is not to be despised. (iv. v.) The next of them, not less justice and omniscience of God in attestation of his veraintemperate in his reproofs, takes it for granted, that the city. children of Job had only received the reward due to their If these circumstances were fairly collected from the geneoffences; and with regard to himself, intimates, that if he be ral tenor and series of the work, as far as we are able to innocent, and will apply with proper humility to the divine trace them through the plainer and more conspicuous pasmercy, he may be restored. (viii.) The third upbraids him sages, it will be no very difficult task to explain and define with arrogance, with vanity, and even with falsehood, because the subject of this part of the poem, which contains the dishe has presumed to defend himself against the unjust accu- pute between Job and his friends. The argument seems sations of his companions, and exhorts him to a sounder chiefly to relate to the piety and integrity of Job, and turns mode of reasoning, and a more holy life. (xi.) They all, upon this point, whether he, who by the divine providence with a manifest though indirect allusion to Job, discourse and visitation is so severely punished and afflicted, ought to very copiously concerning the divine judgments, which are be accounted pious and innocent. This leads into a more always openly displayed against the wicked, and of the cer- extensive field of controversy, into a dispute, indeed, which tain destruction of hypocritical pretenders to virtue and reli- less admits of any definition or limit, concerning the nature gion. In reply to this, Job enumerates his sufferings, and of the divine counsels in the dispensations of happiness and complains bitterly of the inhumanity of his friends, and of misery in this life. The antagonists of Job in this dispute, the severity which he has experienced from the hand of God; observing him exposed to such severe visitations, conceiving he calls to witness both God and man, that he is unjustly that this affliction had not fallen upon him unmeritedly, ac oppressed; he intimates, that he is weak in comparison with cuse him of hypocrisy, and falsely ascribe to him the guilt of God, that the contention is, consequently, unequal, and that, some atrocious but concealed offence. Job, on the contrary, be his cause ever so righteous, he cannot hope to prevail. conscious of no crime, and wounded by their unjust suspi(vi. vii.) expostulates with God himself still more cions, defends his own innocence before God with rather vehemently, and with greater freedom, affirming, that he more confidence and ardour than is commendable; and so does not discriminate characters, but equally afflicts the just strenuously contends for his own integrity, that he seems and the unjust. (x.), The expostulations of Job serve only virtually to charge God himself with some degree of injusto irritate still more the resentment of his pretended friends; tice.! they reproach him in severer terms with pride, impiety, pas- The argument of Job's friends may, in substance, be comsion, and madness; they repeat the same arguments respecting prised in the following syllogism : the justice of God, the punishment of the wicked, and their certain destruction after a short period of apparent prosperity. God Techninis just bestows blessings upon the godly, but afflicts the wicked: This sentiment they confidently pronounce to be confirmed Therefore Job is wicked, and deserves the punishment of his sins ; and both by their experience and by that of their fathers; and therefore he is bound to repent, that is, to confess and bewail his sins. they maliciously

