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AN and Og, A. M. 2553, B. c. 1451. The prophet Amos (ü. 9.) Anim, a city in the mountainous parts of the canton of Judah speaks of their gigantic stature and valour. He compares their (Josh. xv. 50.) height to the cedar; their strength to the oak. The name Amor- Animals, reared by the Jews, 175, 176. Certain animals, ite, is often taken in Scripture for Canaanites in general. The why prohibited to be eaten by them, 171, 172. lands which the Amorites possessed on this side Jordan, were Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of given to the tribe of Judah ; and those which they had possessed Asher. This pious widow constantly attended the morning and beyond the Jordan, to the tribes of Reuben and Gad.

evening service at the temple ; and, at the advanced age of eightyAmos, or Amoz.-1. The father of the prophet Isaiah; who, four years, when the venerable Simeon was uttering his hymn according to ancient traditions, was the son of Joash and the of thanksgiving at the presentation of Christ in the temple, she brother of Amaziah king of Judah.—2. The third of the Minor coming into the temple began to praise God and to speak of the Prophets, for an account of whom, and an analysis of his pre- Messiah to all those who were waiting for the redemption of dictions, see Vol. II. pp. 259, 260.

Israel. (Luke ii. 36–38.) AMPHIPOLIS, a city between Macedon and Thrace, but depen- Annas, or according to Josephus, Ananus, was a high-priest dent on Macedon, mentioned in Acts xvii. 1. Paul and Silas, of the Jews. He obtained the pontificate under Quirinus, probeing delivered out of prison, left Philippi, went to Thessalonica, consul of Syria, but was deprived of it, during the reign of Ti. and passed through Amphipolis. This city had the name like- berius, by Valerius Gratus governor of Judæa. The dignity was wise of Chrysopolis.

transferred, first to Ismael the son of Phabæus, and shortly after AMRAPHEL, king of Shinar, an ally of Chedorlaomer, plun- to Eleazar. He held the office one year, and was then succeeded dered the Pentapolis and took Lot prisoner, who was rescued by by Simon; who, after another year, was followed by Joseph or Abraham and his associates. (Gen. xiv.)

Caiaphas, the son-in-law of Annas, A. 1. 26. As Caiaphas conAMUSEMENTS of the Jews, 189, 190.

tinued in office until a. D. 35, Annas appears to have acted as his Anal, a city in the mountainous parts of the canton, belong- substitute or sagan, and enjoyed great influence jointly with him. ing to the tribe of Judah. (Judg. xv. 50.)

(Luke iii. 2. John xviii. 13. 24. Acts iv. 6.) ANAKIM, the descendants of Anak, a gigantic tribe who dwelt Antil-LIBANUS (Mount), account of, 30. in the land of Canaan; on comparison of whom the unbelieving Antioch, the metropolis of Syria, was erected, according to Hebrew spies, that were sent to explore the country, reported that some writers, by Antiochus Epiphanes; according to others, by they were but as grasshoppers. (Num. xiii. 33.) Their capital, Seleucus Nicanor, the first king of Syria after Alexander the Kirjath-Arba or Hebron, was taken, and they were destroyed by Great, in memory of his father Antiochus, and was the royal Caleb, with the assistance of the tribe of Judah. (Josh. xv. 14. seat of the kings of Syria, or the place where their palace was. Judg. i. 20.)

For power and dignity it was little inferior to Seleucia or Aler. ANAMMELECA, one of the deities in honour of whom the Se- andria ; and the inhabitants were celebrated for their luxury, pharvaites caused their children to pass through the fire. It is effeminacy, and licentiousness. Josephus says, that it was the supposed to have signified the moon.

third great city of all that belonged to the Roman provinces ; it ANANIAH, a city of Palestine, where the Benjamites dwelt was called Antiochia apud Daphnem, or Antioch near Daphne, after the captivity. (Neh. xi. 32.)

i. e, the village where her temple was, to distinguish it from ANANIAS, the name of several persons mentioned in the Scrip- fourteen other cities of the same name. It was celebrated among tures, of whom the following were the most remarkable :- the Jews, for the jus civitatis, which Seleucus Nicanor had given

1. The son of Nebedæus, who was high-priest A. D. 47. He to them in that city, with the Grecians and Macedonians; and was sent as a prisoner to Rome by Quadratus, governor of Syria, for the wars of the Maccabæans with those kings. Among and Jonathan was appointed in his place; but being discharged Christians it is memorable for being the place where they first by Claudius, in consequence of the protection of Agrippa, he received that name by divine appointment, and where both St. returned to Jerusalem; where, as Jonathan had been murdered Luke and Theophilus were born and inhabited. Modern Antioch through the treachery of Felix the successor of Quadratus, Ana- and its vicinity were completely destroyed by a tremendous earthnias appears to have performed the functions of the high-priest, quake in the autumnal months of the year 1822. as sagan or substitute, until Ismael the son of Phabæus was ap- Antioch, of Pisidia, a city mentioned in Acts xii. 14. Here pointed to that office by Agrippa. (Compare Vol. I. p. 50.) Paul and Barnabas preached; but the Jews, who were angry at Before this Ananias, Saint Paul was brought ; and the apostle's seeing that some of the Gentiles received the Gospel, raised a prediction that God would smite him (Acts xxiii

. 3.) was sub- sedition against Paul and Barnabas, and obliged them to leave sequently accomplished, when he was murdered in the royal the city. palace by a body of mutineers, at the head of whom was his Antiochus, a common name of the kings of Syria, after the

time of Alexander the Great; the actions of many of whom are 2. A Jew of Jerusalem, the husband of Sapphira, who at- foretold by the prophets, and related in the books of the Maccatempted to join the Christians, but died instantly on being con- bees. victed of falsehood by Peter. (Acts v. 1. 3. 5.).

