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PE See 2 Cor. xii. 2. 4., where he states that he was caught up to nion; the remainder are members of the Greek Church. They the third heaven ; and, again, that he was caught up to paradise. have each one church, but the other churches of Pergamos have He was caught up to the third heaven that he might contemplate been converted into mosques, and are profaned with the blasphethat scene of supreme felicity, which awaits the just after the re- mies of the pseudo-prophet Mohammed. There are also about surrection; and he was caught up to paradise that his mind 100 Jews, who have a synagogue. Pergamos, or Bergamo, as it might be contented with a view of their nearer consolations. is now called, lies about sixty-four miles north of Smyrna. Its (Valpy's Gr. Test. on Luke xxiii. 43.)
present state is described by Mr. Arundell, in his visit to the Seven PARAX, Desert of, notice of, 33, 34.
Asiatic Churches, pp. 281-290. PARASCHIoth, or ancient divisions of the Pentateuch, read in Perizzites, the ancient inhabitants of Palestine, mingled with the Synagogues, 104. Table of them, 105,
the Canaanites. It is very probable that they were Canaanites, PARCAMENT, notice of, 182.
who had no fixed habitations, and lived sometimes in one counParents, crimes against, how punished. See p. 62.
try, sometimes in another, and were thence called Perizzites, Panturans are mentioned in Acts ii. 9. in conjunction with which term signifies scattered or dispersed. The Perizzites did the Medes. The empire of Parthia subsisted four hundred years, not inhabit any certain portion of the land of Canaan. In several and disputed for the dominion of the East with the Romans. places of Scripture the Canaanites and Perizzites are mentioned The Parthians were celebrated for their veneration of their kings, as the chief people of the country. Thus, we read that, in the and for their way of fighting by flight, and shooting their arrows time of Abraham and Lot, the Canaanite anıl Perizzite were backwards. They dwelt between Media and Mesopotamia ; in in the land. (Gen. xiii. 7.) Solomon subdued the remains of all which trans-Euphratensian places, except some parts of Baby- the Canaanites and Perizzítes, which the children of Israel had lon, and of some other small prefectures, the Jews abounded, and not rooted out, and made them tributary. (1 Kings ix. 20, 21. some of them were at Jerusalem when the Holy Ghost fell on 2 Chron. viii. 7.) There is mention of the Perizzites by Ezra, the apostles.
after the return from Babylon; and several Israelites had married Passover, feast of, how celebrated, 123–125. Its spiritual wives of that nation. (Ezra ix. 1.) import, 125, 126. A proof of the credibility of the Old Testa- PERJURY, punishment of, among the Jews, 62. ment, I. 66.
Persia, a country of Asia, bounded on the west by Media and Patara (Acts xxi. 1.), a sea-port town of Syria, anciently of Susiana ; on the south by the Persian Gulf; on the north by the considerable note. Extensive ruins mark its former magnificence great desert that lay between it and Parthia Proper; and on the and extent. Its port is now entirely choked up by encroaching east by another still greater, that lay between it and the river sands. (Col. Leake's Tour in Asia Minor, pp. 182, 183.). Indus. Until the time of Cyrus, and his succession to the Me
Pathnos, a city and district of Egypt, mentioned by the pro- dian empire, it was an inconsiderable country, always subject to phets Jeremiah (xliv. i. 15.), and Ezekiel (xxix. 14. and xxx. the Assyrians, Babylonians, or Medes. Its capital city was Per14.) The inhabitants of this country are called Pathrusim in sepolis, now Chelminar: lat. 30 degrees. In the neighbourhood Gen. x. 14.
of which, to the south-east, was Passagardæ, where was the tomb Patmos, an island in the Ægean Sea, whither the apostle and of Cyrus. evangelist John was banished, a. D. 94, and where he had the The ruins of Persepolis are remarkable, among other things, revelations which he has recorded in the Apocalypse.
for the figures, or symbols, to be seen on the walls and pillars of PATRIARCHAL government, nature of, 40.
the temple. Sir John Chardin observed there rams' heads with Paul, who was also called Saul, the distinguished apostle of horns, one higher, and the other lower, exactly corresponding to the Gentiles. A Pharisee by profession, and a Roman citizen by Daniel's vision of the Medo-Persian empire : the lower horn birth, he was at first a furious persecutor of the Christians; but denoting the Medes, the higher, which came up last, the Persians. after his miraculous conversion, he became a zealous and faithful (Dan. viii. 3.) A winged lion, with a crown on his head; preacher of the faith which he had before laboured to destroy. alluding, perhaps, to the symbolical representation of the Assyrian See a copious account of the life and apostolic labours of Saint empire, hy “a lion, with eagle's wings;" denoting their ferocious Paul in PP: 321-329.
strength and cruelty, and the rapidity of their conquest. (Dan. Par of Jewish soldiers, 87. Prace-Offerings, notice of, 118.