exaggerate the ungrateful topic by the most to the major proposition Job replies, that God afficts not only splendid imagery and the most forcible language. (xi.) On the wicked, but also the pious, in order that their faith, pathe part of Job, the general scope of the argument is much tience, and other virtues, may be proved, and that the glory the same as before, but the expression is considerably of God may become more conspicuously manifest in their heightened ; it consists of appeals to the Almighty, assevera- wonderful deliverances. But overwhelmed with grief and tions of his own innocence, earnest expostulations, complaints the cruel suspicions of his friends, he defends his cause with of the cruelty of his friends, melancholy reflections on the hard and sometimes impatient expressions. vanity of human life, and upon his own severe misfortunes, This state of the controversy is clearly explained by what ending in grief and desperation : he affirms, however, that he follows: for when the three friends have ceased to dispute places his ultimate hope and confidence in God; and the with Job, because he seemeth just in his own eyes (xxxii. 1.), more vehemently his adversaries urge that the wicked only that is, because he has uniformly contended that there was are objects of the divine wrath, and obnoxious to punish- no wickedness in himself which could call down the heavy ment, so much the more resolutely does Job assert their vengeance of God, Elihu comes forward, justly offended perpetual impunity, prosperity and happiness, even to the with both parties ; with Job, because he justified himself in end of their existence. The first of his opponents, Eliphaz, preference to God (xxxii. 2. compare xxxv. 2. xl. 8.), that is, incensed by this assertion, descends directly to open crimina- because he defended so vehemently the justice of his own tion and contumely: he accuses the most upright of men of cause, that he seemed in some measure to arraign the justice the most atrocious crimes, of injustice, rapine, and oppression: of God: against the three friends, because though they were inveighs against him as an impious pretender to virtue and unable to answer Job, they ceased not to condemn him (xxxii. religion, and with a kind of sarcastic benevolence exhorts 3.), that is, they concluded in their own minds that Job was him to penitence. Vehemently affected with this reproof, impious and wicked, while, nevertheless, they had nothing Job, in a still more animated and confident strain, appeals to specific to object against his assertions of his own innocence, the tribunal of All-seeing Justice, and wishes it were only or upon which they might safely ground their accusation. permitted him to plead his canse in the presence of God The conduct of Elihu evidently corresponds with this himself. He complains still more intemperately of the state of the controversy; he professes, after a slight prefa. unequal treatment of Providence; exults in his own integrity, tory mention of himself, to reason with Job, unbiassed and then more tenaciously maintains his former opinion con- equally by favour or resentment. He therefore reproves Job cerning the impunity of the wicked. To this another of the from his own mouth, because he had attributed too much to triumvirate, Bildad, replies, by a masterly though concise himself; because he had affirmed himself to be altogether dissertation on the majesty and sanctity of the Divine Being; free from guilt and depravity; because he had presumed to indirectly rebuking the presumption of Job, who has dared contend with God, and had not scrupled to insinuate, that to question his decrees. In reply to Bildad, Job demonstrates the Deity was hostile to him. He asserts, that it is not nehimself no less expert at wielding the weapons of satire and cessary for God to explain and develope his counsels to ridicule than those of reason and argument; and reverting to

men; that he nevertheless takes many occasions of admoa more serious tone, he displays the infinite power and wis-nishing them, not only by visions and revelations, but even dom of God more copiously and more poetically than the by the visitations of his providence, by sending calamities former speaker. The third of the friends making no return, and diseases upon them, to repress their arrogance and reand the others remaing silent, Job at length opens the true form their obduracy. He next rebukes Job, because he had sentiments of his heart concerning the fate of the wicked; pronounced himself upright, and affirmed that God had acted he allows that their prosperity is unstable, and that they and inimically, if not unjustly, towards him, which he proves to their descendants shall at last experience on a sudden that be no less improper than indecent. In the third place, he God is the avenger of iniquity. In all this, however, he objects to Job, that from the miseries of the good and the contends that the divine counsels do not admit of human prosperity of the wicked, he has falsely and perversely coninvestigation, but that the chief wisdom of man consists included, that there was no advantage to be derived from the the fear of God. He beautifully descants upon his former practice of virtue. On the contrary, he affirms, that when prosperity; and exhibits a striking contrast between it and the afflictions of the just continue, it is because they do not his present affliction and debasement. Lastly, in answer to place a proper confidence in God, ask relief at his hands, the crimination of Eliphaz, and the implications of the others, patiently expect it, nor demean themselves before him with he relates the princípal transactions of his past life; he becoming humility and submission. This observation alone, asserts his integrity as displayed in all the duties of life, and in the sight of God and man; and again appeals to the

· Lowth's Lectures, No. Xxxji. vol. ii, pp. 371—378. Vol. II.