1. Antiochus SOTER, or Saviour, son of Seleucus Nicanor, 3. A Christian of Damascus, who restored the sight of Paul, began to reign B. c. 276. He conferred many immunities upon after his vision. (Acts ix. 10–17. xxii. 12.)

the Jews of Asia. He was succeeded by his son, ANATHOTA, a city in the tribe of Benjamin, memorable as - 2. Antiochus Theos, or the God, b. c. 257; whose marriage being the birth-place of the prophet Jeremiah. (Josh. xxi. 18. with the daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt

, is Jer. i. 1.) According to Eusebius and Jerome, it was situated foretold by Daniel. (xi. 6.) about three miles to the north of Jerusalem, though Josephus 3. ANTIOCHUS THE GREAT, son of Seleucus Callinicus, began states it to be twenty furlongs. This city, which was assigned to reign B. c. 219. In consequence of the Jews submitting to as a residence to the Levites of the family of Kohath, and also him, he permitted them throughout his dominions to live accordas one of the cities of refuge, has long since been destroyed. ing to their own laws.

ANDREW, one of the twelve apostles. He was a native of 4. Antiochus EPIPHANES, or the Illustrious, son of AntiBethsaida in Galilee, and was at first a follower of John the ochus the Great, was one of the most sanguinary persecutors of Baptist, but afterwards became a disciple of Jesus Christ. Ac- the Jewish nation that ever lived. He is the subject of Daniel's cording to ecclesiastical tradition, after the ascension of Jesus predictions. (Dan. xi. 21—29.) Though his Syrian flatterers Christ, he preached the Gospel to the Scythians, and was cru- gave him the appellation of Epiphanes, the epithet of zile, or cified at Patræ in Achaia. Epiphanius mentions the Acts of despicable, given him by the prophet (ver. 21.), agrees better with Andrew, a spurious book, which was used by the Encratites, his true character; for he disgraced himself by such profligate Apostolics, and Origenians.

conduct that the historian Polybius, his contemporary, and others Andronicus, a Jewish Christian, a kinsman and fellow-pri- after him, instead of Epiphanes, more correctly called him Episoner of St. Paul, who says that he was of note or in reputation manes, or the madman. This Antiochus designed nothing less among the apostles ; by which expression we are not to under-than the utter extirpation of Judaism: he commanded the statue stand that he was one of the number of apostles, but that he of Jupiter Olympias to be placed upon the altar of the temple at was one of those early converts who were highly esteemed by the Jerusalem, and a sow to be offered in sacrifice. These profanaapostles

, before the dispersion occasioned by the death of Stephen. tions, and his other oppressions, aroused the family of the Mac Axen, one of the Levitical cities, situated in the canton of the cabees, who bravely resisted the forces of Antiochus: who, filled tribe of Manasseh. (1 Chron. xvi

. 70.) Also the brother of with indignation, was hastening into Judæa, to make Jerusaleun Mamre, a confederate of the patriarch Ábraham.

(as he menaced) a grave for all the Jews but divine vengeanco

own son.

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A R pursued him; and Antiochus, falling from his chariot, bruised led from Rome to Capua, and thence to Brundusium. St. Paul his limbs, and died in the most excruciating tortures, B.c. 160. passed through this place on his first journey to Rome; whence, He was succeeded by his son,

according to Antoninus's Itinerary, it was distant 43 Roman 5. Antiochus EUPATOR, who reigned only two years. miles, or about 40 English miles.

6. Antiochus Theos, son of Alexander Balas, was treache- APPLE TREES of Palestine, notice of, 36. rously put to death by Tryphon his minister, B. c. 139.

Aquila, a native of Pontus, in Asia Minor, was a Jew by 7. Antiochus Pius, Soteu, or SIETES (that is, the fisher birth, and a tent-maker by occupation; who, with his wife Prisor hunter), reigned ten years, B. c. 137 to 127; in which last cilla, was converted by St. Paul to the Christian faith. When year he was put to death by the Parthians.

the Jews were banished from Rome by the emperor Claudius Antipas, a faithful martyr, mentioned in Rev. ii. 13. is said (the Christian and Jewish religions being confounded by the to have been put to death in a tumult at Pergamos by the priests Romans), Aquila and his wife retired to Corinth, and afterwards uf Æsculapius, who had a celebrated temple in that city. became the companions of St. Paul in his labours, by whom they Antipas (Herod). See pp. 52, 53.

are mentioned with much commendation. (Acts xviii. 2. 18. 26. Antipatris, a small town which was situated in the road Rom. xvi. 3. Cor. xvi. 19. 2 Tim. iv. 19.) The most cordial from Jerusalem to Cæsarea. It was formerly called Capharsalma: friendship appears to have subsisted between them : Aquila and but being rebuilt and beautified by Herod the Great, it was by Priscilla had even saved Paul's life at the risk of their own; which him named Antipatris, in honour of his father Antipater. Hi- instance of devotedness to the apostle has been referred to the ther St. Paul was brought after his apprehension at Jerusalem. accusation preferred against the apostle before Gallio at Corinth, (Acts xxiii. 31.)

or to the tumult excited by Demetrius at Ephesus. (Acts xviii. Antonia, (Tower of ), 20.

