BA Chyna-Ladanus, succeeded Saosduchin in the Assyrian throne. Baal, a Phenician idol, notice of, 138. Having rendered himself obnoxious to his subjects by his eflemi- BAALBERITH, nacy, and the little care he took of his dominions, Nabopolassar, BAALZEPUB, Phænician idols, notice of, 138. satrap of Babylon, and Cyaxares the son of Astyages king of

BAALZEPŁON, S Media, leagued together against him. He was besieged in BAALPEor, a Canaanitish idol, notice of, 137, 138. Nineveh, which was taken by his enemies, who partitioned his BAASHA, the son of Ahijah, and commander in chief to Jerodominions between them ; Nabopolassar becoming master of boam I.: he treacherously killed his sovereign Nadab, and afterNineveh and Babylon, and Cyaxares having Media and the wards usurped his kingdom, B. c. 953—930. adjacent provinces. (Usher's Annals, A. m. 3378. Calmet, Précis BaBylon, the metropolis of Chaldæa, began to be built at the de l'Histoire Profane de l'Orient, $ I. Dissert. tom. ii. pp. 329— same time as the tower of Babel, and both were left unfinished 333.)

at the confusion of tongues. (Gen. xi. 4–8.) It was celebrated Assyrian Idols, worshipped by the Israelites, 138.

for the magnificence of its buildings, especially after its enlargeASTARTE, a Phænician or Syrian idol, notice of, 138.

ment and improvement by Nebuchadnezzar, when it became one ASTRONOMY and AsTROLOGY of the Jews, 186, 187.

of the wonders of the world. It is said to have covered an area ATHaliai, daughter of Omri king of Samaria, and wife of of 480 stadia, or nearly 60 miles in circumference; and the wall Jehoram king of Judah. Jehu having slain her son Ahaziah, she by which it was surrounded was 50 cubits in thickness, and 200 seized the kingdom, and destroyed all the sons of Jehoram (whom in height. The river Euphrates divided the city into two parts, he had by other wives) except Jehoash, who was providentially which were connected by means of a noble bridge, about a fursaved by Jehosheba, and who afterwards succeeded to the throne. long in length and sixty feet wide. (Dr. Hales has given a Athaliah was slain, after an usurpation of six years. (2 Kings xi.) copious and accurate account of ancient Babylon in his Analysis

Athens, a celebrated city of Greece, sometimes a very power- of Chronology, vol. i. pp. 453—456.) ful commonwealth, distinguished by the military talents, but still The banks of the waters of Babylon were planted with willows, more by the learning, eloquence, and politeness of its inhabitants. which are mentioned in the Scriptures. Thus, Isaiah (xv. 7.), Saint Paul coming hither, a. D. 32, found them plunged in idol- describing in prophetic language the captivity of the Moabites by atry, occupied in inquiring and reporting news, curious to know Nebuchadnezzar, says, that they shall be carried away to the every thing, and divided in opinion concerning religion and hap- valley of willows. The territory surrounding the ruins of piness. (Acts xvii.) From an altar erected to the “ Unknown ancient Babylon, is at present composed chiefly of plains, whose God” (for the origin of which see Vol. I. p. 90), the great apostle soil is rich; and the river banks are still hoary with reeds, and of the Gentiles, taking opportunities here to preach Jesus Christ, covered with the grey osier willows, on which the captives of was carried before the judges of the tribunal, called the Areopagus; Israel suspended their harps (Psal. cxxxvii. 1-4.), and refused where he gave an illustrious testimony to truth, and a remarkable to be comforted, while their conquerors tauntingly commanded instance of powerful reasoning. (See an account of the Arco- them to sing the songs of Sion. (Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Pages in pp. 60, 61.)

Georgia, &c. vol. ii. p. 297.) The most terrible denunciations Some of the finest specimens of ancient art at Athens now were uttered against Babylon by the Hebrew prophets (compare adorn the British Museum. The reader, who is desirous of a Vol. I. p. 126.) the literal fulfilment of whose predictions has full account of the modern state of Athens, and of its various been shown by various modern travellers who have described monuments of former times, is referred to the Travels of Dr. the present state of its ruins. (See particularly Mr. Rich's Two Clarke, to the Classical Tour of Mr. Dodwell, and to Mr. Stuart's Memoirs on the Ruins of Babylon, the accuracy of whose stateAntiquities of Athens.

ments is confirmed by Mr. Buckingham, in the interesting de ATONEMENT, fast of, 127.

scription contained in his Travels in Mesopotamnia, vol. ii. pp. 258 ATTALIA, a maritime city of Pamphylia, and the chief --394.: Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Georgia, &c. vol. ii. pp. 308 residence of the prefect. It derived its name from king At- -332, 337–400.; and the Hon. Capt. Keppel's Narrative of talus, its founder. Hither Saint Paul went from Perga in Travels from India, vol. i. pp. 171-188., who also attests the Pamphylia. (Acts xiv. 25.) It still subsists under the name of accuracy of Mr. Rich, and has adopted his measurements.) The Sattalia.

prophet Isaiah, describing the calamities that were to be inflicted Augustus (Octavius) the first, or, according to some writers, on Babylon by Cyrus, calls this city the desert of the sea. Jerethe second emperor of Rome. He commanded the enrolment to miah, to the same purport, says (li. 36. 42.), I will dry up the be made which is mentioned in Luke ii. 1.—The forty-second sea of Babylon and make her springs dry. The sea is come year of his reign is that in which Jesus Christ was born. The up upon her. She is covered with the multitude of the waves title of Augustus, which he received from the flattery of the thereof. Megasthenes (in Eusebius De Præp. Evang. lib. ix.c.41.) senate, became the personal appellation of his successors; and states, that Babylon was built in a place which had before so St. Luke has employed the corresponding Greek word, to desig- greatly abounded with water, that it was called the sea. Rate Nero. (Acts xxv. 21.25.)