2 G

he adds very properly, is at once a sufficient reproof of the of the present day has remarked, that there are but few parts contumacy of Job, and a full refutation of the unjust suspi- of the Old Testament which declare more explicitly the cions of his friends. (xxxv. 4.) Lastly, he explains the grand outlines of revealed truth, nay even of evangelical purposes of the Deity, in chastening men, which are in doctrine : so that they, who speak of it as consisting chiefly general to prove and to amend them, to repress their arro- of natural religion, seem entirely to have mistaken its scope. gance, to afford him an opportunity of exemplifying his jus- The book of Job, he continues, is full of caution and encoutice upon the obstinate and rebellious, and of showing favour ragement to the tempted and afflicted, and of warning to to the humble and obedient. He supposes God to have those who hastily judge their brethren. It throws great acted in this manner towards Job: on that account he ex- light upon the doctrine of Providence, and upon the agency horts him to humble himself before his righteous Judge, to and influence of evil spirits under the control of God. In the beware of appearing obstinate or contumacious in his sight, patriarch Job we see an eminent type of the suffering and and of relapsing into a repetition of his sin. He entreats glorified Saviour, and a pattern of the believer's “passing hinn, from the contemplation of the divine power and ma- through much tribulation to the kingdom of God.” In short, jesty, to endeavour to retain a proper reverence for the Al- the whole is replete with most important instruction: and mighty. To these frequently intermitted and often repeated among the rest we are reminded of the ill effects of acrimoadmonitions of Elihu, Job makes no return.

nious religious dispute. These four pious men argued togeThe address of God himself follows that of Elihu, in ther, till, becoming angry, they censured and condemned which, disdaining to descend to any particular explication of each other, and uttered many irreverent things concerning his divine counsels, but instancing some of the stupendous the divine character and government; and having lost their effects of his infinite power, he insists upon the same topics temper, they would also have lost their labour, and have been which Elihu had before touched upon. In the first place, at more variance than ever, if another method had not been having reproved the temerity of Job, he convicts him of ig- taken to decide the controversy.? norance, in being unable to comprehend the works of his 6. The character each person is well sustained through creation, which were obvious to every eye; the nature and the whole book : Job, every where consistent, pious, constructure of the earth, the sea, the light, and the animal scious of his own uprightness, but depressed by misery, kingdom. He then demonstrates his weakness, by chal- weighed down by disease, and irritated by the clamorous lenging him to prove his own power by emulating any single accusations of his friends, is hurried on to make some rash exertion of the divine energy, and then referring him to one assertions. Confident in his own innocence, his appeals to or two of the brute creation, with which he is unable to God are sometimes too bold, and his attacks upon his friends contend :-how much less, therefore, with the Omnipotent too harsh, but he always ends in complaints, and excuses Creator and Lord of all things, who is or can be accountable his vehemence on account of the magnitude of his calamity. to no being whatever ? (xli. 2, 3.)'

His friends, all sincere worshippers of the true God, and The scope of this speech is, tó humble Job, and to teach earnest advocates of virtue, agree in the opinion, that divine others by his example to acquiesce in the dispensations of justice invariably punishes the wicked, and rewards the Jehovah, from an unbounded confidence in his equity, wis- good with present happiness. They endeavour to prove this dom, and goodness : an end this, which (Bishop Stock by appeals to more ancient revelations, to the opinions of truly remarks) is, indeed, worthy of the interposition of the those who lived in former times, and to experience,-appreDeity. The method pursued in the speech to accomplish its hensive lest the contrary assertion of Job should injure design, is a series of questions and descriptions, relative to morals and religion. They all speak of angels. Neverthenatural things, admirably fitted to convince this complainant, less, they differ from each other in many other matters. and all others, of their incapacity to judge of God's moral | Eliphaz is superior to the others in discernment and in deliadministration, and of the danger of striving with their Maker. cacy.. He begins by addressing Job mildly, and it is not Nothing, in the whole compass of language, can equal, much until irritated by contradiction, that he reckons him among less surpass, the inimitable grandeur and sublimíty of this the wicked.-Bildad, less discerning and less polished, divine address, which extends from chapter xxxviii. to xli. breaks out at first in accusations against Job, and increases