12. xix. 24.) APAARSITES, and APHARSACHTHITES, were two tribes or na. Ar, or ARIEL, OF Moab. See RABBATH-MOAB. tions in subjection to the king of Assyria, by whom colonies of ARABIA, the name of a large region, including the peninsula, them were sent to inhabit the country of Samaria in place of which lies between Syria, Palestine, the Arabian and Persian the Israelites, who had been removed beyond the river Euphrates. Gulfs, and the Indian Ocean or Sea of Arabia. Its inhabitants They greatly opposed the building of Jerusalem. (Ezra v. 6. are supposed to be principally descended from Ishmael, and in iv. 9.) Some have supposed the Apharsites to be the Parrhasii the earlier books of Scripture are termed (Beni Kedem) in the east of Media ; others, the Persians; and the Apharsach- or children of the east (Judg. vi. 3. 1 Kings v. 10. Isa. xi. 14. thites have been compared with Parasitaceni, Parætaceni, a Jer. xlix. 28.) ; and in the later books Dvany (ARABIM), or Arapeople of Media.

bians. (2 Chron. xxii. 1. Neh. ii. 19.) The Greek geographers APHEK.—There are several cities of this name mentioned in divided this country into three parts, Arabia Ejdspar or Felix, Scripture, as,

Πετραδης or Petrea, and Σκηνιτς ο Ερημος, Deserta: but these 1. Apuek, in the tribe of Judah. Here the Philistines en- divisions were not anciently known to the inhabitants of the camped, when the ark was brought from Shiloh, which was East, nor are they recognised in any part of the Old or New taken in battle by the Philistines. (1 Sam. iv.) Probably this is Testament. the Aphekah, mentioned in Josh. xv. 53.

1. ARABIA Felix lies between the ocean on the south-east, 2. Appek, in the valley of Jezreel. Here the Philistines and the Arabian and Persian gulfs. It is a fertile region, espeencamped, while Saul and his army lay near Jezreel, on the cially in the interior, producing various species of odoriferous mountains of Gilboa. (1 Sam. xxix. 1, &c.)

shrubs and fragrant gums, as frankincense, myrrh, cassia, &c 3. Apuek, a city belonging to the tribe of Asher, near the The queen of Sheba is supposed to have reigned over part of this country of the Sidonians. (Josh. xix. 30. xiii. 4.) Perhaps this region. was the

2. Arabia PetRÆA received its name from the city Petra : 4. Aphek, a city of Syria, one of the principal in Ben-Hadad's it lies on the south and south-east of Palestine, extending to kingdom, in the vicinity of which the batile was fought between Egypt, and including the peninsula of Mount Sinai. It is Ahab and Ben-Hadad, when the Syrians were beaten (1 Kings remarkable for its mountains and sandy plains. XI. 26, &c.), and as they retreated with precipitation into the 3. ARABIA DESERTA lies between the other two, and extends city, the city wall fell upon them, and crushed 27,000. Probably, northward along the confines of Palestine, Syria, Babylonia, and in this city Aphek, or Aphaca, situated in Libanus, on the river Mesopotamia ; including the vast deserts which lie between these Adonis, stood the famous temple of Venus, the Aphacite. This limits, and which are inhabited only by wandering tribes of city lay between Heliopolis and Biblos.

savage Arabs. For a description of the horrors of a journey APOLLONIA, a city of Macedonia Prima, situated between Am- across the great desert of Arabia, see pp. 34, 35. phipolis and Thessalonica, about a day's journey from the former The Scriptures frequently mention the Arabians (meaning place. St. Paul passed through this city on his way to Thessa- those adjoining Judæa) as a powerful people, who valued themlonica: (Acts xvii. 1.)

selves on their wisdom. Their riches consisted principally in Apollos, a Jewish Christian, born at Alexandria, and distin- flocks and cattle; they paid king Jehoshaphat an annual tributo guished for his cloquence and success in propagating the Gospel. of 7700 sheep, and as many goats. (2 Chron. xvii. 11.). The His history and character are given in Acts xviii. 24—28. xix. 1. kings of Arabia furnished Solomon with a great quantity of gold He preached at Corinth with such eloquence, that the Corin- ard silver. (2 Chron. ix. 14.) They loved war, but made it thians, divided in their affections, boasted that they were the rather like thieves and plunderers, than like soldiers. They disciples of Paul, or of Cephas, or of Apollos. From these vain lived at liberty in the field, or the desert, concerned themselves disputes St. Paul, certain of the humility of his friend, took occa- little about cultivating the earth, and were not very obedient to sion to write those admirable passages, in which he requires the established governments. This is the idea which the Scripture Corinthian Christians to forget both Paul and Apollos, and to gives of them (Isa. xiii. 20.), and the same is their character at refer every thing to Christ. (1 Cor. i. 12. iii. 4. iv. 6.) It is this day. Since the promulgation of the Gospel, many Arabians uncertain whether the apostle alludes in 2 Cor. iii. 1. to the have embraced Christianity; though by far the greater part conletters of recommendation which Apollos took with him on his tinue to profess the faith of Mohammed. departure from Ephesus for Corinth: but it is clear, that the ARAD, a Canaanitish royal city in the southern part of Palessuccess of the latter in Achaia, and the admiration felt by the tine. Its king having opposed the passage of the Israelites, they Corinthians for his eloquence, excited no envious emotions in afterwards took it with its dependencies. (Num. xxi. 1-3.) In the mind of St. Paul, since he earnestly pressed him to return to later times, Arad was rebuilt; and is placed by Eusebius in the Corinth (1 Cor. xvi. 12.), and subsequently recommended him vicinity of the desert of Kades, at the distance of 20 Roman miles in a very particular manner to the friendly attentions of Titus. from Hebron. (Tit. iii. 13.)

