JO try (see p. 136.), and changed the order of the Hebrew calendar. nacle in the wilderness, we may readily conceive, would, in no He is never mentioned in the Old Testament, but in terms of long time, form establishments of this kind, after they were detestation. He died after a reign of 22 years.

settled in Canaan. JEROBOAM II., the thirteenth king of Israel, succeeded his 2. Joab, the son of Zeruiah, and nephew of David. With father Jehoahash. He reigned 41 years; and is recorded to have his brothers Abishai and Asahel, he commanded his uncle's done evil in the sight of God, following the example of Jero- troops against Abner. He was one of the greatest generals and boam I.

most valiant men in David's army, but was of an imperious and JERUBBAAL. See GIDEON.

revengeful disposition. Having conspired to raise Adonijah to JERUSALEM (city), situation of, and the name by which it was the throne of his father David, Joab was put to death by comcalled, 18, 19. Fortifications and walls, 19, 20. Its state before mand of Solomon. the war of the Jews with the Romans, 20. Remarkable build- JOANNA, the wife of Chuza, steward of Herod Antipas. She ings, 21. Temple, 98—101. Successive captures of this city, is enumerated among those women, who having been healed by 21. Its present state and population, 22.

Jesus, followed him out of Galilee, and assisted in supporting Jesus, that is, the Saviour, the name of the Messiah, the Son him. (Luke viii. 3. xxiv. 10.) of God, and the Divine Author of the Christian religion, who Joasi, the eighth king of Judah, was the son of Ahazialı. is constituted by God the Lord of all things. He is called Jesus, On the massacre of his family by Athaliah, he was preserved by because he came to save his people from their sins. (Matt. i. 21. Jehoiada the high-priest and his wife Jehoshebah, and secreted Eph. i. 21, 22. Heb. i. 2.) The history of his life, miracles, for six years in one of the apartments of the temple, where he doctrine, death, resurrection, and ascension, is related in the four was brought up. At the age of seven years, the courageous Gospels. In 2 Cor. i. 19. Jesus is, metonymically, put for the fidelity of the high-priest placed him on the throne of his anGospel or religion of Jesus.

cestors. During the life of Jehoiada, he ruled well; but on the JETARO, or Raguel, a priest of Midian, and the father-in-law death of that wise and pious counsellor, he listened to the adof Moses, to whom he gave the wise counsel, of instituting infe- vice of some of his courtiers ; fell into gross idolatry; and at rior judges (from him sometimes termed Jethronian prefects), length put to death the son of his benefactor. From this time, to hear and determine minor causes ; while questions of moment his reign became disastrous; his kingdom was invaded by the were brought before the Hebrew legislator himself. See p. 42. Syrians under Hazael ; his armies were totally discomfited by

Jews. After the captivity, most of those who returned and very inferior forces ; and he could only save his capital, by derebuilt Jerusalem and the temple, and restored the rites of the livering to the Syrians the treasures which had been consecrated Mosaic worship, having sprung from the kingdom of Judah, the by his predecessors, and those which he had himself offered in term Jews became a general appellation for all the inhabitants the temple. A lingering illness seized him: the blood of Zechaof Palestine, and afterwards for those descended from them. riah, the son of Jehoiada, found avengers; and after reigning (Dan. iii. 8. Esth. iii. 10. 2 Macc. ix. 17.) For the political 40 years, Joash was assassinated by three of his servants. state of the Jews, from the patriarchal times to their final disper-|(2 Kings xii. 2 Chron. xxiv.) sion, see pp. 40–53. Their courts of judicature, legal proceed- Joasu or Jenoasu, king of Israel, the son and successor of ings, criminal law and punishments, 54–57. The whole nation Jehoahaz. Possessed of more talents than virtues, by his fortuwhy accounted holy, 108. Account of the Jewish church and nate wars he prepared the splendid reign of his son Jeroboam its members, 108–111. All male Jews required to be at Jeru- II.; and wanted nothing but piety. He reigned sixteen years, salem, at the three great annual festivals, 122. Whither they during which he " did evil in the sight of the Lord, and departed travelled in caravans, ibid. note. Corruptions of religion among not from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made them, and their idolatry, 135–143. Their extreme corruption | Israel to sin.” (2 Kings xii. 10–12. xiv.) during the time of Christ, 148–150. Their mode of computing Job, an inhabitant of the land of Uz or Idumea, whose piety time, 72–77. Their private life, manners, customs, occupations, and afflictions are celebrated in the poetical book which bears arts, and sciences, 150--187.

his name ; for an account of which, and of the patriarch himself, Jews of the dispersion, who they were, 109.

see pp. 227-237. For a notice of the disease with which he In the New Testament, the term “ Jew" is employed, was afflicted, see p. 196.

(1.) With reference both to nation and religion. (Matt. xxviii. Joel, the son of Pethuel, and the second of the minor pro15. Mark vii. 3.)

phets. His history is entirely unknown. See an analysis of his (2.) With reference to religion only. (Rom. ii, 28, 29. Rev. predictions, in p. 270. ü. 9. ii. 9.)

