CL which brought a heavy wo upon the inhabitants for their infi- sius, and empties itself into the Euphrates near Circesium. delity. (Matt. xi. 23.) In the vicinity of this town or city our (2 Kings xvii. 6. xviii. 11. 1 Chron. v. 26.) Lord delivered his admirable sermon; and near it also was the CHEMOSH, a Moabitish idol, notice of, 138. custom-house, at which Matthew the publican was sitting when CUEREM, or irremissible Vow, account of, 130. Jesus called him to the apostleship. (Matt. ix. 1. 9.) Here the CHERETUITES and Pelethites, who they were, 47. 85. 87. Jews had a synagogue (Mark i. 23. Luke iv. 33.), as the Chris- Cuentum. See p. 96. tians afterwards had a church. Mr. Buckingham in 1817 found Children, birth and education of, 163, 164. Adoption of, various remains of some ancient settlement in its vicinity; but 164, 165. in 1823 scarcely a relique remained to attest its former existence. CHINNERETI, sea of, 26. Recent travellers describe the appearance of the Lake of Genne- Chios (Acts xx. 15.) is an island of the Ægean Sea, between sareth from Capernaum as singularly grand and impressive. Lesbos and Samos, celebrated in ancient and in modern times, This place is now called Tal-hhewn or Tal-hhewm, as it is dif- for its wine, figs, marble, and white earth. ferently pronounced. (Buckingham's Travels in Palestine, pp. CHISLEU, or Casley, the third month of the Jewish civil 469, 470. Jowett's Researches in Syria, p. 168.)

year; and the ninth month of the ecclesiastical year. For the Capator (Jer. xlvii. 4. Amos ix. 7.) and Capitorim (Gen. feasts and fasts in this month, see p. 75. x. 14. Deut. ii. 23.), the name of a country and people whence CHITTIM.— The land of Chittim, and the isles of Chittim, the Philistines are said to have originated. According to the denote, in general, the maritime countries and islands of the passages above referred to, the Caphtorim came originally from Mediterranean, Greece, Italy, Crete, Cyprus, Corsica, &c. Thus, Egypt and settled in Caphtor, which word most of the ancient Balaam foretold " that ships should come from the coast of versions have rendered Cappadocia ; but some have supposed it Chittim, and should afflict Asshur (the Assyrians), and aftlict to be Cyprus, or Crete; which last both Calmet and Gesenius Eber” (the Hebrews, or Jews); representing the Grecian and consider to be the place most probably intended. From Caphtor, Roman invasions. And Daniel foretold that “ the ships of Chita colony migrated and settled in the southern part of Canaan. tim should come against the king of the north (Antiochus

Capital Punishments of the Jews, account of, 66–69. Epiphanes, king of Syria); and thai he should therefore be

Carpadocia, a kingdom of Asia, bounded on the east by Ar- grieved, and return” from the south, or Egypt, which he had menia, on the west by Paphlagonia and Galatia, on the north by invaded, when commanded to desist by the Roman ambassathe Euxine Sea, and on the south by that part of Mount Taurus dors. (Dan. xi. 30. Livy, xlv. 10–12.) Perseus, king of which looks towards Cilicia. It was famed for mules and horses, Macedon, is called “ king of Chittim." (i Macc. vii. 5.) of which it gave yearly to the Persians, horses 1500, mules Chiun (Amos v. 26.), the idol Saturn. 2000. The Cappadocians are said to have been a nation so Chorazin, a small town situated on the western coast of the servile, that when the Romans offered them their freedom to Sea of Galilee, at no great distance from Capernaum. It was live by their own laws, they said they could not endure liberty. one of those places where very many of our Saviour's miracles This country is mentioned in Acts ii. 9. and also by the apostle were performed, whose inhabitants he upbraided for their intiPeter, who addresses his first Epistle to the Hebrew Christians delity. (Matt. xi. 21. Luke x. 13.) who were dispersed through Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Bi- Christ (Xportus), a Greek word signifying anointed, and corthynia, and Asia Minor.

responding to the Hebrew word Messiah, which see. In the Captain of the Lord's Host, authority of, and influence, 85. New Testament, this appellation is given to Jesus, the anointed Captives, cruel treatment of. See pp. 90, 91.

one, that king of the race of David, promised by God, and long Captivity (Babylonish), state of the Hebrews during, 49, 50. expected, the Messiah. CARAVANS, mode of travelling by, 122, note 7. 173.

Christians, those who profess to believe and practise the CARCAEMISH, a fortified city on the Euphrates belonging to religion of Jesus Christ. This appellation was first given by the Assyrians, commanding the pass into the northern part of divine appointment to the believers at Antioch. (Acts xi. 26.) Mesopotamia, from Syria. Necho king of Egypt took it, and See Vol. I. p. 350. left a strong garrison in it; which was taken and cut in pieces, Chcrcu (Jewish), account of, and of its various members, in the fourth year of Jehoiachin king of Judah, by Nebuchad. 108–111.; and of its ministers, 111-116. nezzar king of Babylon. (2 Chron. xxxv. 20. 2 Kings xxiii. CHUSHAN-RISKATHAIM, a king of Mesopotamia, who op29.) Isaiah speaks of Carchemish, and seems to say, that pressed the Israelites for eight years. This monarch must have Tiglath-pileser conquered it; perhaps from the Egyptians. Pro- subdued several of the surrounding nations within thirty or fane authors say nothing of this town, or of these wars: it is forty years after the death of Joshua, since his conquests ex. probable that Carchemish is the same as Cercusium, or Circe- tended westward as far as Canaan. The Israelites were delivered sium, or Circeium, situated in the angle formed by the conjunc- from his yoke by OTHNIEL. (Judg. ii. 8—10.). tion of the Chaboras (the modern Chebour) and the Euphrates. Chuza, or Chusa, the steward or agent of Herod-Antipas, CARMEL, Mount, account of, 30.

whose wife was one of the pious women who ministered to CARving, art of, among the Jews, 183.