Sketch of the History of the Persian Empire, illustrative of Perahian, the seventeenth king of Israel, succeeded his father
the Prophetic Writings. Menahem, and followed the example of his predecessors in main- Cyrus, who is deservedly called the Great, both on account of taining the idolatrous institutions of Jereboain I. After reigning his extensive conquests, and also for his liberation of the captive about two years, he was assassinated at Samaria by
Hebrews, was the son of Cambyses, a Persian grandee, and Man. Pukan, an officer of his guards, who held the throne about dane the daughter of Astyages king of the Medians. He was twenty years. He also “ did evil in the sight of the Lord; he born a. m. 3405, B. c. 599. one year after his uncle Cyaxares the departed not from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who brother of Mandane. Weary of obeying the Medians, Cyrus made Israel to sin.” (2 Kings xv. 27, 28.) Towards the close engaged the Persians to revolt from them. He attacked and of his reign, his dominions were overrun by Tiglath-pileser king defeated Astyages his maternal grandfather, whose life he spared, of Assyria, who carried his subjects into captivity; and Pekah and gave him the government of Hyrcania, satisfied with having himself was assassinated by Hoshea. (2 Kings xv. 29, 30.) liberated the Persians, and compelled the Medes to pay him PELETHITES, notice of, 46. 87.
tribute. Not long after, the latter rebelled against him; and Pestecost, feast of, how celebrated, 126. A proof of the involved Cyrus in a protracted war. Having again reduced the credibility of the Old Testament, I. 66.
Medes, Cyrus directed his arms against the Babylonians, whose PEor, or Baal-PEOR, notice of, 137, 138.
ally Cræsus king of Lydia, having come to their assistance, was Perxa, district of, 18.
defeated and obliged to retire into his own country. Cyrus conPERFUME boxes of the Hebrew women, 158.
tinued to prosecute the war against the Babylonians, and having Penga, a city of Pamphylia (Acts xiii. 13.), memorable settled every thing in that country, he followed Croesus into among the heathens for a temple of Diana built there; and among Lydia, whom he totally discomfited, and overran his territories. the Christians for the departure thence of John-Mark from Bar- Thus far we have followed the narrative of Justin (lib. i. c. 7.): nabas and Paul, to Jerusalem, which occasioned the rupture Herodotus relates events nearly in the same order (lib. i. c. 178.), between them for a season. (Acts xv. 37. 40.)
but places the Babylonian war after the war with Cresus, and the Pergamos or PERGAMUS was the ancient metropolis of Mysia, entire reduction of Lydia. He says that Labynitus (the Beland the residence of the Attalian kings; it still preserves many shazzar of Scripture) was at that time the king of Babylon, and vestiges of its ancient magnificence. Against the church at Per- that Cyrus, having subdued his other enemies, at length attacked gamos, was adduced the charge of instability (Rev. ii. 14, 15.); and defeated the Babylonians, who withdrew into their city, but to its wavering faith was promised the all-powerful protection which was both strongly fortified and amply stored with proof God. “ The errors of Balaam and the Nicolaitanes have visions. Cyrus finding that the siege would be protracted, been purged away. Pergamos has been preserved from the de- diverted the course of the Euphrates, by causing great ditches to stroyer; and three thousand Christians” (out of a population of be dug on both sides of the city, above and below, that its waters about 15,000 inhabitants) “now cherish the rites of their re- might flow into thein ; the river being thus rendered passable, his ligion in the same spot where it was planted by the hands of St. soldiers entered the city through its channel. Babylon was taken, Paul.” (Emerson's Letters from the Ægean, vol. i. p. 216.) of and the impious Belshazzar was put to death. (Den. v. 30.) So these Christians, about 200 belonged to the Armenian commu- l extensive was that city, that the infrabitants of each extremity Vol. II.
PH were ignorant of its capture, though the enemy was in its very 1. PHARAOH, king of Egypt, and contemporary with Abraham. centre ; and as a great festival had been celebrated on that day, His officers having eulogized the beauty of Sarah, the patriarch's the whole city was absorbed in pleasure and amusements. Cyrus wife, Pharaoh sent for her to his harem, and conferred many constituted his uncle Cyaxares (or Darius the Mede) king of the presents on her husband, whom he imagined to be her brother. Chaldæans. (Dan. v. 31.). Cyrus immediately restored the cap- Pharaoh and his family being “plagued with great plagues" by tive Jews to liberty (2 Chron. xxxvi. 22. Ezra i. 1.), and com- the Almighty, he discovered his error, and restored Sarah io manded pecuniary assistance to be given to those who stood in Abraham, whom he sent out of Egypt. (Gen. xii. 10—20.) need of it. He died a. M. 3475, B.c. 529, in the seventieth year 2. PHARAOH, the contemporary of Joseph ; who, having inof his age, though historians are by no means agreed concerning terpreted his prophetic dreams, was rewarded with distinguished the manner of his death.
honours, and raised to the office of “ ruler throughout all the Cambyses, the successor of Cyrus, was one of the most cruel land of Egypt.” (Gen. xli.). Pharaoh participated in Joseph's princes recorded in history. As soon as he was seated on the joy, at his reconciliation with his brethren, and with noble genethrone, he invaded and conquered Egypt, and reigned there three rosity permitted him to invite his family into Egypt. On the years. At the same time he detached part of his army against arrival of Jacob and his sons, he gave them a hospitable recepthe Ethiopians, and commanded his generals to pillage the temple tion, notwithstanding shepherds were held in abomination by the of Jupiter Ammon. Both these expeditions were unfortunate. Egyptians, and assigned them a residence in the land of Goshen. The army which had been sent against the latter perished in the And on Jacob's decease, he permitted Joseph to make a journey sands of the deserts; and that which he led against the former, for into Canaan, to bury him. (Gen. xlv. 16. xlvii. 1. 1. 4.) This want of provisions, was compelled to return with great loss. Mor- Pharaoh is the sovereign alluded to by Stephen in Acts vii. tified at his disappointments, Cambyses now gave full vent to the 10. 13. cruelty of his disposition. He killed his sister Meröe, who was also 3. Pharaon, a king of Egypt, gave one of his daughters in his wife; he commanded his brother Smerdis to be put to death, and marriage to Mered, a descendant of Judah. (1 Chron. iv. 18.) killed many of his principal officers; he treated the gods of the This remarkable alliance must have taken place while the HeEgyptians with the utmost contempt, and committed every possi- brews were the guests and not the slaves of the Egyptians; and ble outrage against them. Hearing at length that his throne was this prince must certainly have been one of the first successors filled by an usurper, who pretended to be his brother Smerdis, of the master of Joseph. and reigned at Babylon, he set out on his return to bis dominions, 4. PHAROAH, king of Egypt, the contemporary of Moses, but died at Ecbatana, a town in Syria, situated at the foot of reigned at the period when Jacob's descendants had already be Mount Carmel.