Babylon was very advantageously situated, both in respect to Aves. See Or, infra.

commerce and as a naval power. It was open to the Persian AVEN (Plain of), a beautiful valley in the part of Syria near Gulf by the Euphrates, which was navigable by large vessels; to Damascus : according to Gesenius, it is now called Un, and and being joined to the Tigris above Babylon, by the canal is proverbially considered as a delightful valley. As the original called Naharmalca, or the Royal River, supplied the city with word (Bikath-Aven, which is retained in the marginal rendering the produce of the whole country to the north of it, as far as the of Amos i. 5.) signifies the plain of vanity, it is conjectured to Euxine and Caspian Seas. Semiramis was the foundress of this have been a place remarkable for idolatry, Bethel being called part also of the Babylonian greatness. She improved the naviBeth-A ven in Hos, v. 8. for that reason.

gation of the Euphrates, and is said to have had a fleet of three Avims, the original inhabitants of the country afterwards pos- thousand galleys. We are not to wonder that, in later times, we sessed by the Caphtorim or Philistines. (Deut. ii. 23.)

hear little of the commerce and naval power of Babylon: for, Avites or Avim, the inhabitants of Aveh or Áva, a city after the capture of the city by Cyrus, the Euphrates was not whence colonies were sent into Samaria. (2 Kings xvii. 24. 31.) only rendered less fit for navigation by being diverted from its Ava is supposed to have been situated in the north-west of course, and left to spread over the country ; but the Persian Chaldæa.

monarchs, residing in their own country, in order to prevent any AZARIAH.-1. The name of a king of Judah, also called invasion by sea on that part of their empire, purposely obstructed Uzziah (which see infra):-2. The name of several high- the navigation of both rivers by making cataracts in them; that priests among the Jews :-and, 3. The name of a prophet in the is, by raising dams across the channel, and making artificial falls time of Asa. (2 Chron. xv. 1, 2.)

in them, so that no vessel of any size or force could possibly come AZEKAH, a city in the tribe of Judah, to the south of Jerusalem, up. Alexander began to restore the navigation of the rivers by and east of Bethlehem. (Josh. xv. 35.)

demolishing the cataracts upon the Tigris, as far up as Seleucia, Azotus, or Asunod, a city of Judæa, is situated between Gaza but he did not live to complete his great designs; those upon the and Jamnia, or Jafnia, on the summit of a hill, which is sur-Euphrates still continued. Ammianus Marcellinus mentions rounded by a pleasant plain. Here the ark of Jehovah triumphed them as subsisting in his time. The prophet Isaiah (xliii. 14., over the Philistine idol Dagon (1 Sam. v. 2.), and Philip the Bishop Lowth's translation) speaks of the Chaldæans exulting Evangelist was found, after he had baptized the Ethiopian in their ships ; which, Bp. L. remarks, he might justly do, in his eunuch. (Acts viii. 40.) It is at present an inconsiderable place, time, though afterwards they had no foundation for any such and in its vicinity are numerous reliques of antiquity.

boast. (Bp. Lowth, on Isa. xliii. 14.)

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BA Babylon rapidly declined during the Persian dynasty : Darius had the memorable vision related and interpreted by the prophet Hystapes broke down the walls and took away the gates, which Daniel. (ii.) At this time Jehoiakim revolted from the king of Cyrus had spared. Alexander the Great designed to rebuild the Babylon, whose generals marched against him, and ravaged his temple of Belus, which had gone to decay, and actually employed country. (2 Kings xxiv. 1, 2.) Jehoiakim“ slept with his fathers," ten thousand labourers for two months in removing the rubbish ; neither regretted nor lamented by his subjects, agreeably to the but the attempt was rendered abortive by his premature death, prediction of Jeremiah (xxii. 18, 19.); though the precise manin the flower of his age, and pride of conquest. Seleucus Nicator, ner of its fulfilment is not recorded by the sacred historian. Je his successor in the kingdom of Syria, dismantled and spoiled hoiachin or Jeconiah, also called Coniah (Jer. xxii. 24.), sueBabylon, to build Seleucia in its neighbourhood, to which he ceeded to the throne and iniquity of his father; and in the eighth transplanted the inhabitants; and in Strabo's time, about the year of his reign Jerusalem was besieged and taken by the Christian æra, “ the greater part of Babylon was become a desert," generals of Nebuchadnezzar; and Jehoiachin, together with part which the Parthian kings converted into a park, where they took of the nobility, and the princes of the people, were carried into the recreation of hunting, in Jerome's time, a. D. 340. Its ruins captivity, to Babylon. (2 Kings xxiv. 6–16.)—Mattaniah, also are now the haunts of lions and other beasts of prey. Thus called Zedekiah, who was the uncle of Jehoiachin, was elevated gradually have been fulfilled the predictions of Scripture :-“ Ba- to the throne, and left at Jerusalem, a. M. 3405, B. c. 599. bylon, the beauty of kingdoms, the glory of the pride of the (2 Kings xxiv. 17.) Chaldeans, shall become as Sodom and Gomorrah, which God Nebuchadnezzar did not continue long at Babylon. Having overthrew. It shall never be re-established, neither shall it be received intelligence that Zedekiah had made an alliance with inhabited from generation to generation. The Arab shall not | Pharaoh Hophra king of Egypt, and had violated his oath of pitch his tent there, nor shall the shepherd make his fold there: fidelity, Nebuchadnezzar marched against him, defeated his forces, the wild beasts of the desert shall lie there, and howling monsters and laid siege to Jerusalem, agreeably to the prediction of Jereshall fill their houses :—for her time is near to come, and her miah. (xliv. 30.) The arrival of the Egyptian monarch, at the days shall not be prolonged.” (Isaiah xiii. 19–22.)

