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ST the New Testament; of whom the following are the most re- Sabacho of profane history, the head of the twenty-fifth or Ethimarkable :

opian dynasty, who invaded Egypt, caused its monarch Boc1. Simon, surnamed Peter, who was also called Simon Bar- charis to be thrown into the flames, and usurped the throne. Jona. See PETER, p. 442.

More recent and correct researches have shown that So is the 2. Simon, surnamed the Canaanite (perhaps because he was Sevechus of profane history. (Coquerel, Biog. Sacr. tom. iv. a native of Cana in Galilee), and also Zelotes or the Zealous, p. 223.) probably because he had been of the Zealots. (See p. 148. for Sodom, the chief of the Pentapolitan cities, or five cities of the a notice of their principles.) He is supposed to have been the plain, gave the name to the whole land. It was burnt, with three brother of James the Less and Jude: the particulars of his life other cities, by fire from heaven, for the unnatural lusts of their are unknown.

inhabitants, the truth of which is attested by numerous heathen 3. Simon, surnamed the Cyrenean, from Cyrene in Libya writers. See pp. 27, 28. supra. (where many Jews were settled), who was compelled to assist in SOLDIERS (Jewish) levies of, how made, 84. Mosaic statutes bearing the cross of Jesus. (Matt. xxvii. 32.) Why he was so concerning them, 84, 85. How commanded, 85, 86. Their compelled, see p. 70. supra.

encampments, 86, 87. Their pay and training, 87. Arms of, 4. Simon, surnamed Bar-Jesus, a sorcerer. (Acts viii. 9. 13.) 87, 88. See Bar-Jesus, p. 413. col. 2.

SOLDIERS (Roman), allusions to the officers, armour, and disSimoom Wind, pestilential effects of, 40.

cipline of, 92—94. Their treatment of Jesus Christ, 70. They Six.

watched at the execution of criminals, 72. 1. A strong city in Egypt (Ezek. xxx. 15, 16.), according to SOLOMON, the son of David and Bathsheba, and the third king Jerome, Pelusium : it was situated on the eastern boundary of Israel, renowned for his wisdom and riches, and for the mas Egypt, and was defended by the swamps which lay around it. nificent temple which he caused to be erected at Jerusalem.

2. Desert of Sin, a part of Arabia Deserta, towards Egypt, The commencement of his reign was characterized by piety and between Elim and Mount Sinai. (Exod. xvi. 1. xvii. 1. Num. justice; but afterwards he abandoned himself, through the influ. Xxxüi. 12.)

ence of his heathen wives, to gross and shameful idolatry. TemSIN-OFFERING, notice of, 118. Account of, 65.

ple of, 98. Extent of his dominions, 17. His commerce, 187, Sırar.

188. He died b.c. 975, after a reign of forty years. For analy. 1. DESERT OF Sıxai, 34.

ses of the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles, which 2. Mount Sinai, a mountain in Arabia Petræa, where the were composed by him, see pp. 245–253. law was given. It had two summits; the one lower, called Ho. Solomon's Porch, notice of, 99. reb, or the Mount of God (Exod. iii. 1.), when he appeared to Sons, education of, 164. Parental authority over them, Ibid. Moses in a flame of fire in a bush. (See HOREB, p. 428., col. 1.) Sostienes, a chief ruler of a synagogue at Corinth. (Acts

This Horeb is therefore called Sinai by Saint Stephen. (Acts xviii. 17.) Concerning the interpretation of which passage the vii. 30.) Mount Sinai is an enormous mass of granite rocks, learned differ greatly. Some suppose him to have been at this with a Greek convent at the bottom, called the Convent of St. time an enemy to the apostle Paul, and his accuser, though subCatharine. It is the highest of a chain of mountains called by sequently a convert to the Christian faith ; and that he was the Arabians Djebbel Moosa (or the mountains of Moses), and beaten by the unbelieving Greeks, in consequence of the opinion which requires a journey of several days to go entirely round it. given by the judge, and because he had troubled the proconsul This chain is partly composed of sand-stone: it contains several with so impertinent an affair. Others are of opinion, that, at fertile valleys, in which are gardens producing grapes, pears, this time, he favoured Christianity, and suffered on that account, dates, and other excellent fruits. These are taken to Cairo, the Greeks beating him at the instigation of the unbelieving where they are sold at a high price; but the general aspect of the Jews. However this may have been, Sosthenes afterwards joined peninsula of Mount Sinai is that of a frightful sterility. (Malte- with Saint Paul in sending the first Epistle to the Corinthians. Brun's System of Geography, vol. ii. p. 200.)

(Biscoe on the Acts, vol. i. p. 417.) Sisim, a land very distant from Palestine. From the context Sowing of corn, Jewish mode of, 177. of Isa. xlix. 12. it appears to have been situated towards the SP an extensive region of Europe, which anciently com. south or east. Some expositors have supposed it to be Pelusium prehended the country forming the modern kingdoms of Spain or Syene; but these are only cities, and not sufficiently remote. and Portugal. In the time of St. Paul it was subject to the RoIt were better (says Gesenius) to understand it of an eastern mans. (Rom. xv. 24. 28.) country, perhaps China ; of the name of which the Hebrews SPEARS of the Hebrews, notice of, 88. may have heard, as well as of Scythia and India.

Spoil, how distributed by the Jews, 91, 92. Sion or Sirion, a name of Mount Hermon, 30.