ARAM, fifth son of Shem, was father of the people of Syria, APPAREL, royal, notice of, 44.

who, from him, are called Arameans. The region, which in the Appala, a Christian woman, whom the ancient fathers sup- Old Testament is denominated Aram, is a vast tract extending posed to be the wife of Philemon: a conjecture which is rendered from Mount Taurus south as far as Damascus, and from the not improbable by the circumstance that in the inscription of his Mediterranean Sea in an eastern direction beyond the Tigris into epistle to Philemon in favour of Onesimus, St. Paul mentions Assyria. Different parts of this region are called by different Apphia before Archippus. (Philem. 2.)

as—Aram Naharaïm, or Syria of the Two Rivers, Appu Forum, a small town on the celebrated Appian Way, that is, Mesopotamia ; Aram of Damascus ; Aram of Soba; constructed by the Roman censor Appius Claudius, and which | Aram Bethrehob; and Aram of Maacha ; because the cities xiv. 25.)



AS of Damascus, Soba, Bethrehob, and Maacha, were in Syria ; or deemed to be the abode of unclean spirits. This meaning of the at least, because Syria contained the provinces of Soba, Maacha, word accords with what is said in Rev. xvi. 12–14. Rehob, &c. Homer and Hesiod call Aramæans those whom Armies of the Hebrews, levies, divisions, officers, and disci the more modern Greeks call Syrians. The prophet Amos pline of, 83–87., and of the Romans, 93, 94, (ix. 7.) seems to say, that the first Aramæans dwelt in the Arms of the Hebrews, 87. Defensive arms, 87, 88. Offen country of Kir, in Iberia, where the river Cyrus runs; and that sive arms, 88. Allusions to the Greek and Roman armour in God brought them from thence, as he did the Hebrews out of the New Testament, 93. Egypt; but at what time this happened is not known. Moses Arxox, a brook and valley of the same name, forming the always calls the Syrians, and inhabitants of Mesopotamia, Aram- northern boundary of the country of Moab. (Num. xxi. 13. ites.' The Aramæans often warred against the Hebrews; David Deut. iii. 8. 12. 16. iv. 28.) According to the observations of the subdued them, and obliged them to pay him tribute. Solomon traveller Seetzen, its present name is Mujeb. preserved the same authority; but, after the separation of the ten AROER.-1. The proper naine of a city of the Gadites, on the tribes, it does not appear that the Syrians were generally subject river Arnon. (Num. xxxii. 34. Deut. ii. 36. iü. 12. Josh. xii. 2. to the kings of Israel ; unless, perhaps, under Jeroboam II., who xiii. 25.) The cities of, or about Aroer, mentioned in Isa. xvi. restored the kingdom of Israel to its ancient boundaries. (2 Kings 1 2., Prof. Gesenius is of opinion, may mean the cities beyond

Jordan generally.-2. The name of a place in the canton of the Ararat, a celebrated mountain in the Greater Armenia, on tribe of Judah. (1 Sam. xxx. 28.) which Noah's ark rested after the deluge. (Gen. viii. 4.) It is of ARPAI), a city and country in Syria, near Hamath, with which stupendous height, and inaccessible to the summit, which is it is often joined, and which for a time had its own kings. (? covered with perpetually frozen snow; and the magnitude of the Kings xviii. 34. xix. 13. Isa. x. 9. Jer. xlix. 23.) peak is annually increasing in consequence of the continual ARPAXAD, the son of Shem, who is mentioned in the gene. accession of ice. Agridagh is the name given to this sublime alogy of Mary, was born two years after the deluge. (Gen. X. mountain by the Turks; the Armenians call it Mucis ; and the 22—24. xi. 12, 13.) The names of his brethren are most of Persians in the neighbourhood, k'uhi Nuach, “the mountain of them the names of countries. If this be the case with Arphavad, Noah ;' but all unite in reverencing it as the haven of the great the most probable supposition is that of Josepbus, viz. that it ship, which preserved the father of mankind from the waters of denotes Chaldæa. the deluge. (Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Persia, vol. i. pp. 183, Arrows used by the Hebrews, notice of, 88. Divination by 184. Stuart's Hebrew Chrestomathy, p. 150.)

arrows, 143, ARBA. See HEBROX.

ANTAXERXES (NnevnNX ARTACASCHASCntha), a title of ARCHELAUS, the son and successor of Herod the Great in several Persian kings. Professor Gesenius derives it from the the government of part of his dominions. See an account of ancient Persian word Artahshetr, which is found upon the him in p. 51.

inscriptions of Nachschi Roustam. The latter part this word Archiprus, a Christian, who was either a teacher or a deacon is the Zendish Khshethro (also sherao), a king. But the sylof the church at Colossæ. (Col. iv. 17.)