head of a powerful army, gave the besieged a gleam of hope, The remains of ancient Babylon, as described by recent tra- but their joy was of short duration. The Egyptians were devellers, are so vast, that the whole could never be suspected of feated, and the conqueror returned to Jerusalem, which he took having been the work of human hands, were it not for the layers by storm, after a siege of two years, A. M. 3416, B.c. 588. Z€of bricks which are found therein. They are fire-baked, and ce- dekiah was arrested in his fight, and conducted to Riblath, mented with zepht, or bitumen ; between each layer are found where Nebuchadnezzar was. After seeing his two children put oziers. Here are found those large and thick bricks imprinted to death before his face, the Jewish king was deprived of both with unknown characters, specimens of which are preserved in his eyes, loaded with chains, and carried to Babylon, where he the British Museum, in the Museum of the East India Company, died. Jerusalem was destroyed, the temple pillaged and burnt, and in other depositories of antiquities. The composition of and the chief of the people that yet survived were carried into these bricks corresponds exactly with the account given by the captivity beyond the Euphrates. Only a wretched remnant of sacred historian of the builders of Babel. Let us make brick the common people was left in Judæa, under the government of (said they), and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick Gedaliah the son of Ahikam (Jer. xl. 5.); who being afterwards for stone, and slime had they for mortar. (Gen. xi. 3.) put to death by Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, part of the people

The name of Babylon was mystically given to Rome by the withdrew into Egypt with Jeremiah (xli. xlii.), and the rest were, apostle Peter, as we have shown at length in the critical preface a few years afterwards, transported to Babylon by Nebuzaradan. to his first epistle, in Vol. II. pp. 361, 362. The


A. M. 3419, B.c. 585. Three years after the capture of Jeruwas founded by the celebrated hunter and hero Nimrod, after the salem, Nebuchadnezzar commenced the siege of Tyre; he closely dispersion which followed the unsuccessful attempt to build the invested it for twelve years, and in the thirteenth year of the tower of Babel. “It extended from Babylon in Mesopotamia siege he took that city. During this interval he waged war with towards the north, over Calneh (Ctesiphon), as far as Accad the Sidonians, Aminonites, Moabites, and Edomites, or Idumeans, (Nisibis) and Erech (Edessa), including the whole land of Shi- in conformity with the prophecies of Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Obanar. But, however powerful for those times, we cannot suppose diah. (Jer. xliii. xliv. xlvi. Ezek. xxvi.xxviii. Obad. through it to have been either populous or well organized. Even the out.) Having captured Tyre, Nebuchadnezzar entered Egypt, four cities, which are mentioned as the strongholds of this king and laid waste the whole country. (Ezek. xxix.—xxxi.) Phadom, were nothing more than small villages slightly fortified. As raoh Hophra (the Apries of profane historians) was put to death this was the first attempt to establish an extensive domain, it by his enemies (Jer. xliv. 30. Ezek. xxxii.) i and Amasis

, his must have been universally disagreeable to the men of that period. rival for the throne, was left to govern that country in his stead

. Consequently, it was of short duration; and Nimrod's Babylon Nebuchadnezzar carried a great number of captives from Egypt must not be regarded as the germ of that universal monarchy to Babylon. which took its rise in a later age, and among a different people." After his return from these successful expeditions, Nebuchad(Jahn's Hebrew Commonwealth, vol. i. p. 6.)

nezzar employed himself in embellishing Babylon ; but, to humSketch of the History of the Babylonian ór CHALDEAN EM- ble his pride, God sent him the memorable admonitory dream,

PIRE, to illustrate the Predictions of the Prophets. recorded by the prophet Daniel (iv. 1—27.); and twelve months A. m. 3398, B.C. 606. Nabopolassar having associated his son afterwards he was bereft of his senses, precisely in the manner Nebuchadnezzar with him in the empire, sent him to reduce that had been foretold. (28—33.) At length he recovered his the provinces of Syria and Palestine, which had revolted from understanding (34–37.), and shortly after died, in the forty; him. In his way thither

, the young prince defeated the army third year of his reign, A. n. 3442, R.C. 563. He was succeeded of Pharaoh Necho king of Egypt, and recaptured Carchemish. by Evil-Merodach, who reigned only two years. He liberated (Jer. xlvi. 2.) Having penetrated into Judæa, he besieged Jeru. Jehoachin king of Judah, who had been detained in captivity salem, and took it, and caused Jehoiakim, the son of Josiah, king nearly thirty-seven years. (Jer. lii. 31.) Evil-Merodach becomof Judah, to be put in chains, intending to have him carried to ing odious to his subjects in consequence of his debaucheries Babylon; but, being moved with his repentance and affliction, and iniquities, his own relations conspired against him, and put he restored him to his throne. (2 Chron. xxxvi. 6.) Great num- him to death. Neriglissar, one of the conspirators, reigned in bers of the Jews, and among the rest, some children of the royal his stead ; and after a short reign of four years, being slain in family, were carried captive to Babylon, whither all the royal battle, he was succeeded by Laborosoarchod, a wicked and inglotreasures, and part of the sacred vessels of the temple, were like- rious prince, whom his subjects put to death for his crimes. To wise transported. (2 Chron. xxxvi. 7. Dan. i. 1—7.) Thus was him succeeded Belshazzan, called by Berosus, Nebonidus