Starf, divination by, 143. Sivas or Sivan, the third month of the ecclesiastical year STEPHANUS, one of the principal Christians at Corinth, whom of the Jews; and the ninth of their civil year. For a notice of St. Paul baptized with all his family. This was the first family the festivals, &c. in this month, see p. 76.

in Achaia that embraced the Gospel : its members zealously deSlaves, how acquired, 165. Their condition and treatment voted themselves to the service of the Christians, and their affecamong the Hebrews, 165, 166 ; and heathens, 166, 167. Expla- tionate hospitality is recommended by the apostle, as an example nation of customs relating to them, mentioned in the New Tes to the Corinthians. (1 Cor. i. 16. xvi. 15, 16.) tament, 167. Different kinds of, 167, 168.

STEPEN, the first martyr for the faith of Christ: he was SLAYing with the sword, a Jewish punishment, 67.

one of the seven primitive deacons of the Christian church. Slings of the Hebrews, notice of, 88.

After having wrought many miracles, and ably defended the SMYRNA, a city of Asia Minor, was situated between forty and doctrines of Christ, he was put to death by the Jews. (Acts vi. forty-five miles to the north of Ephesus, of which city it was vii.) On the stoning of Stephen, see p. 53. note 4. originally a colony. It is now celebrated chiefly for the number, Stocks, punishment of, 65. wealth, and commerce of the inhabitants. Of its population, Stoics, a sect of philosophers who derived their name from which is estimated at about 75,000 inhabitants, 45,000 are Turks; the Itos or portico where their founder Zeno delivered his lec15,000 Greeks; 8000 Armenians; 8000 Jews; and less than tures. Their philosophy required an absolute control over all 1000 Europeans. (Hartley's Visit, p. 289.) The angel of the the passions, and taught that man alone, even in his present state church of Smyrna, addressed in the second apocalyptic epistle, of existence, might attain to perfection and felicity. They en. is supposed to have been Polycarp, the disciple of Saint John, couraged suicide, and disbelieved in a future state of rewards and by whom he was appointed bishop of Smyrna. As he afterwards punishments,-a doctrine which they deemed unnecessary as an suffered much, being burnt alive at Smyrna, a. n. 166, the exhor- incitement to virtue. tation in Rev. ü. 10. would be peculiarly calculated to support STONE, white, import of, 56. and encourage him.

Stones, consecrated, notice of, 138. Hieroglyphic stones So, an Egyptian king, contemporary with Hoshea, with whom prohibited to the Israelites, Ibid. he formed an alliance. (2 Kings xvii. 4.) He appears, however, Stoning to death, a Jewish punishment, 67, 68. to have been too weak to succour Hoshea against the Assyrians, STRANGERS, laws concerning the treatment of, 82. one of whose kings, named Sargon, obtained signal advantages STRAW, used in making bricks, 151. over him. (Isa. xx. 1.) According to Jablonski, So means a STREETS (Oriental), arrangement of, 155. chief prince or prince of the dwelling. For a long time the STUDIES of the Jews, 185–187. Pharaoh, who is named So, in the Scriptures, was taken for the SUBORDINATION, military, illustration of, 93.

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TA Soccoth.

6. Srnia of Toe, or of Ishtob, or of the land of Tob, or of 1. A city in the tribe of Gad. (Josh. xiii. 27. Judg. viii

. 5. the Tubieni, as they are called in the Maccabees, was in the 1 Kings vii

. 46.) Hither “ Jacob journeyed, and built him a neighbourhood of Libanus, the northern extremity of Palestine. house, and made booths for his cattle : therefore the name of the (Judg. xi. 3. 5. 1 Macc. v. 13. 2 Macc. xii

. 17.) When Jephplace is called Succoth,” that is, booths. (Gen. xxxiii. 17.). thah was banished by his brethren from Gilead, he withdrew into

2. The first encampment of the Israelites in their march out the land of Tob. of Egypt. (Num. xxxiii. 5. Exod. xii. 37. xiii. 20.) Dr. Shaw 7. Syria of Emath, or Hamath, that of which the city Hais of opinion that no fixed situation can be assigned for this place math, on the Orontes, was the capital. (it signifying only a place of tents), being probably nothing more 8. Syria, without any other appellation, stands for the King. than some considerable Dou-war (or encampment) of the Ish- DOM OF SYRIA, of which Antioch became the capital after the maelites or Arabs, such as may be still met with, at the distance reign of the Seleucidæ. of fifteen or twenty miles from Cairo, on the road towards the 9. Celo-Syria, or Cæle-Syria, or the Lower Syria, occurs Red Sea. The rendezvous of the caravan which conducted Dr. in several places of the Maccabees. (1 Macc. x. 69. 2 Macc. ii. S. to Suez was at one of these Dou-wars; at the same time he 5. 8. iv. 4. viii. 8.) The word Cæle-Syria, in the Greek, signisaw another about six miles off, in the very same direction which fies Syria Cava, or Syria the Hollow, or deep. It may be conthe Israelites may be supposed to have taken in their marches sidered, says Strabo, either in a proper and restrained sense

, as from Goshen to the Red Sea. (Travels, vol. ii. p. 93.)

comprehending only the tract of land between Libanus and AntiSuccoth-BENOT! (or booths of the daughters), an object of libanus : or in a larger signification, and then it will comprehend idolatrous worship among the Babylonians. According to the all the country in obedience to the kings of Syria, from Seleucia most common opinion they were small tents or booths, in which or Arabia and Egypt. the Babylonish maidens exposed themselves to prostitution, in Syria at first was governed by its own kings, each of whom honour of a Babylonish goddess called Mylitta. Herodotus (Hist. reigned in his own city and territories. David subdued them l. i. c. 199.) gives a particular account of these abominable prac- about A. m. 2960, B. c. 1044 (2 Sam. viii. 6.), on occasion of his tices ; which, there is reason to conclude from 1 Kings xvii. 30., war against the Ammonites, to whom the Syrians gave assistance. the Babylonians introduced into Judæa.