Table art (which is found in several Persian names, as Artabanus, ApXrouvez 60945, or ruler of the synagogue, powers and functions Artaphernes, Artabasus), appears to have signified to be great or of, 104.

mighty. At least the Greeks gave it this interpretation. This AREOPAGES, tribunal of, 60, 61,

signification is now lost in the Persian. From the original Aretas, the third of the name, a king of Arabia, was the virtuhshetr, the inodern Persians tormed Ardeshir (a name father-in-law of Herod Antipas, against whom he declared war in borne by three kings of the dynasty of the Sassanides); the revenge for repudiating his daughter. Antipas called the Romans Armenians, Artashir ; the Greeks, Artaxerxes ; and the Heto his assistance; but some unaccountable delay in the marching brews, Artuchschuschthu. Two Persian sovereigns who bore of their forces, and the death of the emperor Tiberius, put an end this name, are mentioned in the Old Testament; viz. to the expedition, and saved Aretas. It is supposed that he 1. ARTAXERXES, who at the instigation of the enemies of the availed himself of this favourable opportunity to make an incur- Jews issued an edict, prohibiting them from rebuilding Jerusalem. sion into Syria, and obtain possession of Damascus, where he ap- (Ezra iv. 7—22.) This Artaxerxes is generally considered to pointed an ethnarch, whose jurisdiction probably extended only be the pseudo-Smerdis, one of the Persian Magi

, who assumed over the Jews who dwelt there. Some learned men have sup- that name, and, pretending to be Smerdis the son of Cyrus posed this name to have been of Greek origin, and to be derived and the brother of Cambyses, occupied the throne between the from cipeta, excellence or pre-eminence, but Dr. Pococke is of reigns of Camby ses and Darius the son of Hystaspes. opinion, that it is an Arabic name (from al-hareth) which was 2. ARTAXERXES, who issued a decree extremely favourable to common to many of the Arabian kings.

the Jews, which was carried by Ezra to Jerusalem. (Ezra vii. 1. Argon, the capital city of a region of the same name, which viii. 1.) This sovereign is the Artaxerxes surnamed Longimanus, was situated beyond the Jordan, in Bashan, the most fruitful or the Long-handed, from a trifling deformity. Nehemiah was country on the other side of that river: it belonged to the half- his cup-bearer, and was permitted by him to return to Jerusalem, tribe of Manasseh.

with a commission to rebuild its walls, and to be the governor of ANIMATHEA, a small town to which Joseph belonged who Judæa. begged the body of Jesus from Pilate. (Matt. xxvii. 57.) It was " Aptyuks. See Diana, about thirty-six or thirty-seven miles distant from Jerusalem, and Arts, origin of, 180. State of them from the deluge, until is now called Ramla. At present it is a wretched dilapidated after the captivity, 181. Account of some of the arts practised place, but exhibits the marks of having once been an extensive by the Jews, 183, 184. and flourishing town. (Three Weeks in Palestine, p. 14.) Its Anubotu, or ARABOTH, a city or country belonging to the environs are said to be very beautiful.

tribe of Judah. (1 Kings iv. 10.) Its true situation is unknown. ARISTARCHUS, a native of Thessalonica, a city of Macedonia, Arvan, or Aradus, a small 'island at the mouth of the river who embraced Christianity, and accompanied St. Paul in several Eleutherus, on the coast of Phænicia, opposite to Tyre. (Ezek. of his journeys. He was seized in the tumult at Ephesus, and xxvii. 8.) The ARVADITE is mentioned in Gen. x. 18. The was afterwards carried with the apostle as a prisoner to Rome, Arvadites were employed as mariners by the Tyrians. where he shared his imprisonment. (Acts xix. 29. xx. 4. xxvii. Asa, king of Judah, succeeded his father Abijam, B. c. 951. 2. Col. iv. 20. Philem. 24.)

He was distinguished for his success in war, and his zeal for the ARITHMETIC of the Jews, 186.

worship of the true God. In the latter part of his reign, the Ark. See Noau.

prophet Hanani having reproved him for his distrust in God in ARMAGEDDON, the name of a place mentioned in Rev. xvi. 16., forming an alliance with Ben-hadad king of Syria, he was so the position and nature of which are unknown. According to exasperated that he put the prophet in chains, and at the same some expositors, it is compounded of two words, signifying the time gave order for the execution of many of his friends. He mountain of Mageddo or Megiddo ; a place situated at the foot is supposed to have died of a severe fit of the gout

, B. c. 886. of Mount Carmel, and celebrated in the history of God's people AS APA, HEMAN, and JEDUTHUN, of the tribe of Levi, were for two memorable slaughters, first of the Canaanites (Judg. v. constituted by David, chiefs of the sacred singers, of whom their 19.), and afterwards of the Israelites. (2 Kings xxiii. 29.) families formed a part. (1 Chron. xxi. 1.) They are all three Others, however, conjecture that the name Armageddon means a termed prophets or seers (1 Chron. xxv. 5. 2 Chron. Ixir, 30dry barren, mountainous, and desert country, such as the Jews xxxv. 15.), which appellation is supposed to refer rather to their


AS genius as sacred poets and musicians, than to their possessing the ping an ass, see p. 137. And on the subject of Balaam's ass spirit of prophecy. Psalms 1. lxxiii.—Ixxxiii. were composed by speaking, see Vol. 1. p. 421. Asaph.

ASSEMBLY at Ephesus, powers of, 61. ASENath, the daughter of Potipherah, and wife of Joseph, Assos, a maritime city of Mysia, according to some geograwas the mother of Ephraim and Manasseh. (Gen. xli. 45. and phers, but of Troas, according to others. It is mentioned in Acts xlvi. 20.) The etymology, Gesenius observes, is Egyptian (but xx. 13, 14. obscure), and this circumstance furnishes an additional presump- Assyria, a country of Asia, the boundaries of which it is diffition in favour of the authenticity of the writings of Moses; for, cult to assign. It appears to have been situated between the according to Coquerel, the name of a woman absolutely analagous Tigris and the Euphrates, enclosed between those two rivers, to this has been discovered on Egyptian monuments, which is from the part where they begin to approach each other on leava composed of the monosyllable As and Neith, the name of the ing Mesopotamia to that where they join, not far from their Egyptian Minerva.

mouth, in the Gulf of Persia. Asunod. See Azotus, p. 411, infra.