Jesus Christ. (Luke viii. 3.) Some critics, however, suppose CasiPula (Ezra viii. 17.), the name of a country ; perhaps that he was the treasurer or overseer of Herod's revenue. Caspia, the country on the Caspian Sea.

Cilicia, a country of Asia Minor, between Pamphylia on the Casluhim (Gen. x. 14. 1 Chron. i. 12.), a people, spoken of west, and Pieria on the east, Mount Taurus on the north, and as a colony of the Egyptians; according to Bochart (Phaleg. the Cilician Sea on the south, celebrated on the account of Cicero, iv. 31.), the Colchians, whom the Greek writers constantly proconsul there, but more on the account of St. Paul's birth at represent as of Egyptian origin.

Tarsus, a city of Cilicia. (Acts xxii. 3.) Cattle reared in Palestine, notice of, 37. 174–176.

CINNERETH, or CINNEROTH, a city in the canton of the tribe Caverns in Palestine, account of, 32, 33. 150.

of Nephtali : it is supposed to be the same which was afterwards Cedars of Lebanon, account of, 29, 30. 36.

called TIBERIAS; as the Lake of Gennesareth, which in Hebrew Cedrox, or Kedron, Brook, notice of, 26.

is called the Sea of Cinnereth, is unquestionably the Lake or CENCHREA, a haven on the east of the isthmus of Corinth, to Sea of Tiberius : for an account of which see pp. 26, 27. which city it was considered as a kind of subsidiary port. It is Circumcision, how and when performed. See p. 110. mentioned in Acts xviii. 18.

Cislev. See Cuisler. Cepuas, a name given by Christ to Simon: it means the Cisterns in Palestine, notice of, 29. same as pretpos, that is, a stone. (John i. 13.)

Cities, Jewish, 155. How besieged, 90. Treatment of, when Chains of the Jewish women, 158.

captured, ibid. Gates of, seats of justice, 54. CHALDÆA, a country of Asia, lying near the junction of the Cities OF REFUGE, 16. Tigris and Euphrates, the capital of which was BABYLON, Citizens of Rome, privileges and treatment of, when prisonwhence it was also denominated BABYLONJA. In ancient times ers. See


57–59. it was known by the names Shinar, Shinaar, &c.—For a sketch Classes of the Jewish priests, 112. of the profane history of the Chaldæan or Babylonian em- CLAUDA, an island near Crete, situated near the southern and pire, illustrative of the prophetic writings, see p. 412. of this western sea. It is mentioned in Acts xxvii. 16. Index.

CLAUDIUS. Chariots, military, notice of, 85, 86.

1. Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus, the fifth emperor or CHEBAR a river of Mesopotamia, which rises in Mount Ca- | Cæsar of Rome. He was the son of Nero Drusus, and obtained


CY the imperial dignity principally through the exertion of Herod of sophists in particular was very great. The knowledge of Agrippa. (Josephus, Ant. Jud. I. xix. c. 4. $1. Bell. Jud. I. ii. these circumstances affords a key to St. Paul's exhortations c. 11. $ 2.) In the fourth year of his reign occurred the famine against fornication, lasciviousness, and covetousness (1 Cor. vi. predicted by Agabus. (Acts xi. 28. and Kuin el in loc). In the 9, 10.), and also his defence of the Christian doctrine against first part of his reign he was favourable to the Jews (Jos. Ant. the sophists, to whom the fathers attribute all the strifes and conJud. 1. xx. c. 1. $ 2.) ; but in his ninth year he banished, by tentions that sprang up in this church. In consequence of the ediet, all those who had taken up their residence at Rome. (Acts war between the Greeks and Turks, Corinth has been reduced to xviii. 2. Suetonius in Claud. c. 25.) He died, a. D. 54, after a a miserable heap of ruined hovels, affording very insufficient weak and inglorious reign of 14 years, of poison administered shelter to some wretched outcasts of the province of Roumelia. by his wife Agrippina, who wished to raise her son Nero to the (Missionary Register, 1828, p. 388.) throne. (Robinson, voce Kaaudus.)

Corn, culture and harvesting of, 177. How threshed out, 178; 2. Claudius Lysias, a Roman tribune, who preserved Paul and ground, ibid. from a conspiracy of the Jews. (Acts xxiii. 23–35. xxiv. CORNELIUS, a devout Roman centurion, who was converted 1-9.)

to Christianity by the apostle Peter. Cukopas, one of the two disciples who went to Emmaus. CORPORAL injuries, how punished among the Jews, 63, 64. (Luke xxiv. 18, &c.) The name is of Greek extraction, being CORRUPTION (Mount of), 19. Of the Jews at the time of contracted from Cleopatros, like Antipas from Antipatros. He is Christ's birth, 148—150. sometimes confounded with

Council (Great) of the Jews. See p. 55. Clopas, the husband of Mary, also called Alpheus. (John xix. COUP-DE-SOLEIL in Palestine, effects of, 24, 25. 25.) By comparing this passage with Luke xxiv. 10., it appears Courts of JUDICATURE (Jewish), and proceedings before that the wife of Clopas is the same as the mother of James the them, 54–57. (Roman), proceedings in, 57–59. Less (compare Matt. xxvii. 56. with Mark xv. 40.) ; but in Courts of Kings, allusions to, 45, 46. Principal officers of, Matt. x. 3. and Mark iii. 18. James is said to be the son of 46, 47. Alpheus.