come a great people. The genealogical lists of that period, which A. M. 3482, B. c. 522. After the death of Cambyses, the Per- are extant, in harmony with the sacred historians, show how sian throne was usurped by seven Magi, who governed for some rapidly the race of Israel had multiplied. (1 Chron. iv. 1—27.) time, making the people believe that their sovereign was Smerdis This prince adopted the false policy of oppressing the Hebrews the brother of Cambyses. The Samaritans, who were always in the manner related in Exod. i., little thinking that his own jealous of the prosperity of the Jews, obtained an edict from the daughter would save from the waters of the Nile the future pseudo-Smerdis (called ARTAXERXES in the Scriptures), prohibi- avenger and deliverer of the Israelites. The recent discoveries, ting them from rebuilding the temple and fortifications of Jerusa- which have thrown new light on Egyptian antiquities, and which lem. (Ezra iv. 7. 16.) This interruption continued until the harmonize more and more with the sacred history, enable us to second year of Darius the son of Hystaspes.
recognise the Pharaohs, who are mentioned in the Bible subseA. m. 3483, B. c. 521. The imposition of the Magi being at quent to the time of Moses. The king, during whose reign length discovered, Darius the son of Hystaspes was acknow- Moses was born, can only be Rameses or Ramses IV. surnamed ledged king. Having been informed of the permission which Mei-Amoun, the last sovereign but one of the eighteenth dynasty. Cyrus had granted to the Jews to rebuild their temple, he allowed The first oppression of the Israelites (Exod. i. 11. 14.) most prothem to resume the work (Ezra iv. 24. vi. 1.), which they had bably commenced under Thoutmosis III. a predecessor of this commenced by the exhortations and encouragement of the pro- prince. But the succeeding narrative of the proscription of all phets Haggai (i. 1.) and Zechariah (i. 1. Ezra v. 1.) This the male Hebrew children, and the birth of Moses, relates only Darius is the Ahasuerus who married Esther and granted va- to this Ramses-Mei-Amoun. (Compare Vol. I. p. 88.) rious privileges to the Jews. (See the book of Esther, through- 5. PHARAOH, the contemporary of Moses, had reigned about out.)
eighteen years, when Moses was commanded to return into A. M. 3519, B.c. 485. Xerxes succeeded Darius in the Persian Egypt, Ramses-Mei-Amoun and his personal enemies being dead. throne; but as no particulars are recorded of him as connected (Exod. iv. 19.) His history is contained in Exod. vi.—xii.: he with the Jews, we pass on to the reign of his successor Artar- perished with his army in the Red Sea. (xiv. 5–31.) This KRYES, who greatly favoured them, first sending Ezra into Judæa Pharoah is Amenophis or Ramses V. the last king of the eigh(Ezra vii. viii.), and afterwards Nehemiah, to rebuild the walls teenth dynasty, and the father of Ramses VI. or Sesostris. of Jerusalem. (Neh. ii. iii.) The Persian monarchy subsisted 6. PHARAOH, the contemporary of David, received at his court, for many centuries after this event; but, as its history is not con- and honourably entertained Hadad, prince of Idumea (to whom nected with that of the Jews, it would be foreign to the plan of he gave his wife's sister in marriage), after the conquest of that this abstract to give the succession of its sovereigns. (Calmet
, country by the Hebrews. (1 Kings xi. 17-19.) He was one Histoire Prophane de l'Orient, $ IV. Dissert. tom. ii. pp. 336 of the last kings of the twenty-first or Tanite dynasty, and most -341.)
probably was a different person from the Pharaoh who is next to Person, crimes against, how punished, 63, 64.
be noticed, because it is difficult to conceive how the protector PESTILENCE or PLAGUE, 38.
of Hadad could be the father-in-law of Solomon. PestILENTIAL Blast or Wind, 40.