Јонх. . (3.) With reference to nation only. (Acts xix. 34. xxi. 39. 1. John the Baptist, the son of Zecharias and Elisabeth, was xxii. 3. Gal. ii. 13.)

the kinsman and precursor of Jesus Christ, and distinguished JEZEBEL.

for the simplicity and integrity of his life. Notice of his dress, 1. The daughter of Ethbaal or Ithobalus king of the Zido- see p. 395. He was beheaded by order of Herod Antipas, whom nians, and wife of Ahab king of Israel. She was infamous for he had reproved for his incestuous marriage. (Matt. iii. 1. xiv. her idolatries, and for her cruel persecutions of the worshippers 2–4. 8. 10.) of the true God, particularly the prophets. She at length pe- 2. Joun the Apostle and Evangelist, was the son of Zebedee rished miserably, according to a prediction of the prophet Elijah. and Salome, brother of James the elder, and originally a fisher(1 Kings xvi. 31. xviii. 4. 13. xxi. 23. 2 Kings ix. 30–37.) man. He seems to have been of a mild and affectionate dispo.

2. In Rev. ii. 20. Jezebel is put as a generic term for an idol- sition, and peculiarly dear to his Lord. His name is prefixed to atrous and infamous woman, ihe emblem of corrupt teachers. the fourth Gospel, to three Epistles, and to the Apocalypse; for Compare p. 462.

an analysis of which, see pp. 313-318. 364—377, 378—383. JEZREEL, a celebrated city, situated in a valley of that name, 3. John, surnamed Mark, the companion of Paul and Barin the canton of the half-tribe of Manasseh, on the west of the nabas in their journeys. river Jordan, and on the confines of the tribe of Issachar. 4. Joun, one of the chief men among the Jews, a member (Josh. xix. 18.) Here Ahab had a palace; and here the retri- of the Sanhedrin, and perhaps related to the high-priest. (Acts butive justice of God overtook Jezebel. (2 Kings ix. 30—37.) iv. 6.) JEZREEL, Plain of, account of, 33.

Joktan, the eldest son of Eber, from whom many Arabian JOAB.

tribes were descended. (Gen. x. 25—30.) 1. Joab, the son of Seraiah and the grandson of Kenaz (1 JOKTHEEL. Chron. iv. 13, 14.), nephew of Othniel the first judge of the 1. A city belonging to the tribe of Judah. (Josh. xv. 38.) Hebrews, was the founder of a colony of artizans, or “crafts- 2. The name which Amaziah king of Judah gave to Selah, men," at Ono, in the tribe of Benjamin, not far from the river an Arabian city which he took. (2 Kings xiv. 7.) Jordan. The valley, where he settled, obtained the name of Jonan. the Valley of Craftsmen, an appellation which shows that the 1. Jonal, the son of Amittai, and the fifth of the minor arts practised by them were of the first utility; and Nehe- prophets, who was swallowed by a large fish, and continued miah gave it the same appellation. (xi. 35.) The establishment three days and three nights in the stomach of the monster. of Joab, towards the time of the first judge, from whom he was See an analysis of his prophecy in p. 259. descended, proves that the Hebrews had not forgotten the arts 2. Jonan or Joxas, the father of the apostle Simon Peter. which they had acquired in Egypt, and shows in what estima- He was a fisherman. (John i. 42. xxi. 15–17.) tion trades were held. The people, who had erected the taber- JONATHAN, the son of Saul, and the faithfully attached friend


JU of David in all his persecutions. Jonathan displayed signal whom he accompanied to Mount Sinai at the giving of the law. valour in the wars with the Philistines. He perished in battle In the battle with the Amalekites, he had bravely commanded with his father on Mount Gilboa; and his death is pathetically the Israelites, and had been blessed with victory. He had been lamented by David in a funeral elegy which he composed in one of the twelve spies, whom Moses had sent to explore the honour of both. (2 Sam. i.)

land of Canaan; and as Caleb and he were the only persons Jorpa, a sca-port of Palestine, on the Mediterranean, called out of that number who had encouraged the people when intimialso Japha, and now universally Jaffa, owes all the circumstances dated by the report of the other spies, so they were the only Is. of its celebrity, as the principal port of Judæa, to its situation raelites who were more than twenty years of age that survived with regard to Jerusalem. It is situated on the side of a low their forty years' wandering in the desert

, and participated in the hill, over the sea. “ As a station for vessels, its harbour is one conquest of Canaan. Joshua died at the age of 110 years, after of the worst in the Mediterranean : ships generally anchor about he had for seventeen years governed the Israelites. His earlier a mile from the town, to avoid the shoals and rocks of the place. name was Hoshea, which Moses changed to Joshua, or, as it is In ancient times it was the only place resorted to as a sea-port pronounced in Hebrew, Jehoshuah, the import of which is the in all Judæa. Hither Solomon ordered the materials for the Salvation of God. Joshua has been considered as a type of our temple to be brought from Mount Libanus, previous to their Saviour. As the Hebrew general vanquished the impious Ca. conveyance by land to Jerusalem.” (Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. naanites by the aid of God, and introduced His people into the p. 442. Jolliffe's Letters from Palestine, p. 198. Irby's and rest of the promised land, so Jesus (whose name in Greek is Mangles' Travels, pp. 186–188.) It is a place of very great the same as Jehoshuah) will one day subdue and exterminate antiquity; and it appears from the Acts of the Apostles (ix. x. the enemies of his name and disciples, and will introduce his xi.) that the Gospel was received here soon after Christ's ascen- people into that place of rest, in which they will enjoy perfect sion. Here also St. Peter restored Dorcas to life (Acts ix. 40.), and eternal happiness. For an analysis of the book of Joshua, and from this place it was that the prophet Jonah, many centu- see pp. 214–216; and for an account of the division of the ries before, had embarked for Nineveh. (Jonah i. 3.) The Holy Land by him, see pp. 16, 17. of this volume ; and for his house of the British vice-consul (signor Damiani), in 1831, government of the Israelites, see p. 42. Observations on the stood on the reputed site of the house which had been Simon pile of stones raised by Joshua at Gilgal, I. 100, 101. the Tanner's, the host of the apostle Peter; and a portion of an Josiau, the son of Amnon and Jedidah, succeeded his father ancient wall therein was pointed out, as a genuine relic of the on the throne of Judah, at the early age of eight years, and during original mansion. (Three Weeks in Palestine, p. 6. London, a reign of thirty-one years he endeavoured, with much success, 1833.)