, and accomplished the judgment which God had denounced to Heze- by Heroditus, Labynitus. He is supposed to have been the son kiah by the prophet Isaiah. (xxxix. 5—7.) From this celebrated of Evil-Merodach, and consequently the grandson of Nebuchad. period, which was the fourth year of Jehoiakim king of Judah, nezzar, to whom, according to the prophecy of Jeremiah, all the we are to date the seventy years' captivity of the Jews at Baby- nations of the east were to be subject, as also to his son and lon, so often foretold by Jeremiah. Among the members of the grandson. (Calmet

, Précis de l'Histoire Prophane de l'Orient, royal family thus taken captives was the prophet Daniel; Ezekiel S II. Dissertations, tom. ii. pp. 333–335.) followed some time afterwards.

BABYLONIAN Idols, notice of, 139. A. M. 3399, B.C. 605. Nabopolassar died, and Nebuchadnezzar BAITHYLIA, or consecrated stones, notice of, 138. began to reign alone; and in the fourth year of his empire he Balaam, the son of Beor, dwelt at Pethor in Mesopotamia,


BE not far from the river Euphrates. He was sent for by Balak a different language. In this sense the word was used by the king of Moab to curse the Israelites; but instead of curses, he Greeks, Romans, and Jews. Under the terms “Greeks" and pronounced only blessings. (Num. xxii.---xxiv.). It is a ques- “ Barbarians” Saint Paul comprehends all mankind. tion much debated among commentators, whether Balaam was BARGAixs and Sales, how made and ratified, 81. 4 true prophet of the Lord, or only a magician and diviner or BAR-JESUS, a Jewish magician in the island of Crete; who, fortune-teller : and the arguments on each side are so strong, as opposing Paul and Barnabas, and endeavouring to prevent Serto lead to the conclusion that he was both-a Chaldæan priest, gius Paulus from embracing Christianity, was by St. Paul struck magician, and astrologer by profession, a prophet by accident. blind. (Acts xiii. 6.) On the nature of this blindness, see p. 197. He dwelt in a country, which, from time immemorial, was cele- The same miracle, which punished the impostor, converted the brated for the observation of the stars ; and the astronomy of proconsul. St. Luke calls him Elymas, an Arabic name signiantiquity was never, perhaps, free from astrology. His fame, in fying sorcerer. He is supposed to have been one of the proconevery thing which at that time formed the science of Chaldæa, sul's council, who was apprehensive of losing his credit, if the filled Asia : the honours and presents which he received, show Roman became a Christian. the high estimation in which he was held. It is a circumstance, BAR-JONAH, a patronymic appellation of the apostle Peter. moreover, worthy of remark, that his religion was not a pure (Matt. xvi. 17.) idolatry. He knew and served the LORD: the knowledge and BARNABAS, a surname of Joses, a Levite by descent, and born worship of the true God did not simultaneously disappear among of parents who lived in the Isle of Cyprus. Having embraced the nations; as is evident from the circumstances recorded of Christianity, he became St. Paul's principal associate in his Melchisedek, Jethro, and, perhaps, Abimelech. The history of labours for propagating the Gospel. He is supposed to have Balaam presents the last trace of the knowledge of the true God, received the name of Barnabas, which signifies a son of consolawhich is found out of Canaan. If the rites celebrated by him tion, after his conversion to the faith of Jesus Christ. (Acts iv. were not devoid of superstition; if it be difficult to put a favoura- 36. ix. 27. xi. 22. 25. 30. xii. 25. xiii. 1, 2.) ble construction upon the enchantments which Moses seems to BARTHOLOMEW, one of the twelve apostles, is supposed to attribute to him, it only follows that Balaam, like Laban, blended have been Nathaniel, who was one of Christ's first disciples. error and truth. The mixed religion, thus professed by him, According to ecclesiastical tradition, after preaching the Gospel furnishes a key to his mysterious history. Sacerdotal maledic- in Persia and Arabia, he suffered martyrdom at Albanopolis. tions were at that time regarded as inevitable scourges, and the BARTIMÆUs, or the son of Timæus, a blind beggar of Jericho, people of Moab and Midian thought that they should find in to whom Jesus Christ miraculously imparted the gift of sight. Moab an adversary, who was capable of opposing Moses; and it (Mark x. 46.) was only opposing a prophet to a prophet, a priest to a priest. Baruch, the son of Neriah, descended from an illustrious In the judgment of these nations, Moses was a formidable magi- family of the tribe of Judah, was the scribe or secretary and cian; and, as Pharaoh had done forty years before, they sought faithful friend of the prophet Jeremiah, whom he accompanied out, on their part, a magician, to defend them: they wished to into Egypt. (Jer. xxxvi.) For an analysis of the apocryphal curse the Israelites in the very name of Jehovah, whom they book of Baruch, see 291, 292. supposed to be a more powerful deity than their own god. These Bashan, or BATANÆA, district of, 18. Forest of Bashan. circumstances will enable us without difficulty to conceive how See P

