable, that " Christ to another. The fiftieth or jubilee year was celebrated with

• During the siege of Jerusalem, the Jewish historian relates that ihe singular festivity and solemnity.11 priests were not interrupted in the discharge of their sacred functions, but

IV. The Hebrews had their MONTHS, which, like those of con nued twice a day, in the morning, and at the ninth hour (or at three all other ancient nations, were lunar ones, being measured by d'elock in the afternoon), to offer up sacrifices at the altar. The Jews the revolutions of the moon, and consisting alternately of ndablathutays not till the sixth hour (twelve at noon, Josephus, de vita twenty-nine and thirty days. While the Jews continued in sua $ 3A.): which circumstance well explains the apostle Peter's defence the land of Canaan, the commencement of their months and of tisse on whom the Holy Spirit had miraculously descended on the day years was not settled by any astronomical rules or calculaof Pentecost. (Acta ii. 15) » Dr. A Clarke on Exod. xiv. 11.

tions, but by the phasis or actual appearance of the moon. As • Tuus the 131th psalın gives an instance of the temple watch : the whole | soon as they saw the moon, they began the month. Persons pm is nothing more than the alternate cry of two different divisions of The first watch addresses the second (ver. 1, 2.) reminding

were therefore appointed to watch on the tops of the moun11

' in of their duty; and the second answers (ver. 3.) by a solemn blessing tains for the first appearance of the moon after the change: The address and ihe answer seem both to be a set forın, which each indi

: as soon as they saw it, they informed the Sanhedrin, and tilul prochained or sung aloud, at stated intervals, to notify the time of public notice was given, first, by the sounding of trumpets, the night. Bishop Lowth's Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 357.

see Hoper, Iliad, lib. x. v. 252, 253. Livy, lib. vii. c. 35. and Zenophon, to which there is an allusion in Psal. lxxxi. 3.; and afterAnab. lib. iv. p. 250. (edit. Hutchinson.)

Lightfoot Hor. Jleb. on John_xiii. 38. (Works, vol. ii. p. 597.) Grotius Dr. Ilales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 114. In the two following und Witby on Matt. xxvi. 31. Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. pages, he illustrates several apparenủy chronological contradictions be. i p. 112. By which writers rarions passages of classical authors are cited. iween the evangelists with equal felicity and learning, She also Mr. Townsend's Harmony of the New Testament, vol. 1. pp. • This calendar is taken from Bp. Marsh's Translation of Michaelis's In

troduction to the New Testament, vol. 1. p. 136. • Fragments annexed to Calmet's Dictionary, No. cclxiii. p. 161.

10 Antiq. lib. xvi. c. 6. $ 2. • De Bell, Jud. lib. vi. c. 9. $ 3.

11 Dr. Isales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 120. Vol. II.


L'e watch

2. Marchesvan.
3. Chisleu or Kisleu..

October and November.
November and December.

5. Sebat
6. Adar....

10. Thaimuz
11. Ab
12. Elul..

from the green

1. Nisan or Abib ..

2. Jvar or Zif..
3. Sivan (Esth. viii. 9.)..
4. Thammuz...
5. Ab
6. Elul (Neh. vi. 15.)..
7. Tisri..
8. Marchesran..

October and November.

11. Sebat (Zech. i. 7.)...

wards lighting beacons throughout the land ; though (as the i (marginal rendering), at the time when kings go forth to battle, mishnical rabbins tell us) after they had frequently been de- that is, in the month of September. The annexed table exceived by the Samaritans, who kindled false fires, they used hibits the months of the Jewish civil year, with the corresto announce the appearance by sending messengers. As, ponding months of our computation :however, they had no months longer than thirty days, if they

1. Tisri.... corresponds with part of .... September and October. did not see the new moon the night following the thirtieth day, they concluded that the appearance was obstructed by

4. Thebet......

December and January. the clouds; and, without watching any longer, made the next

January and February. day the first day of the following month. But, on the dis

February and March: persion of the Jews throughout all nations, having no oppor

7. Nisan or Abib..

March and April. 8. Jyar or Zir

April and May. tunities of being informed of the appearance of the new 9. Sivan

May and June. moons, they were obliged to have recourse to astronomical

June and July calculations and cycles, in order to fix the beginning of their

July and August.

August and September. months and years. At first, they employed a cycle of eighty- Some of the preceding names are still in use in Persia. four years : but this being discovered to be defective, they 4. The Ecclesiastical or Sacred Year began in March, or on had recourse to the Metonic cycle of nineteen years; which the first day of the month Nisan, because at that time they was established by the authority of rabbi Hillel, prince of the departed out of Egypt. From that month they computed Sanhedrin, about ihe year 360 of the Christian ara. This they still use, and say that it is to be observed until the oracles and visions. Thus Zechariah (vii. 1.) says, that the

their feasts, and the prophets also occasionally dated their coming of the Messiah. In the compass of this cycle there word of the Lord came unto him in the fourth day of the ninth are twelve common years, consisting of twelve months, and month, even in Chisleu ; which answers to our November, seven intercalary years, consisting of thirteen months.1

whence it is evident that he adopted the ecclesiastical year, Originally, the Jews had no particular names for their which commenced in March. The month Nisan is noted in months, but called them the first, second, &c. Thus the De- the Old Testament for the ever fiewings of Jordan (Josh. iii luge began in the second month, and came to its height in the 15. 1 Chron. xii. 15.); which were common at that season, seventh month, at the end of 150 days (Gen. vii. 11-24. viii. the river being swollen by the melted snows that poured in 4.); and decreased until the tenth month, when the tops of torrents from Mount Lebanon. The following table presents the mountains were seen. (viii. 5.) Afterwards they acquired the months of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, compared with distinct names; thus Moses named the first month of the year our months :Abib (Exod. xii. 2. xiii. 4.); signifying green, ears of corn at that season ; for it began about the vernal equi

(Neh. ii. 1. Esth. iii. 7.1 answers to part of March and April. nox. The second month was named Zif, signifying in Chal

April and May. dee glory or splendour ; in which the foundation of Solomon's

May and June.