7. PHARAOR, the contemporary of Solomon, gave the Hebrew PETER, one of the apostles, formerly called Simon: he was of king his daughter in marriage, with the city of Gezer as a porBethsaida, and was the son of Jonas, a fisherman, which occu- tion. (1 Kings ix. 16.) This prince, the last sovereign of the pation he also followed. When he was called to the apostleship twenty-first or Tanité dynasty, was probably dethroned and put by our Saviour, he received the name of leppes, which signifies to death by Shishak, who was contemporary with Rehoboam. a stone (John i. 43.), probably in reference to the boldness and M. Coquerel (to whom we are indebted for this account of the firmness of his character, and his zeal and activity in promoting Pharaohs) thinks that Eccl. iv. 14. may allude to this event. his Master's cause. See a further account of Peter and an ana- 8. Pharaoh-Necho, the contemporary of Josiah king of Julah, lysis of the two epistles which bear his name, in pp. 362—364. took up arms against the new empire of the Chaldæans, which
PHARAOH, a common appellation of the ancient kings of Egypt, was rapidly advancing and threatening Asia. He resolved to who after the age of Alexander were in like manner termed carry the war across the Euphrates into the very centre of the Ptolemy. Jablonski states, that Prouro, in the common Egyp- Challæan empire; but being opposed in his passage by Josiah, tian dialect, and PHARRO, in the very ancient dialect, spoken in an ally of the Chaldæan monarch, to whom he in vain offered the Thelaid, respectively denote u king. (Opuscala, tom. I. p. terms of peace, he totally discomfited the forces of the Jewish 376.) Mr. Weston derives this name from PIOVRO, which king near Megiddo. He then marched to Jerusalem, which city signifies my king, and which the Greeks rendered 1:00. (Sun- he entered by force or by capitulation ; and, deposing Jehoahaz day Lessons on Gen. xii. 15.) The following are the principal who had jusť succeeded his father upon the throne, he gave the sovereigns of this name, who are mentioned in the Old Testa- crown of Judah to his elder brother Jehoiakim, and levied a heavy
inilitary contribution on the kingdom of Judah. Encouraged by
PH these successes, Necho proceeded on his Asiatic expedition, taking been disinherited by his father, he lived a private life. (Matt with him Jehoahaz, whom he left prisoner at Riblah. He made xiv. 3. Mark vi. 7. Luke iii. 19.) As Josephus calls this prince himself master of Carchemish on the Euphrates; where, after Herod, and the evangelist Philip, it is not improbable, that, after three years' warfare with various success, he was defeated by the custom of the Herodian family, he bore both those names. Nebuchadnezzar, and forced to return into Egypt with the wreck 3. One of the apostles of Jesus Christ, a native of Bethsaida. of his army. On his return, he took the Captive Jehoahaz with (Matt. x. 3. Mark iii. 18. Luke vi. 14. John i. 44–47. 49. him. (2 Kings xxiii. 29-34. xxiv. 7. 2 Chron. xxxv. 20–24. vi. 5. xii. 21, 22. xiv. 8, 9.) He was with the rest of the xxxvi. 1-4.) The Scripture account of the war carried on by apostles and disciples who assembled for prayer in an upper Pharaoh-Necho against the Jews and Babylonians is confirmed room at Jerusalem, after the ascension. (Acts i. 13, 14.) Of by an ancient monument discovered in Egypt by the late enter the subsequent history of this apostle, nothing certain is known. prising traveller Belzoni. (See Vol. I. pp. 89, 90.) Pharaoh- He is said to have preached the Gospel in Scythia and Phrygia, Necho, the son of Psammetichus, and the sixth king of the and was interred at Hierapolis in Phrygia Pacatiana, where he twenty-sixth dynasty, that of the Sa tes, is celebrated in profane suffered martyrdom. history, for his project digging a canal, to join the Nile to the 4. One of the seven deacons of the church at Jerusalem. Red Sea, and by the voyage of discovery which his vessels, man- (Acts vi. 5.) He preached the Gospel at Samaria, where ho ned by Phænician sailors, made round Africa.
performed many miracles, and converted many to the faith o 9. Paanaoh-Hophua, the Apries or Vaphres of profane his- Christ. Afterwards he received a divine command to go towards torians, was the son of Psammis, and grandson of Pharaoh- the south, to the road leading from Gaza to Jerusalem: here he Necho. He was the eighth king of the twenty-sixth dynasty, met an eunuch of Candace queen of Ethiopia, whom he likeand contemporary with Zedekiah king of Judah, with whom he wise converted to the Christian faith. (Acts viii. 5–38.) After formed an alliance against Nebuchadnezzar. During the last baptizing the eunuch, Philip stopped some time at Azotus; anu siege of Jerusalem, Hophra took arms, and advanced to succour passing through, he preached in all the cities until he came to his ally. This diversion was useful for a short time; but, agreea-i Cæsarea,” where he appears to have fixed his residence. He had bly to the predictions of Jeremiah, the Egyptians notwithstand- four daughters; who, like Agabus, according to circumstances, ing their brilliant promises, withdrew without fighting, or at least received the gift of prophecy. (Acts viii. 10. xxi. 8, 9.) without making any resistance. After the destruction of Jeru- PuLippi was a city of Macedonia Prima, or the first of the salem, when, deaf to the counsels of Jeremiah, Azariah and Jo- four parts into which that province was divided. (See Vol. I. hanan took refuge in Egypt, the prophet predicted to them the p. 90.) It was of moderate extent, and situated on the condeplorable end of Hoplora. (Ezek. xvii. 15. Jer. xxxvii. 5. xliii. fines of Thrace. It was formerly called Creniles from its nu9. xliv. 30. xlvi. 26.) The prophet Ezekiel (xxix.) reproaches merous springs, and afterwards Datus from the coal mines in its Pharaoh with his base conduct towards the king of Judah, and vicinity. The name of Philippi is received from Philip the foretells that Egypt should be reduced to a desert, and that the father of Alexander, who fortified it, and made it a frontier town sword should cut off both man and beast. This prediction was against the Thracians. Julius Cæsar planted a colony here, afterwards accomplished, first in the person of Pharaoh-Hophra, which was afterwards enlarged by Augustus, and hence its inwho was deprived of his kingdom by Amasis who usurped his habitants were considered as freemen of Rome. Christianity throne, and subsequently by the conquest of Egypt by the was first planted at Philippi, by Saint Paul, a. D. 50, the particuPersians.
lars of which are related in Acts xvi. 9—40. PHARISEES, tenets of the sect of, 144, 145.