to restore the worship of God to its original purity. Being a Joram. See JEHORAM, 2. P. 430.

tributary or ally of the Assyrians, he refused a passage through Jordan, River, account of, pp. 25, 26. Region round about, his dominions to Pharaoh-Necho king of Egypt, who was marchp. 33. Thickets of, p. 36.

ing into Assyria. The two armies met at Megiddo, where Josiah, JOSEPH.

entering into the battle in disguise, was mortally wounded by an 1. Joseph, the eleventh son of Jacob, born of Rachel. Hated arrow: he died at Jerusalem, deeply regretted by all his subjects. by his brethren, he was sold by them as a slave to some Mi- Jeremiah composed Lamentations in his honour. (2 Kings xxii. dianitish merchants, by whom he was carried into Egypt, and xxiii. 2 Chron. xxxiv.) again sold to Potiphar. He subsequently became governor over Jotham, the eleventh king of Judah, exercised the regal all the land of Egypt, and sent for his father and brethren to authority during the leprosy which terminated the life of his Egypt, where he provided for them. On the departure of the father Uzziah, whom he succeeded on the throne. He is recorded Israelites, pursuant to his command, the remains of Joseph, to have done that which was right in the sight of God, and to which had been embalmed according to the Egyptian process, have imitated his father's piety. He became mighty, because were carried into Canaan (Heb. xi. 22.), and, it should seem he prepared his ways before the LORD his God." He disfrom Josh. xxiv. 31., after the conquest by Joshua, were interred comfited the Ammonites, and for three years received of them a in Jacob's field near Shechem. (Gen. xxxvii. 1.) Joseph is rich tribute in silver, barley, and corn, which his father had imsometimes, metonymically, put for his descendants, that is, the posed; but which that people had refused to pay. Magnificent half-tribe of Ephraim.

erections distinguished his reign. The principal gate of the 2. The husband of Mary, and the reputed father of Jesus. temple was enlarged and embellished; the hill of Ophel received (Matt. i. 16. 18—20. 24. ii. 13. 19. Luke i. 27. ii. 4. 16. 33. new fortifications; and various buildings, both for habitation and 43. iii. 23. iv. 22. John i. 46. vi. 42.)

defence, were erected in the mountains of Judah. After a reign 3. Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Jewish Sanhedrin, of sixteen years he died, much regretted by his people, and was and privately a disciple of Jesus Christ. After his death, Joseph interred in the sepulchres of the kings, e. c. 742. requested his body of Pilate, and honourably entombed it in his JUBAL, the son of Lamech and Adah : he was the father of own new sepulchre. (Matt. xxvii. 57—60. Mark xv. 43–45. all such as handle the harp and organ. (Gen. iv. 21.) In other Luke xxiii. 50. John xix. 38.)

terms, he was the inventor of musical instruments. By compar4. One of the seventy disciples of Jesus, also called Barsabas ing his discoveries with those of Jabal, the institutor of the and Justus. He was nominated as one of the two candidates nomadic life, and of Tubal-Cain, the instructor of every artificer for the apostleship in place of the traitor Judas. (Acts i. 23.) in brass and iron, we may perceive how soon the agreeable folJos es.

lowed the useful arts. 1. A brother of James the Less, and a kinsman of Jesus. JUBILEE, Feast of, how celebrated, 128, 129. (Matt. xiii. 55. xxvii. 56. Mark vi. 3. xv. 40. 47.) He is the JUDAH. only one of the sons of Cleopas and Mary who did not become 1. Judah, the fourth son of Jacob and Leah, gave his name to an apostle ; which circumstance has been accounted for by Co- the most numerous of the tribes of Israel ; for the limits of the querel, who supposes that Joses was one of those brethren or canton assigned to which, see p. 17. At the time of the revolukinsmen of Jesus Christ who distinguished himself by his want tion under Rehoboam and Jeroboam, this tribe also gave its name of faith in hin (compare John vii. 5.), and therefore was deemed to that part of the kingdom of Israel which continued faithful to unfit for the apostleship. As it appears from Acts i. 14. that the house of David. the brethren of Jesus were present at the meetings of his dis- 2. DESERT OF JUDAH, account of, 34. ciples, which were held between the ascension and the day of 3. Kingdom Of Judah, 17. Causes of its duration for a Pentecost, it is not improbable that Joses was converted after the longer time than the kingdom of Israel, 49. resurrection.

4. LAND OF JUDAH, notice of, 14. 2. Joses, surnamed BARNABAS, the companion of St. Paul. 5. MOUNTAINS OF JUDAH, notice of, 31. (Acts iv. 36.)