Courts OF TIE TEMPLE, 99, 100. Climate of the Holy Land, 23.

COVENANTS, how made, 80, 81. Covenant of salt, 81. Clothes, leprosy of, 134. See Dress.

CRETE, an island in the Mediterranean Sea. A Christian Csincs (Acts xxvii. 7.) was a city and promontory of Caria, church was planted here, probably by St. Paul, who committed it memorable for the worship of Venus.

to the charge of Titus. (Acts xxvii

. 7. 12, 13. 21. Tit. i. 5.) Cock-CROWING, a division of time, 73.

Its inhabitants were celebrated archers, but infamous for their Coelo-Syria. See Syria, 9. in fra.

falsehood, debaucheries, and piracies. The Cretans of the present Cohorts (Roman), notice of, 92.

day are precisely what they were in the days of St. Paul, Coun Season of Palestine, 24.

always liars, evil beasts, blow bellies. They are notoriously, Colosse (or Colassæ) was a city of Phrygia Pacatiana in whether Turks or Greeks, the worst characters in the Levant. Asia Minor, situated near the conflux of the Lycus and the (Hartley's Researches in Greece and the Levant, p. 108.) See Meander. It was formerly a large and populous place, but in the the testimonies of profane writers to the immoral character of the time of Saint Paul had lost much of its ancient greatness, and Cretans, in Vol. I. p. 81. stood nearly equidistant from Laodicea and Hierapolis. Accord- CRIMINAL Law of the Jews, principles of the, 61-64. ing to Eusebius, all these cities were destroyed by an earthquake CRIMINALS, Jewish mode of treating, and punishing. See pp. in the tenth year of the emperor Nero, about a year after the 55–57. 59. The Roman mode of punishing them, 59, 60. writing of Saint Paul's Epistle to the Colossians. A few ruins Crispus, the chief of a synagogue at Corinth, who embraced identify its site, which is at present called Khóna or Khonas by the Christian faith, and was baptized by St. Paul. (Acts xviii. the Turks of Asia Minor. (See a description of Colossa and its 8. 1 Cor. i. 14.) vicinity, in Mr. Arundell's Visit to the Seven Churches of Asia, Cross, form of, 69. Reproach of, explained, ibid. pp. 92--101.)

Crucifixion, mode of, 69. Prevalence of, among ancient COMMERCE of the Midianites, Phænicians, and Egyptians, 187. nations, ibid. Lingering nature of this punishment, ibid. The Of the Hebrews, particularly under Solomon and his successors, circumstances of our Saviour's crucifixion considered and illus187, 188. Of Babylon, 411.

trated, 70—72. Solution of supposed difficulties as to the hour COMPENSATiox, in what cases allowed, 65.

when he was crucified. Vol. I. pp. 403, 404. CoscuBINES, condition of, 160.

Cup, Divination by, 142. Contracts for disposing of property, how made, 81. Con- Cutting asunder, punishment of, 68. tracts of marriage, 160.

Cush, or Ethiopia, usually rendered Ethiopia in our English CONVERSATIOx of the Orientals, 169, 170.

Bible, has a very extensive signification. It comprehends all the Coos, an island in the Ægean or Icarian Sea, near Myndos southern and eastern borders of Egypt, In some parts of the and Cnidus, which had a city of the same name, from which prophecies of Ezekiel, it plainly denotes African Ethiopia, or Hippocrates the celebrated physician, and Apelles the famous Nubia and Abyssinia, and in many other passages. (Isa. xviii. 1. painter, were called Coi. Here was a large temple of Æscula- xx. 3. Ezek. xxx. 5, &c.) But in others it must signify Asiatic pius, and another of Juno. It abounded in rich wines, and here Ethiopia, or Arabia, as in the description of the garden of Eden. were made those Coæ vestes, which were transparent, and are (Gen. ii. 13.) The wife of Moses was contemptuously styled a so often noticed by the classic poets. It is mentioned in Acts Cushite," or Ethiopian of Arabia. (Num. xii. 1.) And where xxi. 1.

“ Persia, Ethiopia, and Libya," are recited in order, the second Corbax, nature of, explained, 119.