36. Balaam received the gift of prophecy. The terms employed by BASKETs of the Jews, 155. the sacred historian are so express, as to leave no doubt that he, Bath, much used in the East, 170. occasionally, at least, was inspired. Besides, his predictions are Bath-Kol, or voice from heaven. See p. 256. extant; nor does it avail to say, that Balaam was a wicked man. BATHSHEBA, or BATHSHUA, the daughter of Eliarn or Ammiel, The gift of prophecy did not always sanctify the heart. (See and the wife of Uriah the Hittite. After his murder she became Matt. vii. 22.) If, then, we refer to the circumstances of that the wife of David, who had previously committed adultery with memorable day, we shall find in that dispensation reasons worthy her. She subsequently was the mother of Solomon. of the divine wisdom. The Hebrews had arrived on the borders BATTLE, order of, 89. of Canaan, which country they were on the point of entering ; BEARD, reverence of, in the East, 157. The corners of, why they knew that Moses would not enter it; and in order to en- forbidden to be marred, 142. courage the people to effect the conquest of the promised land, BEATING to Death, punishment of, 68. even without Moses, God caused one who was hostile to them BEATITUDES, Mount of, notice of, 30. to utter predictions of their victory. How encouraging must BEAUTIFUL Gate of the Temple, 99. this circumstance have been to the Hebrews, at the same time BEELZEBUB, or BELZEBUB. See p. 138. that it would prove to them (who were about to come into con- BEEROTH, a city belonging to the Gibeonites, which was aftertinual contact with the Canaanites) how vain and useless against wards given up to the tribe of Benjamin. (Josh. ix. 7. 2 Sam. them would be the superstitions of those idolatrous nations. The iv. 2.) According to Eusebius, it was seven Roman miles disthree hills on which Balaam offered sacrifices in the presence of tant from Jerusalem, on the road to Nicopolis. the Israelitish camp, remind us of one of the prejudices of BEERSHEBA (the well of an oath, or the well of seven), beancient times. The ancients believed that a change of aspect cause here Abraham made an alliance with Abimelech, king of induced a change of condition. On this subject compare p. 90. Gerar, and gave him seven ewe-lambs, in token of that covenant

Baladas, or MERODACH-BALADAN, the Belesis and Nabonas- to which they had sworn. (Gen. xx. 31.) Beersheba was given sar of profane historians, and the founder of the Babylonian by Joshua to the tribe of Judah ; afterwards it was transferred empire. Originally only governor of Babylon, he entered into to Simeon. (Josh. xv. 28.) It was twenty miles from Hebron, a conspiracy with Arbaces, governor of Media, against Sardana- south ; here was a Roman garrison, in Eusebius's and Jerome's palus, king of Assyria ; on whose death he had Babylon for his time. The limits of the Holy Land (as we have already remark. share of the dominions of Sardanapalus, as already related in ed) are often expressed in Scripture, by the terms—“ From Dan p. 192. of this Index.

to Beersheba” (2 Sam xvii. 11, &c.), Dan being the northern, Balak, king of Moab, is known only by the circumstance of Beersheba the southern extremity of the land. his having invited Balaam to his assistance against the Israelites. BEGGARS, treatment of, 83. See BALAAM.

BEHEADING, punishment of, 68. Balm of GILEAD, 36.

BEL, a Babylonish idol, 139. BAXISHMENT, a Jewish punishment, notice of, 66.

BELSHazzar, the last monarch of Babylon, grandson of NeBaptism of Proselytes, 109. Analogy between Circumcision buchadnezzar, who was slain while carousing with his officers; and Baptism. See p. 110. and note.

the city being taken, and the empire translated to Cyaxares, BARABBAS, the name of a seditious robber, whose release the whom the Scriptures call Darius the Mede. Jews demanded of Pilate. (John xviii. 40.)

BELT, or Girdle (Military), Notice of, 88. Barachias, the father of Zacharias, mentioned in Matt. xxiii. BenuadAD I. king of Syria, who, gained by the presents of 35., is supposed to have been Jehoiada the high-priest; it being Asa king of Judah, broke off his alliance with Baasha king of not uncommon among the Jews to have two names.

Israel, and assisted him against the latter. (1 Kings xv. 18.) He BARAK, the son of Abinoam, who, in conjunction with Debo- was succeeded by his son, rah, delivered the Israelites from the oppression of the Canaan- BENHADAD II., who made war against Ahab king of Israel, ites. (Judg. iv. v. Heb. xi. 32.)

and was defeated. He also made war against Jehoram the son of BARBanian, one who belongs to a different nation, and uses Ahab; but by means of the prophet Elisha was obliged to return


BE into his country again, as related in 2 Kings vi. Shortly after large as NAZARETH, and to contain from a thousand to fifteen he besieged Samaria, which city he reduced to the utmost distress hundred inhabitants, who are almost wholly Christians, and are (2 Kings vii.); but, his army being seized with a panic, they a bold, fierce race of men, of whom both Turks and Arabs stand deserted the besieged city, and returned home. In the following in awe. On the north-eastern side of it is a deep valley, where year, Benhadad was murdered by Hazael, who succeeded to the tradition says that the angels appeared to the shepherds of Judsa, throne of Syria. (2 Kings viii.)

with the glad tidings of our Saviour's nativity (Luke ii. 8–14.): BENJAMIN, the youngest son of Jacob and Rachel, one of and in this valley Dr. Clarke halted at the identical fountain for the twelve patriarchs. From him was desc led tribe of whose delicious water David longed. (2 Sam. xxiii. 15—18.) Benjamin ; for the situation, &c. of the canton allotted to which, Of the various pretended holy places which are here shown to see p. 17.