(2 Sam. x. 6. 8. 13. 18, 19.) They continued in subjection till SUKKIMS, an African people mentioned in 2 Chron. xiii. 3. in after the reign of Solomon, when they shook off the yoke, and conjunction with Libyans and Ethiopians. In the Septuagint could not be reduced again till the time of Jeroboam II. king of and Vulgate versions, they are termed Troglodytes, probably from Israel, A. m. 3179, B. c. 820. Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, their dwelling in caves. Such a people dwelt near the Red Sea. king of Israel, having declared war against Ahab, king of Judah, SUMMER of Palestine, notice of, 24.

this prince found himself under the necessity of calling to his SUPERIORS, reverence to, how shown, 169.

assistance Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, who put Rezin to SURVEYING of land, known to the Jews, 187.

death, took Damascus, and transported the Syrians out of their SUSANCHITEs, the inhabitants of Susa or Shushan. (Ezra iv. 9.) country beyond the Euphrates. From that time Syria continued SWEARING, or oaths of the Jews. See pp. 81, 82.

in subjection to the kings of Assyria. Afterwards it came under Swords of the Hebrews, notice of, 88.

the dominion of the Chaldæans; then under that of the Persians; SYCAMORE trees of Palestine, 37.

lastly, it was reduced by Alexander the Great, and was subject to SYchar. See SICHEM, p. 450.

all the revolutions that happened to the great empires of the East. STENE, a city on the southern frontiers of Egypt, bordering Syrian Idols, notice of, 137, 138. on Ethiopia. (Ezek. xxix. 10. xxx. 6.)

Syro-Puenicia is Phænicia properly so called, of which SYNAGOGUES, origin and form of, 103, 104. Officers of, 104. Sidon, or Zidon, was the capital ; which having by right of conAccount of the synagogue worship, 104-106. Its ecclesiastical quest been united to the kingdom of Syria, added its old naine power, 106. Nineteen Jewish prayers read in the synagogue, Phænicia to that of Syria. The Canaanitish woman is called a 106, 107.

Syrophænician (Mark vii. 26.), because she was of Phænicia, Syracuse, a large and celebrated city on the eastern coast of which was then considered as making part of Syria. St. MatSicily, furnished with a capacious and excellent harbour. Saint thew calls her a Canaanitish women (Matt. xv. 22. 24.), because Paul abode here three days on his first journey to Rome. (Acts this country was really peopled by the Canaanites, Sidon being xxviii. 12.)

the eldest son of Canaan. (Gen. x. 15.) The Syro-Phænicians Syria, properly so called, was a country of Asia, compre- were so called to distinguish them from the Phænicians of Africa, hended between the Euphrates on the east, the Mediterranean on who were called Liby-Phænicians. Both were of the same the west, Cilicia on the north, Phænicia, Judæa, and Arabia Canaanitish stock or original. Deserta, on the south. It was divided into various provinces or cantons, which derived their names from their situation, with TABERAH (or burning), an encampment of the Israelites in respect to particular rivers or cities. Thus,

the wilderness. (Num. xi. 3. Deut. ix. 22.) It derives its name i. Srria of the two rivers, or MESOPOTAMIA of Syria, or from the circumstance that fire went forth from the tabernacle, Aram Nawaraim (Hebrew), was comprehended between the and burnt a considerable part of their camp, as a punishment for two rivers Tigris and Euphrates.

their murmurings. 2. SYRIA OF DAMASCUS, that of which Damascus was the TABERNACLES, feast of, how celebrated, 126, 127. A proof capital, extended eastward along Mount Libanus. Its limits of the credibility of the Old Testament, I. 66. varied according as the princes that reigned at Damascus were TABERNACLES, various, in use among the Israelites, 96. Form more or less powerful.

and construction of the tabernacle of Moses, 96, 97, Its migra8. SYRIA OF Zoban, or Soba, or Sobal, as it is called by the tions, 97. Septuagint, was probably Cale-Syria, or Syria the hollow. Its Tabitha, the Aramæan name of a female Christian, otherwise capital was Zobah, a city unknown, unless it be Hoba or Hobal, called Dorcas, whom St. Peter miraculously restored to life. (Acts north of Damascus. (Gen. xiv. 15.)

ix. 36. 40.) 4. SYRIA OF MAACHAR, or of Bethmaacah, was also towards Table, ancient mode of reclining at, explained, 154. Libanus. (2 Sam. x. 6. 8. 2 Kings xv. 29.) It extended beyond TABLETS, for writing, form of, 182. Jordan, and was given to Manasseh. (Deut. iii. 14.)