must denote Arabia. (Ezek. xxxviii. 5.) Herodotus, in his Corinth, the metropolis of Achaia Proper, and the ornament curious catalogue of the various nations composing the army of of Greece, was situated on an isthmus between the Ægean and Xerxes, distinguishes the long-haired Eastern or Asiatic EthioIonian Seas. From the convenience of its situation for com- pians from the woolly-headed Western or African ; both being merce, it abounded in riches, and was furnished with all the descendants of Cush, a roving and enterprising race, who graduaccommodations, elegances, and superfluities of life. In the ally extended their settlements from Chusistan, “ the land of Achran war, it was destroyed by the Romans under the consul Cush," or Susiana, on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, through Memmius, about 146 years before the Christian æra, and was Arabia, to the Red Sea; and thence crossed over to Africa, and rebuilt about one hundred years afterwards by Julius Cæsar, who occupied its eastern coast, and gradually penetrated into the inteplanted a Roman colony here, and made this city the residence rior of Abyssinia. (Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. i. of the proconsul of Achaia. Favoured by its situation between p. 379.) two seas, the new city soon regained its ancient splendour: com- Crents, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, situated between merce produced an influx of riches, and the luxury and voluptu- Cilicia and Syria, and anciently celebrated for the profligacy of ousness which followed in consequence corrupted the manners its inhabitants, whose principal deity was the impure goddess of its inhabitants, who became infamous to a proverb. In the Venus. Here Paul and Barnabas landed, A. D. 44. and successvicinity of this city were celebrated the Isthmian games, to which fully preached the Gospel. (Acts xiii. 4. et seq. xxi. 3.) Cyprus Saint Paul alludes in different parts of his Epistles. Corinth proved to have been a proconsulate, Vol. I. p. 90. alco possessed numerous schools, in which philosophy and rhe- CYMBAL, a musical instrument, notice of, 184. toric were taught by able masters, and strangers resorted thither CYRENE, the principal city of the province of Libya in Africa, from all quarters to be instructed in the sciences. The number / which was thence sometimes denominated Cyrenaica, and which VOL. II.

3 G


DI by the evangelist Luke is called Libya about Cyrene. (Acts ii. man after God's own heart," see Vol. I. pp. 411, 412.; and for the 10.) Simon, whom the Jews compelled to bear our Saviour's Psalms ascribed to him, see Vol. II. pp. 239, 240, 241. cross (Matt. xxvii. 32. Luke xxiii

. 26.), was a native of this David, city of, 19. place. At Cyrene resided many Jews, who had a synagogue at Dar, how reckoned by the Jews and Romans, 72. Jerusalem. Among the Christians who were scattered abroad. Day of atonement, how solemnized, 127. in consequence of the persecution that arose about Stephen, Dean, law of Moses concerning, 198. Preparation of, foi Luke enumerates those of Cyrene. (Acts xi. 20.)

interment, 198, 199. Funeral rites of, 199—202. Duration of Cyrenius, in Latin Quirinus. (Luke ii. 2.) Publius Sulpi- mourning for the dead, 202. cius Quirinus was sent from Rome as governor of Syria, with DEAD SEA, description of, 27, 28. which province Judæa was connected after the banishment of DEAF persons, law concerning, 82. Archelaus to Vienne in Gaul, in order to take a census of the DEATH, Jewish notions of, 197, 198. whole province. For the various opinions of commentators con- DERORAH. cerning that census, see Vol. I. pp. 419, 420.

1. The name of Sarah's nurse, who attended her into Canaan, Crnus, king of Persia, the son of Cambyses a Persian satrap and continued to reside in the family of Isaac, until her death or grandee, and Mandane, was the liberator of the Jews from the in the vicinity of Bethel, where she was interred with much Babylonish captivity. The prophet Isaiah (xliv. 28.) mentioned lamentation, under an oak, from that circumstance termed Allon him by name two hundred years before he was born. See Bachuth, or the Oak of Weeping. (Gen. xxiv. 57. XXXV. 8.) Persia, infra.

2. A prophetess, the wife of Lapidoth, and the fourth judge of Israel. She was the only woman who ever filled that high office.

(Judg. iv. v.) Dagon, a Phænician idol, notice of, 138.

DEBtors, laws concerning, 63. DALMANUTHA. See MAG DALA.

DECAPITATION, punishment of, 68. DALMATIA, a province of Europe on the east of the Adriatic DECAPOLIS, district of, 18. Sea, and forming part of the ancient Illyricum. In this province, Dedication, Feast of, 128. Vow of Dedication, 141. Titus preached the Gospel. (2 Tim. iv. 10.)

DEGREES, Academical, conferred in Jewish seminaries, 185, Damascus, a most ancient city, where Eliezer the servant of note 3. Abraham dwelt, was built, according to Josephus (Antiq. I. i. c. 7. Demas, for some time, was a companion of St. Paul, in propa$15.), by Uz, the son of Aram, mentioned in Gen. x. 23., and gating the Gospel; but he afterwards deserted him when a prisituated in the valley between Libanus and Antilibanus, watered soner at Rome, and returned to Thessalonica, which was at that by the rivers Abana and Pharpar. (2 Kings v. 12.) It was time a very flourishing commercial city. (Col. iv. 14. Philem. 24. made tributary to David (2 Sam. viii. 6.); afterwards it was the 2 Tim. iv. 10.) capital city of the kings of Syria. (Isa. vii. 8.) It is celebrated DEMETRICS. for its antiquity, and for being still one of the richest and most 1. A silversmith at Ephesus, whose chief business consisted in magnificent cities of the Levant, but most of all for being the making little models of the temple in that city, with the image of place of the miraculous conversion of St. Paul. It is situated in Diana included in them. He excited a tumult against St. Paul. a beautiful plain. The street, still called Straight, where St. (Acts xix.) Paul dwelt, is entered from the road by Jerusalem ; it is as 2. A Christian, and it should seem a Christian teacher, who straight as an arrow, a mile in length, broad and well paved. is mentioned with much commendation in 3 John, 12. (Irby's and Mangles' Travels, pp. 281, 282. Carne's Letters, DEMONIACAL possessions, reality of, 197. p. 375.) The region around this city is in the Old Testament DERBE, a city of Lycaonia, near Isauria, not far from the called Syria of Damascus.