June and July. temple was laid. (1 Kings vi. 1.) The seventh month was

July and August styled Ethanim, which is interpreted harvests by the Syriac

August and September. version. (1 Kings viii. 2.) The eighth month Bul; from

September and October. the fall of the seaf. (1 Kings vi. 38.), But concerning the

9. Kisleu or Chisleu (Zech. vii. I. Neh. i. I.) November and December. origin of these appellations critics aré by no means agreed : 10. Thebet....

December and January. on their return from the Babylonish captivity, they introduced

January and February.

12 Adar (Ezra vi. 15. Esth. iii. 7.) the names which they had found among the Chaldæans and

February and Marchi Persians. Thus, the first month was also called Nisan, signi

The Jewish months being regulated by the phases or apfying flight; because in that month the Israelites were thrust pearances of the moon, their years were consequently lunar out of Egypt (Exod. xii. 39.); the third month, Sivan, signi- years, consisting of twelve lunations, or 354' days and 8 fying a bramble (Esth. iii. 3. Neh. ii. 1.); and the sixth hours; but as the Jewish festivals were held not only on cermonth Elul, signifying mourning, probably because it was tain fixed days of the month, but also at certain seasons of the time of preparation for the great day of atonement, on the the year, consequently great confusion would, in process of tenth day of the seventh month. (Neh. vi. 15.) The ninth time, arise by this method of calculating; the spring month month was called Chisku, signifying chilled; when the cold sometimes lling in the middle of winter, it became necesweather sets in, and fires are lighted. (Zech. vii. 1. Jer. xxxvi. sary to accommodate the lunar to solar years, in order that 22.) The tenth month was called Tebeth, signifying miry. their months, and consequently their festivals, might always (Esth. ii. 16.) The eleventh, Shebet, signifying á staff or a fall at the same season. For this purpose, the Jews added a sceptre. (Zech. i. 7.) And the twelfth Adar, signifying a whole month to the year, as often as it was necessary; which magnificent mantle, probably from the profusion of Howers occurred commonly once in three years, and sometimes once and plants with which the earth then begins to be clothed in in two years. This intercalary month was added at the end warm climates. (Ezra vi. 15. Esth. iii. 7.) It is said to be of the ecclesiastical year after the month Adar, and was therea Syriac term. (2 Mac. xvi. 36.)2

fore called Ve-Adar, or the second Adar: but no vestiges of V. The Jews had four sorts of Years,—one for plants, an- such intercalation are to be found in the Seriptures. other for beasts, a third for sacred purposes, and the fourth As agriculture constituted the principal employment of the was civil and common to all the inhabitants of Palestine. Jews, they also divided their natural year into seasons with

1. The year of Plants was reckoned from the month corres- reference to their sural work. These, we have seen, were ponding with our January ; because they paid tithe-fruits of six in number, each of two months' duration, including one the trees which budded at that time.

whole month and the halves of two others. See an account 2. The second year was that of Beasts ; for when they of them in pp. 23—25. of this volume. tithed their lambs, the owner drove all the flock under a rod, To this natural division of the year there are several alluand they marked the tenth, which was given to the Levites. sions in the Sacred Writings : as in Jer. xxxvi. 22. where They could, however, only take those which fell in the year, king Jehoiakim is said to be sitting in the winter-house in the and this year began at the month Elul, or the beginning of ninth sacred month Chisleu, the latter half of which fell in our August.

the winter or rainy season; so, in Ezra x. 13, it is said that But the two years which are the most known are the Civil the congregation of the people which had been convened on and Ecclesiastical Years.

the twentieth day of the same month, were not able to stand 3. The Civil Year commenced on the fifteenth of our Sep

3 The preceding view of the sacred and civil years of the Jews is that tember, because it was an old tradition that the world was generally adopted by the most eminent writers on Jewish antiquities, after created at that time. From this year the Jews computed ihe opinions of the Jewish rabbins, who affirm that March and september their jubilees, dated all contracts, and noted the birth of child were the initial months of these two years, instead of April and October.

That ihis was the case at a låte period is admitted by Jahn and Ackermann, dren, and the reign of kings. It is said also that this month after J. D. Michaelis. But after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Ro. was appointed for making war; because, the great heats be- nans, who commenced their year with the month of March, it appears ing passed, they then went into the field. In 2 Sam. xi, 1. that the Jews adopted the practice of their conquerors. In confirination we read that David sent Joab and his servants with him, and not only by Josephus, but also by the gennis of the Syriac and Arabic all Israel, to destroy the Ammonites, at the return of the year languages, and by the fact that the ceremonies prescribed to be observed

on the three great festival days do not agree with the months of March and 1 Dr. A. Clarke, at the end of his commentary on Deuteronomy, has given September. For a further investigation of this curious question, which six elaborately constructed tables, explanatory of the Jewish calendar. cannot be discussed within the limits of a note, the reader is referred to Mr. Allen has also given six tables; which, though less extensive than the Michaelis's Commentatio de Mensibus Hebræorum, in the Commentationes preceding, are well calculated to afford a clear idea of the construction and Regiæ Societatis Goettingensi per annos 1763-68, PP. 10. et seq., or to Mr. variations of the Jewish calendar. See Modern Judaism, pp. 369-377. Bowyer's translation of this disquisition in his “ Select Discourses" on Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. p. 127.

the Hebrew months, &c pp. 1-32.

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