Tabor, or THABOR, Mount, account of, 30, 31. 5. SYRIA OF RouoB or Reno B, was that part of Syria of TABRET, notice of, 183. which Rehob was the capital. But Rohob was near the northern Tactics, military, of the Jews, 89, 90. frontier of the land of promise (Num. xiii. 21.), on the way or Tanmor, a city of Syria, erected by king Solomon. It was pass that leads to Emath or Hamath. It was given to the tribe situated in the wilderness of Syria, on the borders of Arabia of Asher, and is contiguous to Aphek, which was in Libanus. Deserta, whence it is called l'admor in the Wilderness

, in (Josh. xix. 28. 30. and xxi. 31.) Laish, otherwise called Dan, 1 Kings ix. 18. Josephus places it at two days' journey from situate at the fountains of Jordan, was in the country of Rohob the Upper Syria

, one day's journey from the Euphrates, and six (Judg. i. 31.). Hadadazer, king of Syria of Zobah, was son of days' journey from Babylon. He says that there is no water in Rehob or Rohob, or perhaps a native of the city of this name. the wilderness but in this place. (Ant. Jud. lib. viii. c. 6. 91.1 (2 Sam. viii. 3. 12.) The Ammonites called to their assistance, If we may form any conjecture of this city by the ruins of it

, against David, the Syrians of Rehob, of Zoba, of Maachah, and which later travellers have described, it must have been one of of Ishtob. (2 Sam. x. 6. 8.)

the first and most magnificent in the East; and it is somewhat

TE

Τ Η surprising that history should give us so little account, when or employed to bring forward their accusation against St. Paul, by whom it was reduced to the melancholy condition in which it before the Roman procurator at Cæsarea ; probably because they now appears. The reason why Solomon erected Tadmor in so were themselves unacquainted with the modes of proceeding in desolate a place, was, probably, the commodiousness of its situa- the Roman courts. (Acts xxiv. 1, 2.) tion to cut off all commerce between the Syrians and Mesopota- TESSERE Hospitales, notice of, 173, 174. mians, and to prevent them from conspiring against him as they TETRARCH, office of, 52, note 1. had done against his father David. This city preserved its name THADDEUS. See Jude. of Tadmor to the time of Alexander. It then received the name THAMMUZ. See TAMMUZ. of PALMYRA, which it preserved for several ages. About the THEATRES and Theatrical performances, allusions to, exmiddle of the third century, it became celebrated as the seat of plained. See pp. 190, 191. the empire of Odenatus and Zenobia. When the Saracens be- THEBETH, or Tebetu, the fourth month of the civil year of came masters of the East, they restored its ancient name of Tad- the Jews, and the tenth of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice mor, which has continued to the present time. Its situation of the festivals, &c. in this month, see p. 75. between two powerful empires, that of the Parthians on the east, Taebez, a city in the tribe of Ephraim, at the siege of which and that of the Romans to the west, often exposed it to danger Abimelech was killed. (Judg. ix. 50—55.) Eusebius says, that from their contests. In time of peace, however, it soon recovered in the fourth century there was a village called Thebez, thirteen itself, by its trade with both empires : for the caravans of Persia Roman miles from Shechem. and of the Indies, which now unload at Aleppo, then used to Tuert, punishment of, among the Jews, 62, 63. stop at Palmyra : thence they carried the merchandise of the East, THEOCRACY of the Hebrews, nature of, 41. It subsisted under which came to them by land, to the ports of the Mediterranean, the kings, 43. and returned the merchandise of the West after the same manner. Theophilus, the name of the person to whom Luke inscribed TAHPANES.

his Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. (Luke i. 3. Acts i. 1.) 1. Tahapanes, or Tahpanhes (Jer. ii. 16.), a city of Egypt, He was most probably some Gentile of rank, who had abjured which anciently was a royal city, of considerable note : it is sup- paganism and embraced the Christian faith. posed to be the same as Daphnæ Pelusiacæ. Jeremiah, and the Thessalonica, a large and populous city and sea-port of Israelites with him, retired to this place : and here it was revealed Macedonia, the capital of one of the four districts into which the to the prophet, that Nebuchadnezzar should take this city, and Romans divided that country after its conquest by Paulus Æmiset up his throne in the very place where Jeremiah had hidden lius. It was situated on the Thermean Bay, and was anciently stones. (Jer. xliii. 7–11.)

called Thermæ; but, being rebuilt by Philip the father of Aler2. A queen of Egypt, the wife of that Pharaoh who was con- ander, after his victory over the Thessalians, it then received the temporary with David, and gave her sister in marriage to Hadad name of Thessalonica. At the time of writing the Epistle to the the Edomite. Tahpanhes educated her sister's son among the Thessalonians, Thessalonica was the residence of the proconsul royal family of Egypt, perhaps from the mingled motives of affec- who governed the province of Macedonia, and of the quæstor who tion and of politics.

had the charge of the imperial revenues. Besides being the seat TAMMUZ, or THAMMUZ.

of government, this port carried on an extensive commerce, | The tenth month of the civil year of the Jews, and the which caused a great influx of strangers from all quarters ; so fourth of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, that Thessalonica was remarkable for the number, wealth, and &c. in this month, see p. 76.

learning its inhabitants. The Jews were extremely numerous 2. An Egyptian and Syrian idol, worshipped by the Israelites, here. The modern name of this place is Salonichi: it is the notice of, 138.

chief port of modern Greece, and has a population of sixty thouTanis. See Zoan, p. 456. infra.

sand persons, twelve thousand of whom are Jews. According to Tares, notice of, 177.