JUDÆA, Country of, 18. Joshua, the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, called Jesus Judas. by the Greeks. He was the minister or servant, and the suc- 1. Judas, surnamed Iscariot, (Heb. uwin, Isa Karioti), cessor of Moses; an office which he deserved to fill on many that is, a man of Karioth or Carioth, one of the apostles of Jesus accounts: for not only had Moses discovered in him distinguished Christ. He seems to have possessed the full confidence of his talents, but God himself had destined Joshua to be the com- fellow-apostles, by whom he was intrusted with all the presents mander-in-chief of his people, in which capacity Moses presented which were made to them, and with all their means of subsisthim to them a short time before his death. Joshua had dis- ence: and, when the twelve were sent out to preach and to work played both knowledge and courage during the life of Moses, I miracles, Judas appears to have been among them, and to have


к received the same powers. He was accustomea, however, even Lebanon. (Gen. xv. 19.) They derived their name from their at this time, to appropriate part of the common stock to his own eastern situation. use (John xii. 6.), and at length sealed his infamy by betraying KANAH, Brook, 26. his Lord for money to the Jews. Judas perished miserably, being KARIOTH or KERIOTI, a town belonging to the tribe of Judah. driven by remorse to hang himself; but the cord broke, and he (Josh. xv. 25.). Also, a town belonging to the tribe of Benjafell (probably from some elevated place) with such violence as to min. (Josh. xviii. 28.). Of one or other of these places, the rupture the abdomen, and dash out his intestines upon the ground. traitor Judas was a native. See Judas, 1. (Matt. xxvii. 5. Acts i. 18.)

Kedar, a tribe of Arabian nomades, descended from Kedar, 2. Judas, a Christian teacher, also called Barsabas, who was the son of Ishmael. (Gen. xxv. 13.) The habits of the Turcosent from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas. Judas mans, a nomadic tribe who infest the inland portions of Asia and Silas are termed prophets as well as Agabus : which title is Minor, are precisely those of the wandering hordes of Kedar, as given them in a two-fold sense, as zealous preachers of the Gos- described in the books of the Old Testament; and their black pel, and as ministers of God, who were divinely inspired, accord- tents would fully suit the simile of Solomon (Song i. 5)., while ing to the exigencies of the church, to predict future events. their pastoral traffic is in every respect that adverted to in Ezekiel (Acts xv, 22. 27. 32.)


. 21.), in his denunciations of destruction against 'Tyre, 3. Judas, surnamed the Galilæan in Acts v. 37. and also by Emerson's Letters from the Ægean, vol. i. p. 192.) Josephus (Ant. Jud. lib. xviii. c. 1. $ 6. xx. c. 5. 2. Bell. Jud. I. KEDRON, Kipron, or CEDRON, Brook, account of, 26. ü. c. 8. $ 1.), who further calls him a Gaulonite (Ant. Jud. l. xviii. Kenites, a Canaanitish people, who, according to 1 Sam. xv. c. 1.9 1.), was born at Gamala, a city of Lower Gaulonitis, near 6., compared with Num. xxiv. 20, 21., dwelt among the Amalethe south-eastern shore of the lake of Tiberias. In company kites. According to Judg. i. 16. iv. 11., they appear to have with one Sadok or Sadducus, he attempted to excite a sedition been descended from Hobab the brother-in-law of Moses. among the Jews, but was destroyed by Quirinus, at that time Kenizzites, an ancient Canaanitish people, who may have governor of Syria and Judæa.

been descended from Kenaz, a grandson of Esau. Their place 4. Judas or Jude, one of the apostles, also called Lebbeus and of residence cannot now be determined. (Gen. xv. 19. Num. Thaddeus, the son of Alphæus and Mary, own brother of James xxxii. 12.) the Less and cousin of our Lord. He was author of the epistle Keturah, the second wife of Abraham, who married her after which bears his name; for an analysis of which, as well as a the death of Sarah; she bore him six sons. (Gen. xxv.) further account of Jude, see pp. 377, 378.

Kings, person of, sacred, 44. Their powers, functions, and 5. Judas MaccaBÆUS, son of Mattathias, whom he succeeded revenues, 43–46. in the office of captain of the Jews, during the persecution of KINGDOMS of Israel and Judah, 17. Latent causes of the Antiochus Epiphanes. (1 Macc. iii. 1.). After performing many schism between, 48. Causes of the longer duration of the kingheroic and glorious actions, he at length fell nobly in the field of dom of Judah, 49. battle, in an engagement with the Syrian army under the com- Kır (or Cyrus), a river to the banks or vicinity of which mand of Bacchides, the general of Demetrius, the successor of Tiglath-Pileser, king of Assyria, sent the principal inhabitants of Antiochus. (1 Macc. ix. 18.)

Syria, whom he had taken captive. (2 Kings xvi. 9.) _At present JUDGES of the Israelites, powers and functions of, 42. Judges it is called Kur by the Russians, and Kier by the Persians ; it appointed by Moses, powers of, ibid.

unites its waters to the Aras or Araxes, and empties itself into JUDICATURE (Jewish), courts of, and proceedings therein, the Caspian Sea, under the 30th degree of north latitude. A 54–57.

people of foreign aspect, called Usbecks, dwell there to this time, JUDICATURE (Roman), account of, 57—60.

who (Prof. Jahn thinks) may be the descendants of these capJulia, a female Christian at Rome, who is supposed to have tives. (Hist. of Heb. Commonwealth, vol. i. p. 140.) been the wife of Philologus. (Rom. xvi. 15.) It is not improba- KIR-HERES. See RABBATH-AMMON. ble that she was a freed-woman of the family of the Cæsars. KIRJATH or Kiriotu (n1977), a Hebrew word denoting a city.