Cilician range of Mount Taurus. It was the country of Timothy, Dan.

and is mentioned in Acts xiv. 6. Various ruins of this place are 1. The son of Jacob and Bilhah, gave his name to one of the said still to exist, but they have not been described by any tribes of Israel. For the limits of the district assigned to this modern traveller. (Col. Leake's Tour in Asia Minor, pp. 100, tribe, see p. 17.

101.) 2. The name of a city in the northern extremity of Judæa, DESIrts in Palestine, account of, 33, 34. Horrors of the in the tribe of Nephtali; it was situated at the foot of Mount Great Arabian Desert described, 34, 35. Libanus, not far from the source of the river Jordan. Here Jero- Devour Men,” who they were, 110. boam I. set up one of the golden calves. In Rev. vii. 6. the name Dews, heavy, in Palestine, 25. of the tribe of Dan is omitted, either through the mistake of the Diana (Apteus), a heathen goddess, the fabled daughter of transcribers, who mistook AAN for MAN, and so wrote Ma- | Jupiter and Latona, and the twin sister of Apollo. She presided nasseh ; or because the tribe had become extinct; or, by its early over forests and hunting, and also over child-birth; and was apostasy, had become the common receptacle of idols and cor- especially worshipped at Ephesus, where a temple was erected rupter of the rest. (See Judg. xviii.) Dr. Robinson thinks that in her honour, which, for its extent and magnificence, was the first opinion is the most probable, because the tribe of Joseph anciently reputed to be one of the wonders of the world. (Acts is afterwards mentioned, which included Manasseh and Ephraim. xix. 24. 27, 28. 34, 35.) There appears to have been an ancient tradition in the church, DICHOTOMY, a Jewish punishment, 68. that, when Antichrist should come, he should be a Jew, and of Dinau was the daughter of Jacob and Leah, at the time the the tribe of Dan. (Woodhouse on Rev. vii. 6.)

patriarch dwelt not far from the country occupied by the Hisites. Dancing of the Jews, 184.

Prompted by curiosity, she went out to see the daughters of the Daniel, a distinguished Jewish prophet, who lived and wrote land, most probably to a festival, when she was ravished by at Babylon during the captivity. For a further account of Shechem, a prince of the Hivites. It is not known what became Daniel and his predictions, see pp. 277–282.

of her, after the extermination of the Shechemites (Gen. xxxiv.); Darius, the common name of several Persian kings, three of but it appears from Gen. xlvi. 15. that she was living in the whom are mentioned in the Old Testament; viz.

patriarch's family, and accompanied him into Egypt. 1. Darius the Mede, or Cyaxares. (Dan. vi. 1.)

DIONYSIUS, a member of the tribunal of the Areopagus at 2. Darius the son of Hystaspes, whom Archbishop Usher sup- Athens, who was induced by the preaching of St. Paul to embrace poses to be the Ahasuerus that married Esther.

the Christian religion. (Acts xvii. 34.) 3. Darius Codomannus, who is mentioned in Neh. xii. 22. Dioscuri, or the Twins (1105xcupci), Castor and Pollux, the See Persia, infra.

fabled sons of Jupiter and Leda, were supposed to have some Darts, fiery, explained, 93, note 1.

peculiar power over storms: hence they became the patron deiDathan, one of those who, with Korah, Abiram, and On, con- ties of seamen. (Acts xxviii. 11.) spired against Moses; and, with his accomplices, was swallowed DIOTREPHES, a professing Christian, who (it appears) did not up in the earth. (Num. xvi.)

receive with hospitality those whom the apostle John sent to him, DAUGHTERS, education of, 164. Portions of, ibid.

or permit others to do so. (3 John 9.) David, the second king of Israel, was the son of Jesse, of the Diseases mentioned in the Scriptures, and their treatment, tribe of Judah, and the town of Bethlehem. He was the founder see pp. 195—197. of the Jewish dynasty; and from him, in the fulness of the time DivinATION, by the cup, 142. By inspecting the liver of appointed by God, descended the Messiah, of whom he is con- victims, 143. By arrows, ibid. By the staff, ibid. How pusidered as an illustrious type. In what sense David was “the nished among the Jews, 62.

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EG DIVORCES, Jewish account of, 162, 163.

14-16. Deut. ii. 23. Jer, xlvii. 4.) This country seems to have DODANIM, the youngest son of Javan. (Gen. x. 4.) The attained an earlier and a higher degree of civilization and refinecountry peopled by bis descendants cannot be exactly ascertained. ment than any other in the world. Even in Abraham's days we The Samaritan text and Septuagint version of Gen. x. 4. read find it the seat of a royal government, and a princely court, Rhodanim, which some interpret of the island of Rhodes; but abounding with provisions, while the neighbouring countries, Bochart refers it to the river Rhodanus, or Rhone.

and even the fertile regions of Palestine, were exposed to freDoeg, an Idumæan proselyte who was Saul's chief herdsman: quent famines. (Gen. xii. 10.) In his grandson Jacob's time he put to death the priests at Nob, whom Saul imagined to be in there was a settled caravan trade carried on through Palestine conspiracy with David, and to supply him with provisions from Arabia and the East, for spicery, balm, and myrrh, and pro (1 Sam. xxii. 9—19.)

bably also for slaves. (Gen. xxxvii. 25.) Its superior fertility, Dor, or Dora, the capital of Nephet-Dora, a district in Ca- indeed, was occasioned by the annual inundation of the Nile, naan which was conquered by Joshua, (Judg. xii. 23.) It is sup- the rising of which has furnished the prophet Jeremiah (xlvi. posed to have been situated on the coast, not far from Mount 7, 8.) with a fine image, and by the irrigation of their lands Carmel.