Dr. Clarke, who has given a very interesting account of the Tarsuisa, or TARTessus, a city and country in Spain, the antiquities, present state, and commerce of Thessalonica, this most celebrated emporium in the West, to which the Hebrews place is the same now it was then ; a set of turbulent Jews contraded; the ships of Tarshish (Isa. xxiii. 1. 4. Ix. 9.) denote large stituted a very principal part of its population : and when St. merchant ships bound on long voyages (perhaps distinguished Paul camo hither from Philippi, where the Gospel was first by their construction from the common Phænician ships), even preached, to communicate the “glad tidings" to the Thessathough they were sent to other countries instead of Tarshish. lonians, the Jews were sufficient in number to " set all the city (Gibb's Hebrew Lexicon, pp. 713, 714., where the proofs are in an uproar.” adduced at length.)

Theudas, a seditious person, who excited popular tumults Tarsts, the metropolis of Cilicia (Acts xxi. 39.), was cele- among the Jews, probably during the interregnum which folbrated for being the place whither Jonah designed to fee, and lowed the death of Herod the Great, while Archelaus was at where St. Paul was bom. It was a very rich and populous city, Rome; at which time Judæa was agitated with frequent sedi and had an academy, furnished with men so eminent, that they tions. (Acts v. 36.) Compare Vol. I, p. 420. are said to have excelled in all arts of polite learning and philo- THISBE, a town in the tribe of Naphtali, to the south of sophy; even the academies of Alexandria, and Athens, and Kadesh, the chief city belonging to that tribe. The prophet Rome itself, were indebted to it for their best professors. It is now Elijah is supposed to have been a native of this city, though he called Tersoos ; has no good buildings; and is but ill supplied with might afterwards have dwelt in the land of Gilead. (1 Kings xvii. 1.) the necessaries of life. (Irby's and Mangles' Travels, p. 503.) THOMAS, called Didymus, one of the twelve apostles: of the Taxes paid by the Jews. See pp. 78, 79.

circumstances of whose life very little is known. TEACHERS, Jewish, appellations of, 185. Academical degrees THorns, of which Christ's crown was made, 36, note 2. conferred on them, ibid. note. Manner of teaching, ibid. TAREE TAVERNS, a small place or village on the Appian

Tekoan, a village south-east of Jerusalem, not far from which Way to Rome, where travellers stopped for refreshment. Acthe Great Desert commenced: it was the birth-place of the cording to the Itinerary of Antoninus, it was thirty-three Roman prophet Amos. (i. 1.)

(rather less than thirty-three English) miles from Rome. (Acts TEMPLE at Jerusalem, plan of, 98. Account of the first xxviii. 15.) Some critics and commentators, however, suppose temple erected by Solomon, ibid. ; and of the second temple that they were retail shops for the sale of provisions to travellers. erected after the captivity, 98–100. Reverence of the Jews for THRESHING, and THRESHING-FLOORS, account of, 178. it, 100, 101. Account of the temple-guard, 101., and of the THYATIRA, a city of Asia Minor, was a considerable city in ministers of the temple, 111-114. The temple-worship de- the road from Pergamos to Sardis, and about forty-eight miles scribed, 121, 122. Annual payments made for its support, 78. eastward of the former. It is called by the Turks Akhisar, and Feast of the dedication of the temple, 128.

is imbosomed in cypresses and poplars; it is now, as anciently Temples at Heliopolis and Gerizim, 101.

it was, celebrated for dyeing. In 1826, the population was estiTentus, when and of what things paid, 120.

mated at 300 Greek houses, 30 Armenian, and 1000 Turkish. Texts of the Hebrews, account of, 150, 151.

(Hartley's Visit, Miss. Reg. pp. 326, 327. Arundell's Visit, pp. TERAPHIM, notice of, 137.

189-191.) Terraces (Oriental), notice of, 153.

TIBERIAS (John vi. 1—23. xxi. 1.), still called by the natives Tertius, a Christian whom St. Paul employed as his amanu. Tabaria or Tabbareeah, was anciently one of the principal cities ensis in writing his epistle to the Romans. (Rom. xvi. 22.) of Galilee : it was built by Herod the Great, and so called in

TERTULLUS, a Roman orator or advocate, whom the Jews honour of the emperor, Tiberius. The privileges conferred upon

TI

TR its inhabitants by Herod caused it in a short time to become a kings of Israel, from Jeroboam I. to Omri, who built the city of place of considerable note: it was situated in a plain near the Samaria, which then became the capital of his kingdom. (Josh. Lake of Gennesareth, which is thence termed the Lake or Sea xii. 24. 1 Kings xiv. 17. xv. 21. 2 Kings xv. 14.) Its situation of Tiberias. (See it described in pp. 26, 27.) After the destruc- is represented as pleasant in Sol. Song vi. 4. tion of Jerusalem, this city became eminent for its Academy, Tisri or Tızrt, the first month of the civil year of the Jews, over which a succession of Jewish doctors presided until the and the seventh of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the fourth century. On every side ruins of walls, columns, and festivals, &c. occurring in this month, see p. 75. foundations, indicate its ancient splendour. The modern popu- TiThes, when and of what things paid, 120. lation of Tiberias is from fifteen hundred to two thousand : it is Titus, a Christian teacher, by birth a Gentile, but converted principally inhabited by Jews, who are said to be the descendants by St. Paul, who therefore calls him his son (Gal. i. 3. Tit