Julius, a centurion of the Augustan cohort, who conducted There was a place of this name in the canton of the tribe of BenPaul to Rome, and treated the apostle with great courtesy and jamin. (Josh. xviii. 28.) humanity. (Acts xxvii.)

The following proper names of cities are compounded of it; Junias or Junia, a Jewish Christian, who is supposed to have viz. been the wife of Andronicus. (Rom. xvi. 7.)

1. KIRJATH-Aim, or the Double City. JUPITER, the supreme god of the ancient Greeks and Romans. (1.) The proper name of a city in the tribe of Reuben. He had a temple in the suburbs of Lystra, (which see).

(Num. xxxii. 37. Josh. xiii. 19.) It was afterwards posJURISDICTION of Moses, 41, 42.; of Joshua and the judges, sessed by the Moabites. (Jer. xlviii. 1.3. Ezek. xxv. 9.) 42.; of the kings, 42–46.

(2.) A city in the canton of the tribe of Naphtali. (1 Chron. JUSTICE, seat of, 54.

vi. 61.) JUSTICE.

2. KIRJATH-ARBA, or the City of Arba: an ancient name 1. The surname of Joseph-Barsabas, who was one of those of Hebron, which see in p. 427. nominated to be an apostle. (Acts i. 23.) See BARsABAS. 3. KIRJATH-Huzoru, or the City of Streets, a royal city of

2. A Christian at Corinth, who hospitably received Saint Paul. Balak king of Moab. (Num. xxii. 39.) (Acts xviii. 7.)

4. KIRJATH-JEARIM, or the City of Forests, in the tribe of 3. Justus, also called Jesus, appears to have been known to Judah, on the western boundary of the tribe of Benjamin. Here the Jews by the former name, and to the Romans by the latter. the ark was lodged for many years in the house of Aminadab, He was a Jew by descent, and the friend and coadjutor of Saint until David removed it to Jerusalem. Urijah the prophet was a Paul. (Col. iv. 11.)

native of this place. (Josh. ix. 17. xviii. 5. Judg. xviii. 12. 1 JYAR, the eighth month of the civil year of the Jews; and the Sam. vi. 21. 1 Chron. xiii. 6.) second of their ecclesiastical year. For a notice of the festivals, 5. KIRJATH-SANNAI, or the City of the Law, was a city in &c. occuring in this month, see p. 76.

the tribe of Judah. (Josh. xv. 49.)

6. KIRJATH-SEPHER, or the City of Writing, otherwise called

DEBIR ; a city in the tribe of Judah, which was captured from KADESH, KADESH-BARNEA, or Ex-Mısapat, a city celebrated the Canaanites by Othniel. (Josh. xv. 15, 16. Judg. i. 10–13.) for several events. Here Miriam, the sister of Moses, died Concerning the import of its name there is a difference of opin(Num. xx. 1.), and the Israelites murmured against God. (xxvii. ion; some supposing it to have been a seat of learning, while 14.) It belonged to the tribe of Judah, and is supposed to others, from Debir signifying an oracle, imagine that it was a have been situated about 25 miles to the south of Hebron. seminary for the education of priests. But Dr. Wells is of opinion that the Kadesh in the wilderness Kisu, the son of Abdiel, who was also called Ner, and the of Zin was a different place from Kadesh-Barnea in the wilder- father of Saul, of an obscure family in the tribe of Benjamin, ness of Paran. (Compare Num. xiii. 26. and Deut. i. 19.) Dr. was both a shepherd and a warrior, conformably to the custom Lightfoot, however, considers them as one and the same place. of those ancient times. The Scripture eulogizes his valour. In the fourth century, the pretended sepulchre of Miriam was He sent his son in pursuit of some lost asses, and he returned to shown.

his father the first king of Israel. (1 Chron. viii. 30. ix. 39. 1 KADMONITES, ancient inhabitants of the land of Canaan, who Sam, xiv. 51. ix. 1. and x. 2.) dwelt beyond the Jordan, to the east of Phænicia, about Mount Kishon, Brook, notice of, 26. VOL II.



L Y KNEADING-TROUGHS of the Israelites, 154.

LEVI. Kovath, the son of Levi. (Gen. xlvi. 11.) He was the head 1. The third son of Jacob and Leah. (Gen. xxix. 31.) He of the Kohathites, who were appointed to carry the ark and is known only as having participated in the revenge of Simeon sacred vessels of the tabernacle, during the marches of the Israel-against the Shechemites, for the violation of Dinah (xxxiv. 25.), ites. (Num. iv. 1-15.)

and for having given his name to the tribe that was set apart for Korah, the son of Izhar, and grandson of Levi, who conspired the priesthood and worship of God. For the functions, &c. of against Moses. (Exod. vi. 21. Num. xvi.). From him were the LEVITES, see pp. 111, 112. descended the sons of Korah, a Levitical family of singers, whom 2. One of the twelve apostles, also called MATTHEW. See David appointed to guard the doors of the temple. (1 Chron. p. 436. infra. ix. 19.) Eleven psalms are inscribed

“ for the sons Korah ;" LEVIES, Military, how raised, 84. on the probable import of which title, see p. 239.