PHILISTINES, Land of, 15. Account of, ibid. Nature of the Phalpak, river. See A Baxa, p. 401.
disease inflicted upon them, 196. PHILADELPHIA, a city of Asia Minor, derived its name from PAILOLOGUS, a Christian at Rome, whom St. Paul salutes in its founder, Attalus Philadelphus, and is situated about twenty- his epistle to the Romans. (xvi. 6.) M. Coquerel is of opinion seven miles to the south-east of Sardis. Not long before the that he was probably a slave who had been restored to liberty, date of the Apocalyptic Epistle, this city had suffered so much and who received the name of Philologus, in consequence of from earthquakes, that it had been in a great measure deserted by his having been instructed in literature and the sciences. its inhabitants; which may in some degree account for the po- Phineas, the son of Eleazar, and grandson of Aaron, was the verty of this church as described in this epistle. And its poverty third high-priest of the Jews. He is greatly commended for his may also in some degree account for its virtue, which is so highly zeal for the glory of God in the affair of Zimri and Cosbi (Num. commended. “ Philadelphia appears to have resisted the attacks xxv. 7.): for which God promised that the priesthood should be of the Turks in 1312 with more success than the other cities. given to his posterity by a perpetual covenant; this condition At a distance from the sea, forgotten by the emperor, encom- being included (as interpreters observe), that his children should passed on all sides by the Turks, her valiant citizens defended continue faithful and obedient. The time of his death is not their religion and freedom above fourscore years, and at length known. capitulated with the proudest of the Ottomans (Bajazet) in 1390. Prebe, a deaconess in the church at Cenchrea, whom Saint Among the Greek colonies and churches of Asia, Philadelphia Paul strongly recommends to the Christians at Rome in his is still erect—a column in a scene of ruins!” (Gibbon’s Decline epistle (xvi. 1, 2.), for her hospitality to himself. The deaconand Fall, vol. xi. p. 438. 8vo. edit.) Whatever may be lost of esses in the primitive church were sometimes married women, the spirit of Christianity, there is still the form of a Christian but most frequently widows advanced in years, and who had church in this city, which is now called Allah-Shehr, or the city been the wife of one man; that is, one who had not parted with of God. It contains about 1000 Christians, chiefly Greeks, most one husband and married another, a practice which at that time of whom speak only the Turkish language. They have twenty. was usual both among the Jews and heathens. (1 Tim. vi. 9, five places of public worship, five of which are large and regular 10.) Their functions consisted in taking care of the sick and churches, with a resident bishop and inferior clergy. The re- poor of their own sex, visiting the prisoners and martyrs, inmains of antiquity here are not numerous. (Hartley's Visit to structing catechumens, assisting at the baptism of women, and the Apocalyptic Churches, in Missionary Register, July, 1827, various other inferior offices. Phæbe is supposed to have been pp. 324—326. Arundell's Visit, pp. 167–174.)
the bearer of St. Paul's epistle to the Romans. PHILEMON, an opulent Christian at Colossa; whose slave Puerice, or Phenicia, a province of Syria, which extended Onesimus having fled from him to Rome, where he was converted from the Gulf of Issus, where it bounded Cilicia on the north, by Saint Paul, the apostle sent him back to his master with the along the coast southwards, to the termination of the ridges of admirable letter, which now forms the epistle to Philemon : for Libanus and Antilibanus, near Tyre, where it met the border an analysis of which, see pp. 347–349.
of Palestine. In breadth it only comprehended the narrow tract Panlip.
between the continuation of Mount Libanus and the sea. The 1. The son of Herod, misnamed the Great, by his wife Cleo- country was exceedingly fertile; and as a commercial nation, the patra ; who, in the division of his father's kingdom, was made Phænicians are the most celebrated people of antiquity. They tetrarch of Batanæa, Trachonitis, and Ituræa. (Luke iii. 1.) planted many colonies, and, among others, Carthage. The He enlarged and embellished the city of Paneas, to which he principal cities of Phænicia were PTOLEMAIS, Sipon, and TYRE, gave his owr. name, and called it Cæsarea, in honour of the of which a notice is given in the subsequent part of this index. emperor Tiberius.