. i. of families resident there in the time of our Saviour. Dr. Clarke 4.), and whose companion and fellow-labourer he became. In conjectures that they are a remnant of refugees who fled hither 2 Tim. iv. 10. the apostle speaks of him as having gone to Dalafter the capture of Jerusalem by the Romans. Tiberias is about matia; and in Tit. i. 5. he assigns the reason of his leaving Titas ninety miles distant from Jerusalem: the modern town, which in Crete, viz. to perfect the work which Paul had there begun, is very small, and is walled round, with towers at equal distances, and to establish and regulate the churches. For an analysis of stands close to the lake, upon a plain surrounded by mountains ; St. Paul's epistle to Titus, see pp. 346, 347. and is celebrated for its hot baths, which are much frequented. Tola, the tenth judge of Israel, of the tribe of Issachar. He Tiberias has the most imposing appearance, from without, of succeeded Abimelech, and died after an administration of twentyany town in Syria ; but within, it is as wretched as any other. three years. (Judg. x. 1, 2.) About a mile from this town, and exactly in front of the lake, is Tombs of the Hebrews, account of, 200, 201, a chain of rocks, in which are distinctly seen cavities or grottoes, TORNADOES frequent in Palestine, 38, 39. that have been proof against the ravages of time. These have Tower of Antonia, 21. uniformly been represented to travellers as the places referred to Trachonitis, district of, 18. in Scripture, which were frequented by miserable and fierce Traditions of the elders concerning the Sabbath, exposed, demoniacs, upon one of whom our Lord wrought a miraculous 121.; were preferred by the Pharisees to the Law of Moses, 145. and instantaneous cure. Matt. viii. 28. Mark v. 2, 3. Luke viii. TRANSFIGURATION, mount of, 31. and note l. 27. (Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 219_233. 8vo. Light's TRANSMIGRATION of souls, believed by the Jews, 144. Travels in Egypt, &c. &c. p. 203. Jolliffe's Letters from Pales- TRAVELLING, Jewish mode of, 122. note 7. Horrors of traveltine, pp. 32–34. Burkhardt's Travels in Syria, &c. pp. 320-330. ling across the Great Desert of Arabia, 34, 35. Travels in Egypt and Nubia, &c. by Captains Irby and Mangles. TREATIES, nature of, 80. How made and ratified, 80, 81. p. 294. Jowett's Researches in Syria, pp. 171. 173. Carne's Trees of Palestine, notice of, 36, 37. Letters, pp. 361, 362. Rae Wilson's Travels in the Holy Land, TRESPASS-OFFERINGs, notice of, 65. 118. vol. ii. p. 25. Third edition.)

Trials, proceedings of, among the Jews, 55–57. TIBERIUS, Claudius Drusus Nero, emperor of Rome, succeeded Tribes, allotments of. See pp. 16, 17. Heads or princes of his step father Augustus: he died, a. D. 37, after reigning 224 41, 42. years. In the 14th year of his reign, John the Baptist first TRIBUNAL (Imperial), appeals to, 59. Roman tribunals, 57. appeared; and the crucifixion of Jesus Christ took place in the Jewish tribunals, 54, 55. third or fourth year after. (Luke iii. 1.).

Tribute paid by the Jews, account of, 78. Reluctantly paid TIGLATH-PILESER, king of Assyria, the son and successor of to the Romans, ibid. Sardanapalus. See Assyria, p. 409.

Triumphs (military) of the Romans, allusions to explained, TIME, Jewish and Roman modes of computing, 72–75. 94, 95. Calendar of the Jewish year, 75, 76. Parts of a period of time Troas, a maritime city of Mysia, situated on the western reckoned for the whole, 76, 77. Æras of time in use among the coast, at some distance to the southward of the supposed site of Jews, 77.

ancient Troy. The adjacent region is also called Troas or the Timon, the name of one of the seven primitive deacons of the Troad. (Acts xvi. 8. 11. xx. 5, 6. 2 Cor. ii. 12. Tim. iv, 13.) church at Jerusalem. (Acts vi. 5.)

Trogyllium (Acts xx. 15.), a promontory at the foot of Timotheus, commonly called Timothy, a Christian of Derbe, Mount Mycale, opposite to, and about five miles from, Samos. whose mother was of Jewish descent, and eminent for her piety, Trophies, military, of the Jews, 92. while his father was a Gentile. He was selected by St. Paul, as TROPHImus, a Christian disciple of Ephesus, who accompanied his chosen companion in his journeys; and was left by him at Saint Paul on his departure from Greece to Judæa, and at JeruEphesus to take the charge of the church there. He appears to salem was the innocent cause of the dangers to which he was have possessed in a high degree the confidence and affection of there exposed. Recognised by some Jews from Asia Minor, who St. Paul, by whom he is often mentioned in terms of warm com- had seen him with St. Paul, they took occasion to accuse the mendation. For analyses, &c. of the two epistles addressed to apostle of having taken Greeks with him into the temple. (Acts Timothy by the apostle, see pp. 343–346.