Christians, the cave of the nativity is the only spot verified by BERACHAI, Valley of, 31.

tradition from the earliest ages of Christianity. Between one Benea, a city of Macedonia, where Paul preached the Gospel and two miles from this place, on the road to Jerusalem, stood with great success, The historian Luke gives an honourable the site of Rachel's tomb (Gen. xxxv. 19, 20. 1 Sam. 1. 2.), character to the Bereans, in Acts xviii. 10.

which is now covered by a small square Mohammedan building, BERNICE, notice of, 52.

surmounted by a dome, and resembling in its exterior the tombs BESOR, BROOK, 26.

of saints and sheiks in Arabia and Egypt. In the vicinity of BETHABARA, the place of the ford or passage, viz. of the Jor- Bethlehem are the pools of Solomon, which are described in p. dan. "It is mentioned in John i. 28., where the best manuscripts, 29. supra. (Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. 408–420. See also the Vulgate, Saxon, and both the Syriac versions, as well as the Hasselquist's Travels, p. 144.; Buckingham's Travels in PalesGreek paraphrase of Nonnus, read Bnb xv14. The reading Bnge- tine, pp. 218–222.; Carne's Letters from the East, p. 277.; Bepe seems to have arisen from the mere conjecture of Origen; Three Weeks in Palestine, p. 49.) On the age of the children who, in travelling through that region, found no such place as massacred at Bethlehem, see Vol. II. p. 77. Historical evidence Bubavia, but saw a town called Bn82,81, and therefore changed of that fact, I. p. 419. the common reading. (Campbell and Blomfield on John i. 20.) BETHPHAGE, a tract of land and also a small village at the foot BETHANY,

of the Mount of Olives, between Bethany and Jerusalem. It 1. A town in Judæa, where Lazarus dwelt, and where he was derived its name from the abundance of figs which grew there. raised from the dead, was fifteen furlongs east from Jerusalem, This tract seems to have run along so near to Jerusalem that the on the way to Jericho (John xi. 8.), and was situated on the utmost street within the walls was called by that name. It is retired and shady side of Mount Olivet. It is now a miserable mentioned in Matt. xxi. 1. and the parallel passages in the other little village, consisting of a cluster of mud hovels. Somewhere evangelists. on this side of that mountainous tract, which reached within BETHsAida, a city beyond Jordan, on the coast of the sea of eight furlongs of Jerusalem, from which it was only a Sabbath- Tiberias, near the place where the river enters that sea. It was day's journey, Mr. Jowett, with great probability, places the originally a village, and was enlarged into a city and beautified scene of the Ascension : "for it is said (Luke xxiv. 50, 51.), by Philip the Tetrarch, who called it Julia in honour of the emthat Jesus Christ led his disciples out as far as to Bethany, and peror's daughter. It was one of the cities against which Christ then was parted from them and carried up into heaven. The denounced a woe (Matt. xi. 21.) for her impenitence and infiprevious conversation, as related in the beginning of the Acts of delity, after the mighty works he had done in her. It also was the Apostles (i. 6—9.), would probably occupy some time while the residence of the apostles Philip, Andrew, and Peter. (John walking toward Bethany; for we must not judge of the length i. 44.) At present Bethsaida exists in little more than the name. of our Lord's discourses by the brevity with which the evange- (Jowett's Christ. Researches in Syria, p. 178.) lists record them. Here the last sparks of earthly ambition were BETH-Shan or BETH-SHEAN, a city belonging to the half-tribe extinguished in the bosoms of the apostles; and they were pre- of Manasseh, not far from the western banks of the Jordan. pared to expect that purer fire which was ere long to burst forth (1 Sam. xxxi. 10.) After the defeat of the Israelites, and the upon the day of Pentecost. Here their Head was taken from death of Saul and his sons, the Philistines fastened the body of them; and two or three ministering spirits of his train, becoming Saul to the walls of this place, whence the men of Jabesh-Gilead visible to their eyes, interrupted their mute astonishment, and took it down and carried it away. In the fourth century it was dismissed them to their proper stations." At present the culti- a considerable town, and bore, as it had done for several ages, vation around Bethany is much neglected; though it is a plea- the name of Scythopolis. sant, romantic spot, abounding in trees and long grass. Various BETHSHEMESH. supposed sites of the houses of Lazarus, of Martha, of Simon 1. A Levitical city in the tribe of Judah, whither the ark was the leper, and of Mary Magdalene, are pointed out to credulous brought after it had been sent back by the Philistines. Some of and ignorant Christians. (Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, the inhabitants, having looked into it with vain curiosity, fell pp. 256—258. Richardson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 371.)

down dead, to the number of seventy. (1 Sam. vi. 19.) 2. A village on the eastern side of Jordan, where John bap- 2. A city in the tribe of Issachar. (Josh. xix.) tized. (John i. 28 ) Its exact position is not known. See 3. A city in the tribe of Naphtali, (Josh. xix. 38. Judg. i. 33.) BETHABARA.