Idols worshipped by them, 138. 2. Another son of the same Herod by Mariamne, daughter PHENICIARCHS, notice of, 140. of Simon the high-priest. He was the husband of Herodias, PHRYGIA is a province of Asia Minor, divided into the Greater who was taken from him by his brother Herod Antipas. Having and Lesser. The former had Bithynia on the north, Galatia on
PU the east, Pamphylia and Lycia on the south, Lydia and Mysia (Gen. xxxvii. 36. xxxix. 19—23.) Potiphar is an Egyptian on the west. Its chief cities mentioned in Scripture (Col. ii. 1.) proper name, which has been explained by the Coptic not are Laodicea and Hierapolis; and of this St. Luke seems to Oppo father, that is, prime minister of Pharro, or Pharaoh. speak in Acts ii. 10. because he joins it with Pamphylia below Some expositors have made a distinction between the master of it. In Acts xvi. 6. he means Phrygia Minor. The inhabitants Joseph and the keeper of the prison into which he was thrown. are said to have been a servile people, kept in their duty best by Others, however, have conjectured, with more probability, that stripes, and made wise only by sufferings. In all these parts of Potiphar, after having punished Joseph in a transport of wrath Asia Minor, even to Bythinia and the Euxine Sea, the Jews and jealousy, acknowledged his innocence; but that, in order to anciently were very numerous.
avoid disgracing his wife, instead of restoring Joseph to his Paur, or Put, the name of an African people. According to former office, he confided to him the command of the stateJosephus (Ant. Jud. I. i. c. 7.) they were the inhabitants of prison. Mauritania, where there is a river called Phut. (Plin. Nat. Hist. POTIPHERAH, governor, or, more correctly, priest of On, is 1. v. c. 1.) According to the Septuagint and Ņulgate versions known only from the circumstance of his having given his they were the Libyans. (Jer. xlvi. 9. Ezek. xxvii. 10. xxxviii. daughter in marriage to Joseph. (Gen. xli. 45. xlvi. 20.) 5. Nah. iii. 9.) They are supposed to have been the descend- Jablonski supposed it to be the same as the Coptic THONTants of Phut, the third son of Ham. (Gen. x. 6.)
QPH, priest of the sun; and the recent discoveries among the PaylaCTERIES described, 156,
Egyptian monuments have shown that his conjecture was not Physics, or Medicine, state of, 194—197.
altogether without foundation. PE-THEPH-RE signifies that which Pursics, or natural philosophy of the Jews, 186.
belongs to Re or the Sun: this name was peculiarly suitable for PIHAHIROTH or Hiroth, without the prefix, a place on the a priest of On or Heliopolis, the city of the sun. Undesigned Red Sea, where the Israelites made their second encampment. coincidences like these strongly corroborate the antiquity and (Exod. xiv. 2. 9. Num. xiji. 7.) As the Israelites were properly authenticity of the Mosaic narrative. delivered at this place from their captivity, and fear of the Porten's Fuld. See ACELDAMA. Egyptians (Exod. xiv. 5.), Dr. Shaw thinks that it derived its Prayers of the Jews, various appellations of, 131. Public name from that circumstance. (Travels, vol. ii. p. 98.) prayers, ibid. Private prayers, ibid. How offered in the synaPilate, Pontius, notice of, 53.
gogues, 104. Attitudes in prayer, 131, 132. Forms of prayer Pisgau, Mount, 31.
in use among the Jews, 132. The nineteen prayers now used Pisidia (Acts xiv. 24.), a country in Asia Minor, having by them, 106, 107. Pamphylia on the south, Galatia on the north, Isauria on the PREACHING, a part of the synagogue service, 106. east, and Phrygia on the west. Its chief city was Antioch in PRECIPITATION, a Jewish punishment, 68. Pisidia (Acts xiii. 14.), so called to distinguish it from Antioch PREPARATION of the Passover, 123. Of the Sabbath, 122. in Syria.
Presents offered to superiors, 169. Pisos, one of the four great rivers which watered the garden Priests, privileges and functions of, 112, 113. of Eden. (Gen. ii. 11, 12.) The author of the apocryphal book Princes of tribes and families, 41. of Ecclesiasticus, speaking of a wise man, says, that “he filleth Praisca or Priscilla, the wife of Aquila, a converted Jew of all things with his wisdom,” or spreads it on every side, “as Pontus. See Aquila, p. 407. Phison and Tigris" spread their waters “ in the time of the new Prisonens (Roman), treatment of, 58–60. Oriental mode fruils,” that is, when they are swollen by the melting of the of treating prisoners, 66. Probable origin of one being released winter snows. Calmet, Reland, and others, suppose it to be the at the Passover, 123. Eyes of, put out, 66. Phasis, a celebrated river of Colchis; Eusebius and Jerome, Prisons (Jewish), notice of, 65, 66. after Josephus, make it to be the Ganges, which passing into PRIVILEGES of the first-born, 163, India falls into the ocean.
PROCEEDINGS, judicial, forms of, 55—60. Pithom, one of the cities built by the Israelites for Pharaoh. Procurators (Roman), powers of, 52, 53. State of the (Exod. i. 11.) Sir John Marsham imagines it to be Pelusium; Jews under them, 53. but it is most probably the fatlumos of Herodotus. (Hist. I. ii. Productions of the Holy Land, 35—37. c. 158.), by the Arabians in later times called Fijum or Faijum PROMISE, land of, 13. (pronounced Faioum), which is also applied to the province. PROMULGATION of laws, 47, 48. PLAGUE, not unknown in Palestine, 38.
PROPERTY, crimes against, how punished, 62, 63. Disposal Plains of the Holy Land, account of, 33.
of property, 164. Pleading, form of, among the Jews, in civil and criminal Propuets, notice of, 47. 116. Punishment of false prophets, cases, 55, 56.
62. Schools of the prophets, 184, 185. (See further the General PLOUGHING, Jewish mode of, 177.
Index of Matters, No. III. infra. article Prophets.) “ The Prom POETRY, cultivated by the Hebrews, 186.
phets" an ancient division of the Old Testament, p. 213. of this POLITENESS, Jewish forms of, 168, 169.
volume. Table of the sections of the prophets, as read in the
PROSEUCHE or oratories of the Jews, 102, 103.