xx. 4. xxi. 29.) After this time we find no mention made of Tiruaka, a king of Egypt or Ethiopia, is known in Scripture Trophimus in the New Testament, until after his master's first only by the powerful diversion which he made in behalf of Heze- imprisonment at Rome. In one of the voyages which followed kiah, king of Judah, when pressed by the forces of Sennacherib, the apostle's liberation, Trophimus was “ left at Miletum sick." king of Assyria. (2 Kings xix. 9. xviii. 21. Isa. xxxvi. 6. xxxvii. (2 Tim. iv. 20.) This circumstance proves, if further proof 9.) Although, under this prince, Egypt appears to have recovered were wanting, that St. Paul was twice a prisoner at Rome; for some of the advantages which it had lost under So, the prede- Trophimus, at the time of his first journey to Miletus, had not cessor of Tirhaka ; it is not clear whether we are to understand been left there, since we read of his arrival in Judæa. (Acis in the passages just cited a mere report of an invasion which | xx. 15.) was circulated, and which deceived the Assyrians, or an actual TRUMPETS, form of, 184. ; feast of, 127. war in which they were engaged with the Egyptian monarch. Trust, violations of, how punished, 63. Some expositors are of opinion that he carried his arms into As- TRYPHÆNA and TRYPHOSA, two Christian women resident at syria, while Sennacherib was in Judæa. Tirhaka, the third sove- Rome, where they laboured in diffusing a knowledge of the reign of the Ethiopian or twenty-fifth dynasty, whose name is Gospel, and in succouring their felloiv-believers. The mention confirmed by ancient Egyptian monuments and inscriptions of both their names by Saint Paul has led some to conjectung (compare Vol. I. p. 89.), is the Taracus of profane historians. that they were sisters. (Rom. xvi. 12.) If the predictions contained in the thirtieth and following Tubal-Cain, the son of Lamech and Zillah, invented the chapters of Isaiah relate to Hezekiah, Tirhaka must be the art of working metals

: there is great reason to believe that he Pharaoh intended in those passages; which some commentators was the Vulcan of ancient mythology. refer to anterior times. The prophecies contained in the nine- Tupravo uos, or beating to death, account of, 68. teenth chapter of Isaiah, particularly verses 2. and 4., have been Tunics, of the Jews, form of, 156. supposed to announce the events which followed Tirhaka's Tychicus, a Christian, probably of Ephesus, who was the death, the supplanting or removal

of the Ethiopian dynasty by friend and associate of St. Paul, and is mentioned by him in the that of the Saites, and the revolutions which are recorded to most affectionate terms. (Acts xx. 4. Eph. vi. 21. Col. iv. 7. have taken place in that period of the history of Egypt. 2 Tim. iv. 12. Tit. ii. 12.)

Tirzah, a delightful city of Ephraim, the royal seat of the Tyrannus, a person at Ephesus, in whose house or school

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VE St. Paul proposed and defended the doctrines of the Gospel. of fourteen months against Antigonus, before he could reduce (Acts xix. 9.). By some he is thought to have been a Jewish the city. After this, Tyre fell alternately under the dominion doctor or rabbi, who had a public school at Ephesus; while of the kings of Syria and Egypt, and then of the Romans, until others, with more probability, suppose that he was a Greek it was taken by the Saracens, about a. D. 639, retaken by the sophist, because the apostle taught for two successive years in Crusaders, A. D. 1124 ; and at length sacked and razed by the his school, after he had ceased to preach in the synagogues. Mamelukes of Egypt, with Sidon, and other strong towns, that (Acts xix. 9.)