It must naturally excite surprise, that so small a country should Asher, the son of Jacob and Zilpah, gave his name to one of have been able to send forth armies of a million or twelve hunthe tribes of Israel. (Gen. xxx. 13. 1 Chron. ii. 2.) For the dred thousand men; a number which dismays the imagination, limits of the canton assigned to this tribe, see p. 17. But they especially when we consider how many attendants they must never expelled the nations of the country, nor did they obtain have had, exclusive of fighting men. But this kind of enigma entire possession of the district allotted to them. Their soil pro- is explained by the manner in which these vast armies were duced abundance of the comforts and luxuries of life, and was formed. From the centre of a not very extensive domain, a warrich in mines. The tribe of Asher tamely submitted to the like band frequently issued, which poured upon the neighbouring tyranny of Jabin king of Canaan, but assisted Gideon in his country, carrying away the inhabitants, who, having no other pursuit of the Midianites. On the exodus from Egypt, the fight- resource, incorporated themselves with the conquerors. United, ing men of this tribe were 41,500 ; in the wilderness they and allured by the hope of plunder, they proceeded onwards, amounted to 53,400.

ravaging other lands, and increasing their army with the despoilAsaKenaz, the eldest son of Gomer (Gen. x. 3. Jer. li. 7.), ed inhabitants, who in like manner joined them. Thus were and the father or head of a nation. That a people in northern formed those wandering hordes which, under the name of AssyAsia is intended is evident from its being placed next to Gomer rians, subdued Mesopotamia, penetrated to Armenia, Media, and (Cymmeria), in the first instance, and next to Ararat (Armenia), Persia, inundated Syria like a torrent, and carried devastation in the second. The Jews understand by it, Germany, and use through Chaldæa, become the country of the Jews. As their the word in that signification. Bochart was of opinion that the conquests extended, the centre of their power became surrounded regio Ascaniu in Phrygia and Bithynia was peopled by the with deserts, and itself a desert. It is in vain that we seek the descendants of Ashkenaz.

vestiges of the most famous cities, Nineveh for instance, which, AsHPENAZ, master of the eunuchs, or rather one of the chief from the descriptions that have reached us, have been justly enuchamberlains of Nebuchadnezzar, who was commanded to select merated among the wonders of the world. It is in vain, likewise, certain Jewish captives to be instructed in the literature and that we inquire, what were the manners, religion, commerce, and sciences of the Chaldæans. In this number he included Daniel usages of the Assyrians. They must have been those of all the and his three companions, whose names he changed into Chal- various nations who united to form them; that is to say, they dæan appellations. Their refusal to partake of the provisions were conquerors and barbarians, who allowed the greatest liberty sent from the monarch's table filled Ashpenaz with apprehension; in their police and their ceremonies, provided none of their people he bad, however, the generosity not to use constraint towards adopted laws or practices which might obstruct the success of them. At that time, as in our days, the Asiatic despots frequently their warlike expeditions. punished with death the least infraction of their wills. In acced- It may be supposed that a people in this unsettled state had ing to the request of Daniel, Ashpenaz had every thing to neither the time nor the means to write annals which may serve apprehend; and the grateful prophet specially records that as a basis for chronology, or furnish any certain dates. The God had disposed him to treat him with kindness. (Dan. i. 3 memory of the principal facts could only be preserved by tradi-16.)

tion, and it has been transmitted to us with not a few variations Astarota, a Phænician or Syrian idol, notice of, 138. by the Greeks. At the same time that it is allowed, that we owe

Asuc R, the son of Shem (Gen. iii. 11.), who gave his name to to the latter almost all the historical knowledge we possess relaAssynia.

tive to the ancient nations of Asia, it must be admitted, that they Asia, one of the largest divisions of the Old World, is not have greatly disfigured it by accommodating to their own lanmentioned in the Old Testament. In the New Testament it is guage and pronunciation the names of persons and divinities, always taken for Asia Minor, as it includes the proconsular Asia, and assimilating events to their own traditions in such a manner, which comprised the four regions of Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and that when we imagine we are in possession of authentic facts, Lydia. In this proconsular Asia were the seven churches of we frequently discover them to be only Grecian fables. This Ephesus, Laodicæa, Pergamos, Philadelphia, Sardis, Smyrna, and observation may serve to point out the degree of confidence Thyatira.

which ought to be reposed in the histories of these ancient Asiarchs, officers appointed to preside over the worship of the times. gods, and the sacred games in Asia Minor. See p. 140. In our Sketch of the History of Assyria illustrative of the Prophetic version of Acts xix, 31. they are termed the chief of Asia.