On the conclusion of the speech of Jehovah, Job humbles in vehemence: in the end, however, he is reduced to a mere himself before God, acknowledging his own ignorance and repetition of his former arguments.—Zophar is inferior to imbecility, and “ repents in dust and ashes." He then offers his companions in both these respects; at first, his discourse sacrifice for his friends, and is restored to redoubled pros- is characterized by rusticity; his second address adds but perity, honour, and comfort.

little to the first; and in the third dialogue he has no reply From a due consideration of all these circumstances, to make.- Elihú manifests a degree of veneration for Job Bishop Lowth concludes that the principal object of the and his friends, but speaks like an inflated youth, wishing poem is this third and last trial of Job from the injustice and to conceal his self-sufficiency under the appearance of mounkindness of his accusing friends; the consequence of desty.-God is introduced in all his majesty, speaking from which is, in the first place, the anger, indignation, and con- a tempestuous cloud in the style of one, with whose honour tumacy of Job, and afterwards, his composure, submission, it is not consistent to render an account of his government, and penitence. The design of the poem is, therefore, to and to settle the agitated question, which is above the reach teach men, that, having a due respect to the corruption, in- of human intellect. He, therefore, merely silences the disfirmity, and ignorance of human nature, as well as to the putants. The feelings of the interlocuters, as is natural, beinfinite wisdom and majesty of God, they are to reject all come warm in the progress of the controversy, and each confidence in their own strength, in their own righteousness, speaker returns to the stage, with an increased degree of and to preserve on all occasions an unwavering and unsullied eagerness and impetuosity., faith, and to submit with becoming reverence to his decrees. VIII. At the end of the Septuagint version of this book, It is, however, to be carefully observed, that the subject of after the account of Job's death (xlii. 16.), there is the folthe dispute between Job and his friends differs from the sub- lowing addition : 19782774 S, TINY ay2515e5fu kutev, padar ject of the poem in general ; and that the end of the poetical • Kugtos avisngi." But it is written that he shall rise again part differs from the design of the narrative at large. For, along with those whom the Lord raiseth up." Where it was the bishop remarks, although the design and subject of the so written concerning Job, is not easily to be found, unless poem be exactly as they are above defined, it may, neverthe- in his own celebrated confession, I know that my RedeeMER less, be granted that the whole history, taken together, con- liveth, &c. (xix. 25—27.) The remark, however, is so far tains an example of patience, together with its reward; and of importance as it proves the popular belief of the doctrine he considers much of the perplexity in which the subject before the coming of Christ,-a belief, to which this inestihas been involved, as arising principally from this point not mable book, we may rest assured, contributed not a little.' having been treated with sufficient distinctness by the To this additional passage there is also annexed in the Seplearned.

tuagint version a subscription or appendix, containing a Moldenhawer and some other critics have considered the brief genealogical account of the patriarch, derived from an passage in Job xix. 25–27. as a prediction of the Messiah. old Syriac version, and identifying him with Jobab, king It cannot, however, be clearly shown that this book contains any prophecies, strictly so called; because the passages

* Prof. Turner's translation of Jahn's Introduction, p. 463. which might be adduced as prophetical may also be consi- • Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i. p. 102. dered as a profession of faith in a promised Redeemer, and % This subscription is also found in the Arabic version, where it is less concerning a future resurrection. A learned commentator circumstantial, and in the old Latin Vulgate translation of Job. The follow

ing version is given from the Septuagint in Bishop Walton's Polyglott, vol.

lii. p. 86. :-“This is translated out of a book in the Syrian language; for 1 Lowth's Lectures, No. xxxij. vol. ii. pp. 378-382.

he dweli in the land of Ausitis, on the confines of Idumnæa and Arabia.