they might no longer harbour the Christians, A. D. 1289. (Dr. Tyre, a celebrated city and sea-port of Phænicia, that boasted Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 442—444.) The of a very early antiquity, which is recognised by the prophet population of modern Tyre is estimated at 7000; of whom Isaiah (xxiii. 7.), but which is variously estimated by profane 1600 are Christians having places of worship, and about two writers, whose discordant accounts this is not the place to adjust hundred are Jews, who have a synagogue. (Rae Wilson's and determine. Even in the time of Joshua it was strongly Travels, vol. ii. p. 77.) fortified ; for it is called the strong city Tyre. (Josh. xix. 29.) From Sidon to Tyre is generally one continued plain, varying Tyre was twofold, insular and continental. Insular Tyre was from 300 to 1000 yards in width. Nearer to Tyre, it becomes certainly the most ancient, for it was noticed by Joshua: the considerably wider; and forms to the east of that city, on every continental city, however, as being more commodiously situated, side, a rich and pleasing country. About Ras-el-Ain, in particufirst grew into consideration, and assumed the name of Palæ- lar, the meadows, variegated by streamlets, are very picturesque, tyrus, or Old Tyre. Want of sufficient attention to this dis- and capable of being rendered highly productive. (Jowett's Christinction has embarrassed both the Tyrian chronology and tian Researches in Syria, p. 297.) geography. Insular Tyre was confined to a small rocky island, The following description of the modern town of Surat, by a eight hundred paces long and four hundred broad, and could recent intelligent traveller, will give the reader a lively idea of never exceed two miles in circumference. But Tyre, on the the splendour of ancient Tyre in the days of her commercial opposite coast, about half a mile from the sea, was a city of prosperity, as delineated by the prophet Ezekiel (xxvii. 3.) :vast extent, since, many centuries after its demolition by Nebu- “The bazaars, filled with costly merchandise, picturesque and chadnezzar, the scattered ruins measured nineteen miles round, interesting groups of natives on elephants, camels, horses, and as we learn from Pliny and Strabo. Of these, the most curious mules; strangers from all parts of the globe, in their respective and surprising are, the cisterns of Ras-el-Ain, designed to supply costume ; vessels building on the stocks, others navigating the the city with water; of which there are three still entire, about river; together with Turks, Persians, and Armenians, on Araone or two furlongs from the sea ; so well described by Maun-bian chargers; European ladies in splendid carriages, the Asiatic drell, for their curious construction and solid masonry. “ The females in hackeries drawn by oxen; and the motley appearance fountains of these waters,” says he, after the description, "are of the English and nabob's troops on the fortifications, remind as unknown as the contriver of them. According to common us of the following description of Tyre: 0 thou that art situate, tradition, they are filled from a subterraneous river, which king &c. (Ezek. xxvii. 3.) This is a true picture of Oriental comSolomon discovered by his great sagacity; and he caused these merce in ancient times; and a very exact description of the port cisterns to be made as part of his recompense to king Hiram, and the bazaars of Surat, at the present day.” (Forbes's Oriental for the materials furnished by that prince towards building the Memoirs, vol. i. p. 244.) temple at Jerusalem. It is certain, however, from their rising so “ Numerous beautiful columns, stretched along the beach, or high above the level of the ground, that they must be brought standing in fragments half buried in the sand that has been acfrom some part of the mountains, which are about a league dis- cumulating for ages, the broken aqueduct, and the ruins which tant; and it is as certain that the work was well done at first; appear in its neighbourhood, exist, as an affecting monument of seeing it performs its office so well, at so great a distance of the fragile and transitory nature of earthly grandeur.” (Jowtime; the Turks having broken an outlet on the west side of the ett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, Appendix, p. cistern, through which there issues a stream like a brook, driving 422.) See also his Christian Researches in Syria, pp. 131– four corn mills between it and the sea.' From these cisterns 141.; and for other testimonies of modern travellers relative to there was an aqueduct which led to the city, supported by arches, the actual state of Tyre, see Vol. I. pp. 124, 125. supra. On about six yards from the ground, running in a northerly direc- the commerce of the Tyrians with the Hebrews, see pp. 187, 188. tion, about an hour, when it turns to the west, at a small mount, of this volume. where anciently stood a fort, but now a mosque, which seems to ascertain the site of the old city; and thence proceeds over the UNBLOODY SACRIFICES, 119. isthmus that connects Insular Tyre with the main, built by Unclean Persons, who were such, 133. Alexander, when he besieged and took it.

Upuaz, a country rich in gold, the situation of which is no Old Tyre withstood the mighty Assyrian power, having been where pointed out. Calmet supposed it to be the same with besieged in vain, by Shalmaneser, for five years, although he cut Ophir. (Dan. x. 5. Jer. x. 9.) off their supplies of water from the cisterns, which they remedied Upper GARMENTS, form of, 156. by digging wells within the city. It afterwards held out for Ur of the Chaldees, a city of Mesopotamia, the dwellingthirteen years against Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and place of Terah and Abraham; which the latter was ordered to was at length taken ; but not until the Tyrians had removed their quit. (Gen. xi. 28.) By faith he obeyed, and went out not effects to the insular town, and left nothing but the bare walls to knowing whither he was going. (Heb. xi. 8.) Ur was subsethe victor, which he demolished. What completed the de- quently called Edessa, by the Macedonians; and by the Turks, struction of the city was, that Alexander afterwards made use Orfah. Mr. Buckingham has given a long and interesting deof these materials to build a prodigious causeway, or isthmus, scription of its present state. (Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. i. pp. above half a mile long, to the insular city, which revived, as the 121–191.) phenix, from the ashes of the old, and grew to great power and Urim and THUMMIM, what. See p. 114. opulence, as a maritime state; and which he stormed after a Uz, land of (Job i. 1.), is Idumæa. Here Job dwelt. Commost obstinate siege of five months. Bp. Pococke observes, that pare p. 231. “there are no signs of the ancient city; and as it is a sandy Uzzian, also called Azariah, a king of Judah, who succeeded shore, the face of every thing is altered, and the great aqueduct his father Amaziah, when he was only sixteen years of age. is in many parts almost buried in the sand.” (Vol. ii. p. 81.) The commencement of his reign was auspicious for his piety Thus has been fulfilled the prophecy of Ezekiel: Thou shalt be and zeal for the worship of God; but, afterwards, presuming to built no more : though thou be sought for, yet shalt thou never take upon him the sacerdotal office, he was struck with a leprobe found again ! (xxvi. 21.)

sy; and he continued without Jerusalem, separated from other The fate of Insular Tyre has been no less remarkable; when men, until his death, B.c. 758. (2 Kings xiv. 21, 22. xv. 1—7.) Alexander stormed the city, he set fire to it. This circumstance was foretold : “ Tyre did build herself a strong-hold, and heaped Valley of Ajalon, 31. Berachah or Blessing, Ibid. Bochim, up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets. 32. Elah, Ibid. Hinnom, Ibid. Jehoshaphat, Ibid. Mamre, Behold the Lord will cast her out, and he will smite her power 31. Rephaim, Ibid. Salt. Ibid. Sharon, 32. Shaveh, 31. Sidin the sea, and she shall be devoured with fire.” (Zech. ix. 3, 4.) dim, Ibid. After this terrible calamity, Tyre again retrieved her losses. VEGETABLES, grown in Palestine, 35–37. Only eighteen years after, she had recovered such a share of her Veils of the Hebrew women, 157. ancient commerce and opulence, as enabled her to stand a siege VESTMENTS of the priests, 113. Of the high-priest, 113, 114.

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