Writings. ASKElon, a city in the territory of the Philistines, situated The empire of Assyria was founded by Ninus, the son of between Azoth and Gaza on the coast of the Mediterranean or Belus; and, according to Herodotus, it continued five hundred Great Sea, about 520 furlongs from Jerusalem. After the death and twenty years. (Herod. lib. i. c. 95.) Ninus reigned one of Joshua, the tribe of Judah took Askelon, which subsequently hundred and twenty-two years, according to some historians became one of the five governments belonging to the Philistines. (Jul. African and Eusebius in Chron.), though others make his (Judg. i. 18.) This place is frequently mentioned in the Scrip- reign to have lasted only seventeen years. (Diod. Sicul. lib. ii. c. tures. During the crusades it was a station of considerable i.-iv.) He enlarged and embellished the ancient city of Nineimportance, but is now a very inconsiderable place.

veh, which had been built by Nimrod, many ages before his time. ASMONEANS, an appellation given to the Maccabees, the (Gen. x. 9, 10.) The commencement of his reign is fixed by descendants of Mattathias, surnamed Asmon. See p. 50. Archbishop Usher to the year of the world 2737, B. c. 1267,

Asnapper, the proper name of an Assyrian king or general. during the period when Deborah and Barak judged the Israel(Ezra iv. 10.) On account of the statement in ver. 2. it is sup- ites. posed to be only a different name of Esarhaddon.

Ninus was succeeded by his queen Semiramis, who reigned Aspuar, a lake mentioned in 1 Macc. ix. 33. which Calmet forty-two years. She enlarged the Assyrian empire, which she supposes to be the Lacus Asphaltites, or DEAD SEA. For an left in a flourishing state to her son Ninyas, A. m. 2831, B. C. account of which see pp. 27, 28.

1173. The Scriptures are totally silent concerning the subseAss, a well known quadruped, which was declared to be un- quent history of that celebrated monarchy, and the successors of clean, and consequently not fit to be eaten by the Israelites. Ninyas, until the time of the prophet Jonah, who flourished a. M. (Lev. xi. 26.) Asses were reared by them for draught, 175. 3180, B. c. 824 ; and even then they do not state the name of For a refutation of the calumny against the Jews, of worship- I the monarch who filled the Assyrian throne. It is evident, how: VOL. II.


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AN ever, that Nineveh was at that time a city of immense extent, These cities furnished him with a fleet of sixty or seventy ves. whose inhabitants, like those of other great cities abounding in sels, manned by eight hundred Phænician rowers. They were wealth and luxury, were extremely corrupt in their morals. But, attacked by the Tyrians with twelve vessels only; who dispersed at the preaching of Jonah, both sovereign and subjects repented their fleet, and took five hundred prisoners. The Assyrian mon. and abandoned their evil ways, and thus for a time delayed the arch did not venture to lay siege to Tyre; but he left bodies of execution of the divine judgments. About fifty years after the troops in its vicinity to guard the river and aqueducts whence the time of Jonah, the Scriptures mention a king of Assyria, named Tyrians obtained their supplies of water. His precautions were Pul, who invaded the kingdom of Israel in the days of Mena- frustrated by the besieged, who dug wells within their city. It hem (2 Kings xv. 19. 1 Chron. v. 26.), who gave him a thou- was about this time that Isaiah denounced against them those sand talents of silver to engage him to lend him his assistance, judgments which are recorded in the twenty-third chapter of his and secure him on his throne. Pul is supposed to have been prophecies. And Hezekiah seems to have availed himself of the the father of Sardanapalus, the last king of the Assyrians, troubled state of Phænicia and the whole coast of the Mediter. in whose reign the crimes of the Ninevites having risen to ranean, in order to attack the Philistines. (2 Kings xviii. 7, 8.) their utmost height, God raised up enemies to chastise them. SENNACHERIB ascended the throne of Assyria A. m. 3287. Arbaces the Median, indignant at the effeminate and luxurious B. c. 717, and was immediately involved in war, both in Asia and life which Sardanapalus led in his palace, conspired with Belesis, in Egypt. While he was thus engaged, Hezekiah shook off the governor of Babylon, to shake off' the yoke of so worthless a yoke of the Assyrians, and refused to pay the tribute exacted sovereign. After various engagements, they compelled him to from him by Shalmaneser. It appears from some passages of retreat to Nineveh, where he expected that he should be able to Scripture that Hezekiah had concluded treaties of mutual alliance defend himself a long time, because the city was strongly fortified, and defence with the kings of Egypt and Ethiopia against the and the besiegers had not machines to batter the walls. But in Assyrian monarch. (Isa. xx. 1. et seq. 2 Kings xviii. 24. xix. the third year of the siege, the river Tigris, being swollen with 9.) Upon Hezekial's refusal of the tribute, Sennacherib invaded continual rains, overflowed part of the city, agreeably to the pre- Judah with a mighty army, and captured the principal cities dictions of Nahum (particularly i. 8—10.), and broke down the of that country. It is probable that he took Damascus in his wall for twenty furlongs. Sardanapalus, that he might not fall progress. The pious monarch, grieved to see his kingdom pilinto the hands of his enemies, burnt himself in his palace, with laged, implored peace of Sennacherib on any terms he would his women and all his immense treasures. (Usher’s Annals, p. prescribe : and gave him three hundred talents of silver and 48. A. m. 3254. Athenæus, lib. xii. c. 12.) Arbaces and Belesis thirty talents of gold to withdraw. But the Assyrian, regardless then divided the dominions of Sardanapalus: the former had alike of the sanction of oaths and of treaties, continued the war, Media, which he restored to its liberty ; the latter had Babylon, and prosecuted his conquests more vigorously than ever. Nothing where he reigned fourteen years : Nineveh they left to Ninus was able to withstand his power; and of all the strong places of the younger, who was heir to the ancient kings of Assyria, and Judah, none remained uncaptured but Jerusalem, which was maintained the second Assyrian monarchy with considerable reduced to the very last extremity. Isaiah, however, encouraged splendour; so that out of the ruins of this vast empire there Hezekiah by promises of divine interposition and deliverance, were formed three considerable kingdoms, viz. that of Nineveh, and announced that the enemy would soon be obliged to return that of Babylon, and that of the Medes. We shall briefly con- into his own country. (2 Kings xix. 20—34.) Accordingly, sider each of them, separately, according to the share they had after Sennacherib had defeated the allied forces of the king of in the affairs of the Jews.