LIBERTINES, account of, 103, 109. I. 80. KORBAN, nature of, 119.

Libya, among the Greeks, was used as another name for Africa, as it imports a part of it. It was divided into Libya Interior and Exterior : but the Libya mentioned by Saint Luke

(Acts ii. 10.) is that by Ptolemy called Libya Cyrenaica : and LABAN, the son of Bethuel, grandson of Nahor, brother to by Pliny Pentapolitana Regio, from its five chief cities, viz. BeRebekah, and father of Rachel and Leah. (Gen. xxviii.) -- Also renice, Arsinöe, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and Cyrene. It is noted the name of a place beyond the Jordan, in the plains of Moab; in the Old Testament for its chariots and horses used in fight it is otherwise unknown. (Deut. i. 1.)

(2 Chron. xvi. 8.) But it is mentioned by Saint Luke, on acLakes in the Holy Land, account of, 26—28.

count of the Jews, who, living in such vast numbers in AlexanLAMB, Paschal, ceremonies of offering, &c. See pp. 123–126. dria that 50,000 of them were slain at one time, may well be LAMENTATIons for the dead, account of, 199, 200.

thought to have had some colonies and proselytes in this neighLand-SURVEYING, not unknown to the Jews, 187.

bouring country. LAODICEA, a city of Asia Minor, about forty-two miles to the LIFE-Guards of the kings of Israel, 47. south of Ephesus, and in the vicinity of Colossæ and Hierapolis. Lints, a disciple whose salutation Saint Paul addresses to Its earlier name was Diospolis or Cæsarea, but after being en- Timothy. (2 Tim. iv. 21.) He is commonly supposed to have larged by Antiochus II. it was called Laodicea in honour of his been the first bishop of Rome. wife Laodice. This city was often damaged by earthquakes, LITERATURE of the Jews, 184–187. and restored either by the opulence of its inhabitants, or by the LIVER, divination by the inspection of, 143. munificence of the Roman emperors. From the researches of Locusts, natural history of, and of their devastations, 33. modern travellers it appears to have been seated on a volcanic Were eaten by the inhabitants of Palestine, ibid. hill, of moderate height, but of considerable extent. Its ruins Lois, a Christian matron, and the grandmother of Timothy, attest that it was large, opulent, and splendid ; and there are still of whose faith the apostle speaks with great commendation. to be seen the remains of an amphitheatre, an aqueduct, and (2 Tim. i. 5.) many other buildings. In the primitive times of Christianity, as Lord's Prayer, collected out of Jewish Euchologies, 132. appears from Saint Paul's Epistle to the Colossians, in which Lord's SUPPER, points of resemblance between, and the Pass. the Laodiceans are frequently mentioned, this place possessed a over, 123–126. It is a perpetual memorial of the vicarious flourishing church. But the doom of Laodicea seems to have atonement of Jesus Christ, I. 61. been more severe and terrible than that of the other six apoca- Lor, the son of Haran and nephew of Abraham; after sepa lyptic churches : and its present condition is in striking con- rating from whom, on account of the increase of their cattle, he formity with the rebukes and threatenings of God. Not a single chose the city of Sodom for his abode. On its destruction Lot Christian resides at Laodicea! It is even more solitary than and his two daughters escaped with their lives ; but his wife, Ephesus: the latter has a prospect of a rolling sea, or a whiten- looking back, perished. (Gen. xix. Luke xvii. 28.) The Mo ing sail, to enliven its decay ; the former sits in widowed loneli- abites and Ammonites descended from Lot.

Its temples are desolate; the stately edifices of ancient Lots, when used judicially, 122. Notice of the Feast of Lets, Laodicea are now peopled with wolves and jackals. The prayers 320, 321. of the mosque are the only prayers heard near the still splendid Lubim, the Libyans. (2 Chron. xii. 3. xvi. 8. Nah. ii. 9.) ruins of the city, on which the prophetic denunciation seems to Lucius, a Cyrenian, one of the prophets or teachers of the have been fully executed, in its utter rejection as a church. “Its Christian church at Antioch. (Acts i. 1. Rom. xvi. 21.) By some crime was pride ; its punishment desolation. The threatening he has been erroneously confounded with the evangelist Lrke. is accomplished: it now stands rejected of God and deserted by LUD, the fourth son of Shem, whose descendants peopled the men ; its glory a ruin ; its name a reproach.” (Hartley's Visit province of Lydia. (Gen. x. 22.) to the Apocalyptic Churches, in 1826. Mission. Register, July, Ludim, a people of Africa, frequently mentioned in Scripture; 1827, p. 296. Arundell's Visit to the Seven Churches, pp. 84- probably the Ethiopians or Abyssinians. 90. Emerson's Letters from the Ægean, vol. i. pp. 180. 219.) LUKE (Acurses, contracted from the Latin Lucanus), was a

Lasea, a maritime city of Crete (Acts xxvii. 8.), which is Gentile proselyte who had embraced Christianity. He was the not mentioned by any of the ancient geographers. Its exact friend and companion of St. Paul in most of his journeys, and site cannot now be ascertained.

wrote the Gospel that bears his name, and the Acts of the AposLaw and the Prophets, tables of the sections of, as read in tles; for analyses of which, see pp. 307–313.318—321. the Jewish synagogues, 105. The Mosaic law perverted by the


the malady of Nebuchadnezzar, 196, 197. Pharisees, 144, 145.