(Deut. xi. 10.); and wherever this is still practised the land Dorcas, a charitable and pious Christian widow of Joppa, now literally brings forth by handfuls, as it did in the time of the whom Peter restored to life. (Acts ix. 36—41.) Like the Syriac patriarch Joseph. (Gen. xli. 47.) In every age of the world name Tabitha, it signifies, a gazelle.

Egypt has been celebrated for those stupendous monuments of Dress, of the Priests, 113. Of the High-priest, 113, 114. ancient art—the pyramids ; several of which have been successOf the Jews, description of, 155—159. Allusions to theatrical fully explored by the enterprising traveller, M. Belzoni. The dresses, 159.

countless multitu of date trees, which form even forests about Drink, medicated, given to Christ, nature of, 71.

some of the villages, furnish a great source of subsistence to the Drink-OFFERINGS, account of, 119.

people. To cut these down (as it is said the French were proDrowsing, a Jewish punishment, 68.

ceeding to do, and would have done, but that the people surrenDRCsilla, notice of, 52.

dered at the prospect this utter ruin) would be to cut off the Dora, a plain in the Babylonian empire, mentioned in Dan. support of the present and the hopes of a future generation. ii. According to the historian Polybius, with whom Professor Nothing could be more terrible than this denunciation of JereGesenius agrees, it was situated in Mesopotamia, at the mouth miah (xlvi. 22, 23.) against Egypt :- They shall march with of the river Chaboras.

an army, and come against her with axes 18 hewers of wood : DWELLINGs of the Jews, account of, 150–155.

they shall cut down her forest, saith the Lord, though it cannot be searched; because they are more than the grasshoppers,

and are innumerable, (Jowett's Christian Researches in the Ear-rings of the Jewish women, 158.

Mediterranean, pp. 167. 170.) On the prophecies concerning Earth, frequently denotes the land of Judæa, 13.

Egypt, and their fulfilment, see Vol. I. p. 125. EARTHQUAKES, frequent in Palestine, 38.

The Egyptians boasted of being the most ancient people in Ebal, the northern peak of Mount Ephraim, a naked, unfruit- the world; the inventors of arts and sciences : they communiful rock near Shechem, and over against Mount Gerizim. cated to the Greeks the names of the gods, and their theology : These two mountains are separated by a narrow valley. From they exceeded in superstition and idolatry, worshipping stars, Ebal the curses were pronounced. (Deut. xi. 29. Josh. viii. 30.) men, animals, and even plants. Moses informs us that the He

ECEATASA, the Achmetha of Ezra (vi. 2.), was the principal brews sacrificed beasts whose slaughter was considered by the city of Media, on the site of which stands the modern Hamadan. Egyptians as an abomination (Exod. viii. 26.), likewise that It was remarkable for the coolness of its temperature: on which they would not eat with the Hebrews, because they abhorred all account it was chosen to be the summer residence of Cyrus and shepherds. Concerning the motives of this aversion opinions the succeeding kings of Persia. It was built and fortified by are divided. Some believe it to be founded on the invasion of Dioces, king of the Medes. The tombs of Esther and Mordecai Egypt by the shepherd kings from Arabia, who reigned here a are said to be still preserved here ; and a colony of Jews, who long time, according to Ma 10. Others think that the Egyphave been resident at Hamadan from time immemorial, protect tians, after their king Sesostris, being accustomed to a soft and their remains. (Alcock's (unpublished] Travels in Russia, Persia, idle life, detested shepherds, whose profession was more active and Greece, in 1828–29, p. 80. London, 1831. 8vo.)

and laborious. Others, that the Egyptians were so averse to Edex.

shepherds because of their killing and eating sheep, kids, and 1. The name of the country in which the Garden of our first goats, which were objects of their worship. parents was placed. (Gen. ii. 8. 15. iii. 23, 24. iv, 16.) It has The antiquity of the Egyptian empire is indisputable, though been variously supposed to have been situated in Syria, in Baby- its origin is involved in impenetrable obscurity. The common lonia, near the mouth of the Euphrates, and in Armenia, whence name of the Egyptian kings was Pharaoh, which signified soveissue the heads of the Euphrates and Tigris, two of the paradi- reign power, though each had another name peculiar to himself. saical rivers well ascertained; and two others, whose springs are History has preserved the names of several kings of Egypt, and in the neighbourhood, agree in many respects with the third and a succession of their dynasties: but the inclination of these hisfourth rivers mentioned by Moses. The last opinion has been torians to magnify the great antiquity of their nation has injured chiefly adopted.

their credibility. It is certain that the Egyptian dynasties were 2. A pleasant valley near Damascus. (Amos i. 5.)

not all successive, but many of them were collateral : and the 3. A country of Mesopotamia or Assyria, under the power of greatest part of the kings, who are placed one after the other, the Assyrians. (2 Kings xix. 12. Isa. xxxvii. 12.) In Ezek. xxvii. 23. it is joined with Asshur. Prof. Gesenius conjectures that it

1 At Molubis, on the banks of the Nile, Mr. Jowett observed a cattle. may be Maedon in Diarbekir, towards the Tigris.

fair. Several buffaloes were swimming from the opposite side across the EDOMITES, country of. See p. 15., and Idumæa, p. 18.