PTOLEMAIS, anciently called Accho (Judg. i. 31.), and now
known by the name of Acre, is a port and town situated on the Pontus, a province of Asia Minor, having the Euxine Sea shore of the Mediterranean Sea, on the confines of Lower and on the north, Cappadocia on the south, Paphlagonia and Galatia Upper Galilee. Here Saint Paul rested for one day on his journey on the east, and the Lesser Armenia on the west. It is supposed from Ephesus to Jerusalem. (Acts xxi. 7.) As this port must that Saint Peter preached in Pontus, because he addresses his always have been of great importance in time of war, the town first Epistle to the believing Hebrews, who were scattered has, consequently, undergone great changes. During the croisades throughout this and the neighbouring provinces.
this city suffered exceedingly both from infidels and Christians, Pools of Solomon, 29. Pool of Bethesda, 21. And of Si. between whom it was the scene of many sanguinary conflicts: at loam, ibid.
length fell under the dominion of the late Djezzar Pacha, under Poor, Jewish laws concerning, 83.
whose government and that of his successor it has revived, and Population of the Holy Land, 38. Of Jerusalem, 22. is now one of the most considerable towns on the coast. Acre Porch of Solomon, 99.
has a beautiful appearance, when beheld from a short distance. Possessions, demoniacal, reality of, 197.
This place is celebrated for the repulse there given to Napoleon Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh's body guard, who pur- Buonaparte, by the Turks under the command of Sir Sydney chased Joseph of some Midianitish merchants, and made him Smith, who, after a long and memorable siege, compelled the superintendent of his house. Afterwards, however, listening to French to retire with great loss, and ultimately to abandon Syria. the false charges of his wife, who accused Joseph of attempting Publicans, or collectors of the revenue, account of, 78, 79. to seduce her, he threw Joseph into prison, where he was rigo- Why odious to the Jews, 79. rously confined.' It should seem that this rigour was not of very Publius, an opulent governor of Malta, at the time of St. long continuance; and that he restored Joseph to all his conti- Paul's shipwreck, who miraculously healed his father of a dan dence, and intrusted him with the management of the prison. gerous malady. The bay in which the vessel was wrecked was
RA contiguous to his estate ; and he most probably entertained the capital city of the Ammonites, and against the rest of the country, apostle during his three months' residence on that island. (Acts which probably had their completion five years after the destrucxxiii. 7, 8.) An ancient inscription found at Malta designates its tion of Jerusalem. Antiochus the Greek took the city of Rabgovernor by the same appellation-PATOE or chief man- bath-Ammon about A. M. 3786. Some time before this, Ptolemy which St. Luke gives to Publius. (Bloomfield and Kuinüel on | Philadelphus had given it the name of PHILADELPHIA. Which Acts xxviii. 7, 8.)
see in this index. Pol, or Phul.
2. RABBATH-MOAB, or Rabbath of the children of Moab, the 1. The proper name of a people remote from Palestine. (Isa. capital of the Moabites, otherwise Ar, or Ariel of Moab, and lxvi. 19.) The Latin Vulgate renders it Africa ; according to KIRhenes, or the city with brick walls. (Jer. xlviii. 31. 36.) Bochart, it was Philæ, an island of the Nile in Upper Egypt. This city was situated on the river Ar: it underwent many revoVitringa supposes it to be a place in the extremity of Egypt; it lutions, and the prophets denounced heavy judgments against it. being the prophet's object, in the passage just cited, to designate RABBI, or Rab Boni, import of, 185. the most remote parts.
RABDOMANCY, or divination by the staff, 143, 2. The name of the first king of Assyria, who is mentioned in RABSHAKEA, an officer of Sennacherib king of Assyria, who the Scriptures. He invaded the kingdom of Israel shortly after was sent with Rabsaris and Tartan to summon Hezekiah to surMenahem had usurped the throne, who gave a thousand talents render to his master. (2 Kings xviii. 17.) of silver to support him in his kingdom. (2 Kings xv. 19, 20.) Raca, a Syriac word of contempt, meaning a worthless person.
PUNISHMENTS (Hebrew), design of, 64. Inferior punishments, (Matt. v. 22.) Those who applied this term to another were ob64–66. Capital punishments, 66–69.
noxious to punishment by the Council of twenty-three. See PcNISHMENTS (Roman), mentioned in the Bible, account of, p. 55. supra. 69–72.
Rachel, the youngest daughter of Laban, and the wife of PURIFICATIONs of the Hebrews, account of, 133. Purifica- Jacob. She was the mother of Joseph and Benjamin. In Jer. tions of the leprosy, in persons, garments, and houses, 133, 134. xxxi. 15. the prophet introduces Rachel as bewailing the exile of Purifications in case of minor impurities, 134.
her posterity, that is, Ephraim; by quoting which language the Purim, or feast of Lots, account of, 128.