BETHUEL, the son of Nahor and Milcha, and nephew of AbraBETH-AVEN, a city not far from Ai, the same as BETAEL, ham, was the father of Rebekah. (Gen. xxii.) where Jeroboam I. set up his golden calves : whence the prophet BETuulia, a small city, not far from the mountain known by Hosea (iv. 15.) in derision calls it Beth-Aven, that is, the House the name of the Mountain of the Beatitudes. It is generally of Vanity, or of Idols ; instead of Bethel, or the House of God, supposed to be the city set on a hill, mentioned in Matt

. v. 14. which name had been given to it by the patriarch Jacob after his It stands on a very eminent and conspicuous mountain, and is memorable vision, related in Gen. xxvii.

seen far and near: it is at present called Safet, and is a very BETHESDA, pool of, 20.

strong position, and might well defy the power of Holofernes BETHLEHEM, now called Beit-LAHIM, was a celebrated city, and his army. It answers exactly to the description given in about six miles south-west from Jerusalem : it was formerly the apocryphal book of Judith. (Carne's Letters, p. 367.) Safet called Ephrath or Ephrata. (Gen. xxxv. 19. xlviii. 7. Mic. v. 2.) is said to be peopled by about four hundred Jewish families. It was a city in the time of Boaz (Ruth iii. 11. iv. 1.), and was the prospect from this place is very extensive. “ The view," fortified by Rehoboam. (2 Chron. xi. 6.) In Matt. ii. 1. 5. it is says the Rev. Mr. Jowett, “ to the south and on either side, comcalled Bethlehem of Judæa, to distinguish it from another town prehending about one-third of the circle, presents the most surof the same name situated in Lower Galilee, and mentioned in prising assemblage of mountains which can be conceived. It is, Josh. xix. 15. In Luke ii. 4. it is called the city of David, be- if such an expression may be allowed, one vast plain of hills. To cause David was born and educated there. (Compare John vii. a distance of twenty or thirty miles toward Nazareth, and nearly 42. and 1 Sam. xvi. 1. 18.) This city, though not considerable the same toward Mount Tabor and Mount Hermon, the farfor its extent or riches, is of great dignity as the appointed birth- spreading country beneath is covered with ranges of mountains; place of the Messiah (Matt. ii. 6. Luke ii. 6—15.): it is plea- which, having passed over them, we know to be ascents and desantly situated on the brow of an eminence, in a very fertile soil, scents far from inconsiderable ; but which, from the eminence of which only wants cultivation to render it what the name Bethle- Safet, appear only as bold undulations of the surface of the hem imports—a house of bread. Between the clefts of the earth. To the left are the inhospitable and unvisited mountains rock, when the soil is cultivated, vines, figs, and olives, appear eastward of the river Jordan. In the centre of the distant scene to grow in great luxuriance. Bethlehem is said to be nearly as appears the beautiful lake of Tiberias, fully seen from one ese

civil year.

CA tremity to the other; and in the background, stretching beyond Pbilip the Tetrarch built it, or, at least, embellished and enlarged the utmost power of vision, are the mountains of Gilead. On a it, and named it Cæsarea, in honour of Tiberius ; afterwards, in clear day the view in that direction must be more than forty compliment to Nero, it was called Neronius. The woman who miles." (Jowett's Researches in Syria, p. 184.)

was troubled with an issue of blood, and healed by our Saviour BetroThing in marriage, ceremony of, 160, 161.

(Matt. ix. 20. Luke viii. 43.), is said to have been of Cæsarea Birth of children, and privileges of the first-born, 163. Philippi. The present town of Paneas is small; and the ground

Bithynia, a region of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by it stands on is of a triangular form. From this compressed situathe Euxine sea, on the south by Phrygia, on the west by the tion the ancient city could not have been of great extent. (Irby's Propontis, and on the east by Galatia. Saint Peter addressed and Mangles' Travels, p. 289.) his first Epistle (among others) to the Hebrew Christians who CAIAPhas, also called Joseph, was high-priest of the Jews at were scattered throughout Bithynia. (1 Pet. i. 1.)

the time Jesus was crucified, and was a principal agent in that Blasphemy, punishment of, 62.

transaction. (Matt. xxvi. 3. 57. Luke iii. 2. John xi. 49. xviii. BLESSING, valley of, notice of, 31.

13, 14. 24. 28. Acts iv. 6.) He was of the sect of the Sadducees. Blindness of Elymas, observations on, 197. Jewish Law Cain, the eldest son of Adam and Eve. He was the first concerning blind persons, 82, 83.

husbandman, and also the first homicide. (Gen. iv.) He slew BLOOD-AVENGER, office of, 67.

Abel, because his own works were evil, and his brother's rightBLOODY-OFFERINGs, account of, 117–119.

eous. (1 John iii. 12.) Bochum, valley of, notice of, 32.

Cainan is mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus Christ by St. Books, ancient, form of. See p. 183.

Luke (iii. 35, 36.) as the son of Arphaxad, and father of Salah; Borrles, form of, 155. 179.

while in the genealogies preserved in Gen. x. 24. xi. 12. and 1 Boundaries of the Holy Land, 14, 15.

Chron. i. 24. the son of Arphaxad is denominated Salah, and no Bows of the Hebrews, notice of, 88.

mention is made of this Cainan. Various suppositions have BRAZEN ALTAR and LAVER, 96.

been offered to reconcile the seeming contradiction. The simBRAZEN SERPENT, worship of, 136, 137.

plest solution is always the most certain. St. Luke wrote for Bread, how prepared. See p. 171.

those Christians who read the Septuagint Greek version more BREAST-plate of the high-priest, 114.; and of the Jewish than the original Hebrew; and, consequently, he preferred their soldiers, 87.

version, which adds the name of Cainan to the genealogy of BRICKS, ancient, form of, 151. and note.