Their unwieldy body sinks deep into the water, so that only a part EDUCATION of children among the Jews, 163, 164.

of the neck is level with the surface : while their uplifted head just raises Eslon, a king of the Moabites, who oppressed the Israelites the snorting nostrils above the water. Often a little Arab boy takes his for eighteen years. (Judg. iii. 12.) At length Ehud, a Benja- the shoulders, holding fast by the horns, and thus keeping his balance. mite, was raised up to deliver them from their oppression, who As the buffaloes rose out of the water on the bauk I was struck with their

large bony size, compared with the little that had appeared of them while slew him in the manner related in Judg. iii. 15—26.

Their emerging brought to mind the passage, Gen. xli. 1, 2. Egypt (in Hebrew called Mizraim, after Mizraim the son of -- Behold he stood by the river and behold, there came up out of the river Ham), a country of Africa, the length of which was very dispro- seren well-faroured kino and fat fleshed ; and they fed in a meadow. It

was the very seene, and the very country. (Jowett's Christian Researches portionate to its breadth : its extent from the mouths of the Nile in the Mediterranean, p. 166.) Mr. J., speaking of the boat in which he to Syene, the border of Nubia, under the tropic of Cancer, was crossed the river Nile, says that it “was ballasted with earth taken from about 500 miles ; but it was little wider than the valley through mud the sides of the boat were plastered, at those parts in the fore-half of

the river-banks--very stiff and rich soil, without stones. With this same which the Nile ran in Upper Egypt, until it reached the Lower the vessel where moveable planks were placed in order to raise the gun. Egypt, at some distance above the head or vertex of the Delta, nel higher: the mud filled up the crevices, and prevented the water from

This mnd was so rich and where the valley expanded itself. The Upper Egypt or Thebaid Slimy, and when dry so firm and impervious, that, together with the strong seems to be called Pathros in Scripture, as distinguished from reed that grows on the banks, it is easy to conceive how the mother of the Lower, properly called Caphtor, or Egypt. (Compare Isa. Moses constructed a little ark which would float: she then placed it ainong xi. 11. with Ezek. xxix. 14.; and Jer. xliv. I. with Ezek. xxx.

the flags, in order that the stream might not carry it down, Exod. iii. 3." (Ibid.


in the water.




EL were contemporary, one reigning in one part of Egypt, another kingdom of Egypt, and made it a province of the Persian empire, in another.

A. M. 3654, B.c. 350. (Calmet, Hist. Profane de l'Orient, s V.

Dissert. tom. ii. pp. 341-343.) Sketch of the History of the Egyptian Empire, as connected

Ehud, the second judge of the Israelites, whom he delivered with that of the Israelites.

from the oppression of Eglon, king of Moab. (Judg. ii. 15– No intercourse subsisted between the Israelites and Egyp- 26.) tians from the departure of the former out of Egypt until the EKRON, a city and government of the Philistines, allotted to reign of Solomon, who having married a daughter of Pharaoh Judah by Joshua (xv. 45.); but afterwards given to Dan. (Josh. (1 Kings iii. 1. vii. 8.), and established a considerable trade be- xix. 43.) It was near the Mediterranean, between Ashdod and tween Egypt and Palestine, the two kingdoms became intimately Jamnia. Ekron was a powerful city; and it does not appear connected. By way of dowry to his daughter, the king of Egypt that the Jews ever peaceably possessed it: the Ekronites were gave Solomon several cities which he had taken from the Philis- the first who proposed to send back the ark, to be delivered from tines. (1 Kings ix. 16.) Afterwards, however, this intimacy those calamities which it brought on their country. (1 Sam. v.

. 10.) declined, as Pharaoh afforded shelter, even during the life of Beelzebub was adored at Ekron. (2 Kings i. 2.) Solomon, to Jeroboam the son of Nebat (1 Kings xi. 26. 40.), Ela, the fourth king of Israel, succeeded his father Baasha, and to Hadad the son of the king of Edom or Idumea. (Ibid. and reigned two years at Tirza, where he was assassinated by 18, 19.) The connection was totally broken off in the reign of Zimri, at an entertainment given to him by one of his officers. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon : Shishak king of (1 Kings xvi. 6—10.) Egypt invaded the kingdom of Judah, and despoiled the temple Elau, Valley of, notice of. 32. of its treasures. (xiv. 25, 26.)

ELAM, the eldest son of Shem, who settled in a country in the Towards the end of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah the south of Media, called after him Elam. Strictly, Elam denotes sovereigns of those countries, finding themselves too weak to ELYMAIS, a district of Persia, near the bottom of the Persian resist the Assyrian and Babylonian monarchs who pressed them Gulf between Media and Babylonia, and forming part of the closely, had frequent recourse to the kings of Egypt for succour. region of Susiana: but in a wider sense it is used generally for But these applications were always fatal to them. The vain Media itself, as in Dan. viii. 2. Gen. x. 22. xiv. I. Isa. xi. 11. confidence of the people of God in these heathen princes is a fre- xxii. 6. Jer. xlix. 34—39. Ezek. xxxii. 34. In most of these quent subject of reproof in the writings of the prophets. (Isa. passages, Elam is represented as a contentious people, causing xxx. 2. xxxvi. 6. Ezek. xxix. 6, 7. Hosea, passim, particularly disturbance to the neighbouring nations. Strabo says as much chapters vii. viii. and ix.) Hezekiah derived no advantage from concerning the inhabitants of Elymais. In Jer. xxv. 25. and his alliance with the king of Egypt (2 Kings xviii. 21.); neither Acts ii. 9. the inhabitants of this country are mentioned in conwas Hoshea king of Israel benefited by his alliance with So, junction with the Medes. king of the same country. (Hosea vii. 11. viii. 13. ix. 3. xii. 9. ELATA, Eloth, or Ailatu, a town and port of Idumæa, situJer. ii. 18. 2 Kings xvii. 4.) Josiah king of Judah was slain in ated on the Red Sea. On the conquest of Edom by David, he the vain attempt to oppose the passage of Pharaoh-Necho through took possession of this place, and there established a trade to all bis territories, when marching against the Assyrians. (2 Kings parts of the then known world. Solomon built ships here, and xxiii. 29.) Pharaoh pushed on beyond the Euphrates, and took sent them to Ophir. (2 Sam. viii. 14. 2 Chron. viii. 17, 18.) Carchemish, which place he garrisoned; and on his return Elath continued in possession of the Israelites about 150 years, through Judæa he deposed Jehoahaz, whom the people had raised until, in the reign of Joram, it was recovered by the Edomites to the throne, and placed Eliakim or Jehoiakim in his stead, on (2 Kings viii. 20.), from whom it was retaken by Azariah. whom he imposed a tribute.