evangelist Matthew (ii. 18.) in a similar manner introduces her as Puteolt, a maritime town of Campania, in Italy, between hemoaning the fate of the children who were massacred at BethBaix and Naples, founded by a colony from Cuinæ. It was lehem. (Compare Vol. i. p. 317.) The tomb of Rachel is still originally called Dicæarchia, and afterwards Puteoli, from the shown to travellers, near the ruins of the village of Ramah. “It great number of wells (putei) which were in the neighbourhood. is one of the few places where the observer is persuaded that It is now called Puzzoli or Puzzuolo. Here Saint Paul abode tradition has not erred..... The spot is as wild and solitary as seven days, by the favour of the centurion, on his tirst journey to can well be conceived ; no palms or cypresses give their shelter Rome. (Acts xxviii. 13.) It appears from Acts xxviii. 11. that from the blast ; not a single tree spreads its shade where the Puteoli was the destination of this vessel from Alexandria ; and beautiful mother (wife) of Israel rests." (Carne's Recollections we learn from the independent testimony of the Jewish historian, of the East, p. 157.) Mr. Maundrell is of opinion that this may Josephus, corroborated by the geographer Strabo, that this was be the true place of Rachel's interment: but the present sepulthe port of Italy to which ships from Egypt and the Levant com- chral monument can be none of that which Jacob erected; for monly sailed. (Antiq. Jud. lib. xviii. c. 7. § 4. c. 8. $ 2. Strabo, it appears to be plainly a modern and Turkish structure. The Geogr. I. xvii. p. 793. ed Casaub.)
graves of the Moslems lie thickly strewn around this tomb.
.). A woman of Jericho, who received into her house, and Quartus, a Christian resident at Corinth, whose salutations afterwards concealed, the two spies, whom Joshua had sent to Saint Paul transmitted to Rome. He was probably a Roman, explore that city and its contiguous territory. On the capture of whom commercial affairs had led into Greece. (Rom. xvi. 23.) Jericho, Rahab, with her parents, brethren, and all that she had,
QUICKSAND (Luptas). Two syrtes or sand banks, on the under the conduct of the two spies, quitted her house in safety. northern coast of Africa, were particularly celebrated among the She subsequently married Salmon, one of the chief men in the ancients; one of which, called the Syrtis major, lay between tribe of Judah, and became the mother of Boaz. (Josh. ii. vi. 17. Cyrene and Leptis, and is most probably THN Superv, THE 22, 23. Ruth iv. 21. Matt. i. 5.) Much discussion has taken Quicksund, alluded to in Acts xxvii. 17.; since a vessel bound place respecting Rahab, whether she were a harlot or one who westward, after passing Crete, might easily be driven into it by kept a house of entertainment for strangers. The same word in a strong north-easterly wind. The other (Syrtis minor) lay the Hebrew language denotes persons of both professions: for near Carthage. (Kuinüel on Acts xxvii. 17. Robinson's Lexi- the same reason, the appellation of harlot is given to Rahab in con, voce Lupti.)
the Septuagint version, from which the apostles Paul (Heb. xi. Quirinus or Crrenius (Kunvios, in Latin Quirinus), that is, 31.) and James (ii. 25.) make use of the same expression : but Publius Sulpicius Quirinus, a Roman senator ; who, after the the Chaldee paraphrast calls her by a word which signifies a banishment of Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul, and the annexation woman who keeps a public house, without any mark of infamy. of Judæa to the province of Syria, was sent from Rome, as Since those apostles cite her as an eminent example of faith in governor of Syria, to take a census of the whole province with God, and have ranked her with Abraham, we shall be justified a view to taxation. (Compare Acts v. 37.) This census he com- in putting the most charitable construction upon the appellation pleted, a. D. 8. This enrolment is alluded to in Luke ii. 2.; for given to her. an elucidation of which, see Vol. I. pp. 419, 420.
2. A poetical name of Egypt. (Isa. xxx. 7. li. 9. Psal. Ixxxvii. 4. lxxxix. 11.) The Hebrew word signifies proud ; and the
name seems to have been given to Egypt from the pride and inRABBATH.
solence of its princes and inhabitants. 1. RABBATH, Rabbath-Ammon, or RABBATI of the children Rains, early and latter, importance of, in Palestine, 24. of Ammon, afterwards called Philadelphia, the capital of the RAMA, RAMAH, or RAMATHAIM, was a small town or village Ammonites, was situated beyond Jordan. It was a place of in the tribe of Benjamin, about thirty miles north of Jerusalem : considerable note in the time of Moses. When David declared it is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. As it stood in war against the Ammonites, his general Joab laid siege to Rab- a pass between the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, Baasha king bath-Ammon, where the brave Uriah lost his life, by a secret of Israel seized it, and began to fortify it, to prevent his subjects order given by this prince, that Uriah should be forsaken in a from passing that way into the kingdom of Judah. (1 Kings xv. place of danger. And when the city was reduced to the last 17. 21.) Here Nebuzaradan, the Chaldæan general, disposed of extremity, David himself went thither, that he might have the his Jewish prisoners after their capital was taken, which occahonour of taking it. From this time it became subject to the sioned a great lamentation among the daughters of Rachel. (Jer. kings of Judah. Afterwards the kings of Israel became masters xl. 1–3. xxxi. 15.) Oriental geographers speak of this place of it, with all the rest of the tribes beyond Jordan. But towards as having formerly been the metropolis of Palestine; and Mr. the conclusion of the kingdom of Israel, Tiglath-pileser having Buckingham informs us that every appearance of its ruins even taken away a great part of the Israelites from that country, the now confirms the opinion of its having been once a considerable Ammonites were guilty of many cruelties against those who city, Its situation, as lying immediately in the high road from remained, in consequence of which the prophets Jeremiah and Jaffa to Jerusalem, made it necessarily a place of great resort; Ezekiel pronounced very severe prophecies against Rabbath, the land, from the fruitfulness of the country around it, it must have