Lycaonia (Acts xiv. 6.), a province in Asia Minor, accounted Laws, how promulgated, 47, 48.

the southern part of Cappadocia, having Isauria on the west, LAWYERS (Jewish), account of, 146.

Armenia Minor on the east, and Cilicia on the south. Its chief LAZARUS.

cities are all mentioned in this chapter, viz. Iconium, Lystra, 1. The brother of Martha and Mary, whom Jesus loved, and and Derbe. They spake (ver. 11.) in the Lycaonian tongue, miraculously raised him from the dead. For an examination of which is generally understood to have been a corrupt Greek, in. the circumstances of this miracle, see Vol. I. pp. 105, 106. termingled with many Syriac words : but Jablonski supposes

2. The name of a person introduced by Jesus into a very to have been derived from the Assyrian tongue. Why they instructive narrative or parable

, to represent the poor and dis- were disposed to worship Paul and Barnabas, 140. Paul's ad tressed in this world. (Luke xvi. 19—25.)

dress to them illustrated, 326. LEAH, the daughter of Laban, and the wife of Jacob, on whom Lydda, which in later times was called Diospolis, and is now her father imposed her in lieu of Rachel. (Gen. xxix.) known by the name of Loudd, was a large village, and, accordLEBANON (Mount), account of, 29, 30.

ing to Josephus, little inferior to a city for its size. This place LEBBæus, a proper name of the apostle Jude, who was also is celebrated in the Acts of the Apostles for the miraculous cure called Thaddeus. (Matt. x. 3.)

of Eneas by the apostle Peter (Acts ix. 32. 34.): it was situated LEGAL PROCEEDINGS of the Jews, account of, 55–57. at no great distance from Joppa (ix. 38.), on the way from the Legions (Roman), notice of, 92.

latter place to Jerusalem. The soil of the surrounding country LEPROSY (Disease of). Symptoms and treatment of, 195, 196 is said to be very rich. Purification of lepers, 134. Leprosy of clothes and houses, ibid. Lydia, a woman of Thyatira, who traded in purple cloths

, LETTERS or Epistles, form of, 183.

for which that place was celebrated. She was a Jewish prose


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MA lyte, of a sincere and pious character, and prompt in acknow- goodness; and could not fail to convince the apostles of the ledging and professing the truth. She was converted to the truth of our Lord's declaration, that no man could take his life Christian faith in consequence of the preaching of Saint Paul. from him, and that he could lay it down and resume it again. (Acts xvi. 14. 40.) Coquerel and others suppose that Lydia, in (John x. 17.) It has indeed been asked, how such a miracle this place, is merely a patronymic appellation, that is, a Lydian made so little impression upon the company which Judas conwoman ;-most probably from the circumstance of Thyatira being ducted. The reply is easy. The whole transaction took place situated on the confines of Lydia, a province on the western in an instant. Peter struck Malchus with a sword. Jesus stood coast of Asia Minor.

still, with one hand stopped the apostle, and with the other Lystra, a city of Lycaonia, chiefly celebrated for the miracu- healed the servant; while those who were present, in the middle lous cure there wrought upon the lame man, which made the of the night and by the pale light of torches, scarcely had time Lycaonians think the gods were come down to them in the like to perceive what was passing. ness of men (Acts xiv. 10, 11.), and also for the circumcision of Malice, crimes of, how punished, 64. Timothy. (xvi. 1.)

Malta. See Melita, p. 436. infra.
MAMRE, Valley of, notice of, 31.

MANAEn, the name of a person who was educated with Herod Mascau or Mascual. See ABEL-BETA-Maachan, pp. 401, Agrippa I. (Acts xiii. 1.) Perhaps he was the son of that Ma402.

naem (Mey inpcs) mentioned by Josephus, who predicted the MaccabEES, government of, 50. Origin of their name, 50. future greatness of Herod. (Ant. Jud. l. xv. c. 10. § 5.) note.

ManassEI. MACEDONIA, a province of Greece, formerly called Æmathia ; 1. The eldest son of Joseph ; who, being adopted by his grand and from the kings of Macedon, Macedonia. It was bounded father, inherited equally with the sons of Jacob. (Gen. xlviii.) on the north by the mountains of Hæmus, on the south by Epi- For the limits of the territory allotted to the tribe of Manasseh, rus and Achaia, on the east by the Ægean, on the west by the see pp. 16, 17. Ionian and Adriatic Seas; and it is celebrated in all histories for 2. Manasser, the fourteenth king of Judah, succeeded his being the third kingdom, which, under Alexander the Great, ob- father Hezekiah, at the early age of twelve years. In the early tained the empire of the world, and had under it 150 nations. part of his reign, most probably misled by the profligate counsels To this country, whose metropolis was then Thessalonica, Saint of those who detested the reformation introduced by the pious Paul was called by a vision (Acts xvi. 9.); and the churches, Hezekiah, Manasseh was a most wicked and idolatrous prince; by him planted in it, are celebrated for their great charity, and and for his various crimes was carried captive into Babylon, about ready contribution to the distressed Jews in Judæa (2 Cor. viii. the twenty-second year of his reign. But, upon his penitent ix.), when they themselves lay under the extremest poverty. confession of his sins, he was delivered out of captivity and re