(2 Kings xiv. 22.) Under his grandson Ahaz it was recaptured The governor of Syria and Phænicia, who held these pro- by the Edomites (xvi. 6.); from whom, after many changes under vinces in behalf of the king of Babylon, having put them under the Ptolemies, it ìinally passed into the possession of the Romans. the dominion of the king of Egypt, Nabopolassar, king of Assy- It was anciently a great emporium for the Tyrians. ria, sent his son Nebuchadnezzar against him; who first retook EL-BETHEL (Gen. xxxv. 7.), and El-ELOHE-ISRAEL (Gen. Carchemish, and afterwards reduced the whole of the country xxxii. 20.), the name of two altars erected by Jacob after his between the Euphrates and the Nile to his father's sceptre. (Jer. return to Canaan. The first signifies, that God was still the Goul xlvi. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. x. c. 6.)

of Bethel to him in performing the promises there made : the A. M. 3334, B.C. 670. Psammetichus succeeded his father second implies, that the mighty God was still the object of worPharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, and reigned six years. (Hero- ship to him and his offspring. dotus, lib. ii. c. 159—161.) After his death Apries (the Pha- Eldad and MEDAD were two of the seventy elders appointed raoh-Hophra of the Scriptures) ascended the throne. He made by Moses; who received the temporary gift of prophesying, or an alliance with Zedekiah king of Judah, and with the king of of forming divine hymns, and singing them to God. (Num. Ethiopia, against Nebuchadnezzar. The latter marched against xi. 26.) them, and besieged Jerusalem. The king of Egypt came to the Elders of the Israelites. See p. 42. Elders of the gate, assistance of Zedekiah, but was repulsed, and obliged to retire p. 54. into his own country, whither he was pursued by Nebuchadnez- ELEAZAR. zar, who, after taking the cities of Jerusalem and Tyre, conquered 1. The third son of Aaron, whom he succeeded in the pontiand ravaged Egypt, whence he carried away great numbers of ficate. Having been born in the desert, he entered the land of captives, agreeably to the predictions of Jeremiah (xliii. xliv. Canaan, in the division of which he assisted Joshua. After xlvi.) and Ezekiel. (xxix.---xxxi.) A pries was put to death, and executing the office of high-priest about 23 years, he died and Amasis, his enemy and rival for the Egyptian sceptre, was ele- was buried in the mountains of Ephraim. vated to the throne, A. M. 3435, B. c. 569.

2. The son of Abinadab : he was sanctified or set apart to Egypt continued subject to Nebuchadnezzar and his succes- keep the ark of God, which was deposited in his father's house, sors until the time of Cyrus the Great. This power rebelled after it had been sent back to the Israelites, by the Philistines. towards the close of his reign. Cambyses, his son and successor, (1 Sam. viii. 1.) conducted an immense army into Egypt. That country was 3. The son of Dodo, the second of David's mighty men, who again subdued, and suffered every excess which the cruel victor distinguished himself by his brave achievements. He was one could possibly inflict upon it, A. m. 3479, B.c. 525. In the reign of the three warriors who forced their way through the Philisof Darius, the son of Hystaspes, the Egyptians once more shook tine forces, to procure water for David from the well of Bethleoff the Persian yoke, but were reduced to a more oppressive hem, at the imminent hazard of their lives. (1 Chron. xi. 17 bondage than before by his son and successor Xerxes. In those --19.) two "invasions the predictions of Isaiah (xxix.) and Jeremiah ELECT Lady, more correctly, the Lady Electa, a pious Chris (xliii. 11-13.) were most signally fulfilled.

tian matron, commended by St. John in his second Epistle. Com A. m. 3544, B. c. 460. During the reign of Artaxerxes Longi- pare p. 376. manus, the Egyptians once more took up arms, and with the ELEPHANTIASIS, the disease of Job, 196. assistance of the Greeks, their allies, protracted the war for six ELIANAX. years. Again reduced to the Persian yoke, they continued de- 1. Another son of Dodo, and one of David's warriors. (1 Chron. pendent on the Persian monarchs, though governed by their xi.26.) kings, until the reign of Artaxerxes surnamed Ochus, who, in 2. The son of Jair, or Jaare-oregim, another warrior, who order to punish them for a fourth revolt, totally destroyed the slew the giant Lahmi, the brother of Goliath. (2 Sam. xxi. 19.)

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