Shem. Britons (ancient), writing of, 182. note.

CalamITIES, with which Palestine was visited, 38—40. Bruising in a mortar, punishment of, 68.

CALEB, a celebrated Jewish warrior, of the tribe of Judah ; Bul, a Chaldæan name of the eighth month of the Jewish who, as a reward for his fidelity, when sent, together with

Joshua, to explore the country of Canaan, was permitted to Burial, rites of, 199–201. Not always permitted to capi- enter the promised land, where he obtained possessions. (Josh. tal prisoners by the Romans, 72.

xiv. 6—13.) A district belonging to the tribe of Judah was Burning to death, punishment of, 68.

called after his name. (1 Sam. xxx. 14.) Burning of the dead, 198, 199.

CALENDAR, Jewish, 75, 76. BURNT-OFFERINGs, account of, 118.

Calf, golden, worshipped by the Israelites, 136. Account of the golden calves of Jeroboam I., 136.

Calvary, notice of, 19. Cesar, originally the surname of the Julian family. After CAMELs, notice of, 175. being dignitied in the person of Julius Cæsar, it became the Camps of the Hebrews, form of, 86, 87. usual appellation of those of his family who ascended the impe- Cana, a small town of Galilee, situated on a gentle eminence rial throne. The last of these was Nero; but the name was to the west of Capernaum. This circumstance distinctly proves still retained by his successors, as a sort of title belonging to the how accurately the writings of the evangelists correspond with imperial dignity. In the New Testament the reigning emperor the geography and present appearance of the country. The is called Cæsar, without any other distinguishing appellation. ruler of Capernaum, whose child was dangerously ill, besought The persons mentioned or alluded to by this title are Augustus Jesus to come down and heal his son. (John ‘iv. 47–51.) (Luke ii. 1.), Tiberius (Luke iii. 1. xx. 22. 24, 25.), Claudius About a quarter of a mile from the small and poor village (for (Acts xi. 8.), and Nero (Acts xxv. 8. Phil. iv. 22.)

such it now is) on the road from Nazareth, there is a well of CESAREA or Palestine, so called as being the metropolis delicious water close to the road, whence all the water is taken of Palestine and the residence of the Roman proconsul, was for the supply of the inhabitants. At this well, which is supformerly named the Tower of Strato ; but, its harbour being plied by springs from the mountains about two miles distant, it extremely incommodious, Herod the Great erected a spacious is usual for pilgrims to halt, as being the source of the water, mole, and greatly enlarged and beautified the city, which he de- which our Saviour, by his first public miracle, converted into nominated Cæsarea, in honour of the emperor Augustus, his wine. (John ii. 11.) In consequence of this miracle, both the great patron, to whom he dedicated it in the twenty-eighth year Christian and Turkish inhabitants of Cana cherish the singular of his reign, with games and other ceremonies, in a most solemn notion that, hy drinking copiously of the water of this spring, manner, and with a profusion of expense. It is very frequently intoxication is produced. This place is called Cana of Galilee, mentioned in the New Testament; and is sometimes called, by to distinguish it from Cana of Kanah (Josh. xix. 28.), which way of eminence, Cæsarea. Here Peter converted Cornelius and belonged to the tribe of Asher, and was situated in the vicinity his kinsmen, the first-fruits of the Gentiles (Acts x.); here lived of Sidon. Here are shown the ruins of a church, which is said Philip the Evangelist (Acts xxi. 8.); and here St. Paul so ad- to have been erected by the empress Helena, over the spot where mirably defended himself against the Jews and their orator Ter- the marriage-feast was held. (Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. tullus. (Acts xxiv.) Cæsarea now retains nothing of its former 185—188.) splendour: at present the whole of the surrounding country, on Canaan, the son of Ham and the progenitor of the Canaanthe land side, is a sandy desert: the waves wash the ruins of ites. For an account of the land called after him, see pp. 13. the moles, the towers, and the port, which anciently were both 15. How divided by Joshua among the twelve tribes, 16, 17. its ornament and its defence, towards the sea. Not a creature Populousness of Canaan, 38. Idols worshipped by the Ca(except jackals and beasts of prey) resides within many miles of naanites, 137, 138. Their extirpation considered, Vol. I. pp. this silent desolation : and its ruins, which are very considerable, 409, 410. have long been resorted to as a quarry whenever building mate- CANDACE, a queen of Ethiopia mentioned in Acts viii. 27. rials were required at Acre. (Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. iv. pp. This name was common to the Ethiopian queens in the time of 416–448. Mr. Buckingham has a long and interesting descrip- Christ; and, according to Eusebius, Ethiopia continued to be tion of the ancient history and present state of Cæsarea. See governed by women, even to his time,—the fourth century. his Travels, pp. 126—138.)

(Eccl. Hist. lib. ii. c. 1.) CESAREA Puilippi (formerly called Paneas) was situated CandLESTICK, golden, in the Temple, at Jerusalem, 100. near the springs of the river Jordan. It was first called Laish or CAPERNAUM, a town of Galilee, situated on the coast of the Lechem (Judg. xviii. 7.), and after it was subdued by the Dan- lake of Gennesareth, on the borders of the tract occupied by the ites (v. 29.) it received the appellation of Dan. Cæsarea was tribes of Zebulon and Nephthalim his place is celebrated for the a day's journey from Sidon ; a day and a half from Damascus. I many mighty works and disco wsts performed by our Saviour,

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