Egypt and of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, who had advanced Belesis, called Baladan, by Isaiah (xxxix. 1. 2 Kings xx. 12.), against him to assist Hezekiah, he returned into Judah with imis the Nabonassar of profane historians. He founded the Baby- mense spoil, and renewed the siege of Jerusalem : but an angel lonian empire, of which he made Babylon the metropolis. He of Jehovah slew one hundred and eighty-five thousand of his was succeeded by his son Merodach-Baladan, who cultivated troops. (2 Kings xix. 35.) Sennacherib returned to Ninevel, Hezekiah's friendship, as appears from the embassy which he where two of his sons, weary of his tyranny and savage temper, sent to the latter, to congratulate him on his recovery from sick- slew him while he was worshipping in the temple of Nisroch his ness (2 Kings xx. 12.), a. m. 3291, P. c. 713. After this time god, and immediately fled into the mountains of Armenia. (? the sacred historians are silent concerning the kings of Babylon, Kings xix. 37. Tobit i. 21.) until the time of Esar-haddon, who is noticed in the next column. It was during the first year of this war that Hezekiah fell sick,

The younger Ninus, who was left king of Assyria and Nine- and was cured in a miraculous manner, and that the shadow of veh, is the TIGLATU-PILESER of the Scriptures (2 Kings xv. 29. the sun went back ten degrees on the dial of the palace, to prove xvi. 7. 10. 2 Chron. xxviii. 20.), A. M. 3257, B. c. 747. His the truth of Isaiah's prediction of his recovery. (2 Kings Iviii. empire appears to have been the most celebrated in the East; as xix. xx. Isa. xxxviii. xxxix.) Ahaz king of Judah sent to request his assistance against Rezin A. M. 3294, b, c, 710. On the death of Sennacherib, Esan. king of Damascus, and Pekah king of Israel. Accordingly, Tig- Haddox, another of his sons reigned in his stead. He is called lath-pileser advanced with a numerous army, defeated Rezin, cap- Sargon by Isaiah. (xx. 1.) He reigned twenty-nine years, tured Damascus, and put an end to the kingdom erected there by during which he waged war with the Philistines, from whom his the Syrians, agreeably to the predictions of Isaiah (viii. 4.) and general, Tartan, took Ashdod. He also attacked Egypt and Amos. (i. 5.) He also entered the kingdom of Israel, conquered Ethiopia (Isa. xx.), and Idumea or Edom (Isa. xxxiv.), in order Pekah, and carried away part of the ten tribes beyond the river to avenge the injuries they had committed against his father SenEuphrates. But Ahaz soon had cause to regret this unhallowed nacherib; and at length he took Jerusalem, and carried Manasalliance : for Tiglath-pileser exacted from him such immense seh king of Judah to Babylon. (2 Chron. xxxiii.) This last sums of money, that he was obliged not only to exhaust his own war, however, happened long after those above related. Esartreasures, but also to take all the gold and silver out of the temple. haddon restored the glory of Assyria ; and in addition to his (2 Chron. xxviii. 20, 21. 24.) Ahaz became tributary to the other victories, to the sceptre of Nineveh he united that of BabyAssyrian monarch, whose successors found abundance of pretexts lon, having availed himself of the intestine troubles and commofor entering the kingdom of Judah, which they ultimately ruined tions occasioned by the extinction of the royal family, to make and subverted.

himself master of that city, and annex it to his former dominions. SHALMANESER, the successor of Tiglath-pileser, came into Manasseh, having been restored to the divine favour after a deep Syria, A. m. 3280, B. c. 724, and desolated the country of the and sincere repentance, obtained his liberty, and returned to JeruMoabites, agreeably to the prophecy of Isaiah (xvi. 1.), delivered salem, after a short captivity at Babylon. (Usher’s Annals, three years before. He then attacked Samaria, and completed A. M. 3327.) the misfortunes of the Israelites who remained, by carrying them Saosduchin or NEBUCHADNEZZAR I. succeeded Esar-haddon, into captivity beyond the Euphrates. Thus terminated the king and reigned twenty years, according to Ptolemy. Having condom of Israel, a. m. 3283, v. c. 721. (2 Kings xvii. 3. xviii. 9–quered Arphaxad king of the Medes (the Deioces of Herodotus, 11.) Hezekiah, by the special protection of God, escaped the lib. i. cc. 101, 102.), he resolved to subjugate all the neighbourfury of Shalmaneser, to whom, however, he became tributary, ing territories. He therefore despatched Holofernes into Syria and the Assyrian returned in triumph to Nineveh.

and Palestine with an immense army; but that general was slain

, Shortly after these events, most of the maritime cities that and his army totally discomtited, before Bethulia, in the manner were subject to the Tyrians revolted against them, and submitted related in the apocryphal book of Judith. to the Assyrians. Shalmaneser advanced to their assistance. A, m. 3356, e.c. 648, Saracus, otherwise called Chinaldon or


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