MACHærus, a city and fortress east of the Jordan, between stored to his country (it has been conjectured after about a year's six and nine miles from that river, and not far from its mouth. absence), perhaps in consequence of some revolution in the AsHere John the Baptist was imprisoned, and subsequently put to syrian empire. The remainder of his life and reign was as exdeath by order of Herod Antipas. (Matt. ix. 2. xiv. 3—12.) This emplary as its commencement had been inauspicious and profiliplace is not mentioned by name in the New Testament. gate. The worship of God was restored; the fortifications of

Macapelah, the name of the cave purchased by Abraham of Jerusalem were repaired and strengthened ; and military officers Ephron the Hittite, for a burial place for his wife Sarah. (Gen. were placed in all the fenced cities of Judah. (2 Chron. xxxiii.) xxxiii. 8.) This cave has been covered by the Turks,“ by a MAN-SLAUGHTER, punishment of, 63. large and ancient mosque; and all around the soil is held invio- MAN-STEALING, punishment of, 63. lable. The cave is in the middle of the interior of the edifice; MANURES of the Jews, notice of, 176, 177. its dark and deep entrance only is visible, and it is rarely entered. MARAH, a place in the desert of Arabia, so called from the bit

..... The cave is said by the Turks to be deep and very spa- terness of its waters. When the Israelites came out of Egypt, cious, cut out of the solid rock, and that the resting-places of the on their arrival in the wilderness of Etham, they found the water patriarchs still exist, and are plainly to be discerned.” (Carne's so bitter that neither themselves nor their cattle could drink it: Recollections of the East, pp. 158, 159.)

on which account they gave the name of Marah or bitterness to MAGDALA, a city and territory on the western side of the lake this encampment. (Exod. xv. 23. Num. xxxiii. 8.) Most traof Gennesaret, not far from Capernaum and Gamala; it is sup- vellers attest that there are several bitter fountains not far from posed to have contained within its precincts Dalmanutha; hence, the Red Sea; and Dr. Shaw fixes these waters at Corondel, a while Matthew says (xv. 39), Christ came into the coasts of place where there is still a small rill, which, unless it be diluted Magdala, St. Mark says more particularly (viii. 10.), that he by dews and rain, still continues to be brackish. (Travels, vol. i. came into the parts of Dalmanutha.

p. 104.) A later traveller, who visited this region a century after Magi, an appellation given among the Persians to priests, Dr. S., describing these waters, says, that “ the Pool of Marah wise men, philosophers, and others who devoted themselves to is of a circular form, about sixty feet round: it gushes forth from the study of the moral and physical sciences, and who particu- a rock at the foot of a barren mountain, and one or two palm larly cultivated astrology and medicine. They enjoyed the highest trees spread their shade over it. This pool, the only one found consideration. The wise men from the east, who came to wor- for a great distance around, in spite of its clear and tempting ship the infant Messiah, were philosophers of this description; appearance, is brackish and bitter to the taste, offering one of the according to some, they came from Persia, or, in the opinion of greatest disappointments to the weary traveller, whose thirst others, from Arabia, as the precious gums which they offered indeed may be quenched, though the hope of a sweet and deliwere the productions of Arabia.

cious draught is baffled.” (Carne's Recollections of the East, Magic, prevalence of, 143.

P. 348.) MAGISTRATES, persons of, sacred, 44. Crimes against them, MARESHA, a fenced city in the plain of the tribe of Judah. how punished among the Jews, 62. Magistrates under the Jewish (Josh. xv. 44.) Jerome and Eusebius call it Morasthi. The monarchy, 47.

prophet Micah was a native of this city, near which was fought Magog. See Gog, p. 426.

The memorable battle between Zerah king of Cush or Ethiopia, MAHANAIM, a city beyond the Jordan in the tribe of Gad, near and Asa king of Judah, who obtained a most signal victory. the tribe of Manasseh; it was assigned to the Levites. (Josh. (2 Chron. xiv. 8—10.) xiii. 26. 30. xxi. 38.) Here two hosts or camps of angels met MARK, or John-Mark, the author of the second Gospel, was Jacob (Gen. xxxii. 2.), whence the name is derived.

the nephew of Barnabas, and also the companion of Paul and Malacar, the last of the twelve minor prophets. For an ac- Barnabas in their journey through Greece (Acts xiii. 5. Col. iv. count of him, and an analysis of his predictions, see pp. 288, 289. 11.), and afterwards of Barnabas alone. (Acts xv. 37. 39.) He

Malchus, a servant of Caiaphas the high-priest, whose name afterwards accompanied Peter. (1 Pet. v. 13.) As he was the St. John has very naturally preserved, since he was acquainted son of that Mary, at whose house in Jerusalem the apostles were with Caiaphas. Malchus was one of the company that was com- accustomed to meet, it has been conjectured, with great probamanded to seize Christ in the garden of Gethsemane : Peter cut bility, that he was particularly instructed in the doctrines of the off his right ear, which was instantly restored and the wound Gospel by Peter, who therefore terms him his son. (1 Tim. v, 13. healed by the omnipotent touch of Jesus, who thus conferred compared with 1 Tim. i. 2. and 2 Tim. i. 2.) For a further acupon him a signal benefit at a most critical time. The miracu- count of Mark and of his Gospel, see pp. 304—307. lous healing of Malchus presents a union of justice, power, and MARKETS, where held, 155.

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