2 Scott's Preface to Job.



of the Edomites, and, conseqrently, making him nearly 8. He could only, affirm his integrity, but could give no special contemporary with Moses. This subscription was received satisfactory reason why God should afflict him in a manner so and credited by the pseudo-Aristeas, Philo, and Polyhistor: very extraordinary, and beyond all preceding cases that were it was also believed in the time of Origen, and is preserved ever known in the world. This very much perplexed and emby Theodotion at the end of his version of the book of Job. barrassed his mind, and laid him under a great disadvantage in

This genealogy is received by. Calmet and Herder as the dispute. And for one thing, it is on this account that he is genuine, but it is manifestly spurious; for not only was it so earnest to come to a conference with God, to know his mind never extant in the Hebrew copies, but, even admitting the and meaning (chap. x. 2.); Show me wherefore thou contendgenealogy in question to be prior to the time of our Saviour, est with me?! He knew very well he could not absolutely it is too recent to be admitted as evidence in a fact of such justify himself before God. (chap. ix. 2—17.) For he breaks remote antiquity, especially as it is drawn only from conjec- 'me with a tempest, he multiplieth my wounds without a cause, ture supported by the slender resemblance between the two or without any apparent reason. (chap. vii. 12. 20.) The whole names Job and Jobab: and when we consider that it is con- twenty-third chapter relates to this point; in which he wishes tradicted by the arguments already adduced to prove that he could come to the dwelling-place of God (ver. 3.), and spread the patriarch lived so many ages anterior to the great legis- his case before him, and argue about it at large (ver. 4.), for he lator of the Hebrews, as well as by the internal evidence had turned his thoughts every way, and could make nothing of derived from the poem itself respecting the rank and condi- it (ver. 8, 9.), only he was sure God knew he was an upright tion of Job, we cannot doubt for a moment that the subscription is both erroneous and spurious.

man. (ver. 10–12.) But (ver. 13.) he is in one 7703, or in IX. Although the preceding view of the scope and argu- mind and designs to himself; and none can turn, or oblige him

unity, supreme above all others, absolutely entire, keeping his ment will convey to the reader an accurate idea of this very to alter his resolution. All that we can say is, that he doth ancient, but in many passages confessedly obscure poem; yet the following rules contain so many useful hints for the whatever is agreeable to his own wisdom. For (ver. 14.) what right understanding of its contents, that, long as this section he hath resolved to inflict upon me he hath accomplished; and necessarily is, the author is unwilling to omit them.3

many such things he doth, of which he will not give us the

To the same purpose understand chap. xxvii. 244. 14.

and chap. xxviii. 2. He hath taken away my judgment, i. e. 1. He that would rightly explain this book must, as much as the rule by which I might judge of the reason of my aflictions. he can, imagine himself in the same afflicted condition.

This point, in reference to God, Elihu tells him (chap. xxxiii. 2. Every daring thought, or ardent expression, which occurs 13.) he had urged to 'no purpose, seeing he gives no account in the speeches of this afflicted and exasperated man, is not to of his mutters, or will not reveal to us the secrets of his provibe vindicated; yet, as he was a great man, and a prince, he may

dence. be allowed to use bold and animated language.

9. In such a noble performance, if any thing seems to be said 3. We shall certainly judge amiss, if we think every thing not in consistency, or not in character, we should rather suspect wrong which will not suit with the politeness of our manners. our own judgment than the good sense of the author. The fault Allowance must be made for the simplicity of those times. is not in the book, but in our understanding.

4. In judging of Job's character, we must set the noble strains 10. That sense which best agrees with the subject, or the point of his piety against the unguarded expressions of his sorrow. in hand, or which stands in the best connection with the context,

5. It is not his innocence, strictly speaking, which Job insists should always be judged the best sense. on, but his sincerity. (chap. vii. 20, 21.)

X. Nothing, perhaps, has contributed more to render the 6. Except their hard censures of Job, his friends speak well poem of Job obscure, than the common division into chapters and religiously.

and verses; by which, not only the unity of the general sub7. His friends encouraged Job to hope for a temporal deliver-ject, but frequently that of a single paragraph or clause, is ance (chap. v. 18, &c. vii. 20, &c. xi. 14, &c.); but Job de- broken. The commentators, critics, and analysts, indeed, are spaired of it, and expected his bodily disorder would terminate not agreed as to the exact number of parts of which it conin death (chap. vi. 11, 12. ; vii. 6, 7, 8.21.; xvii. 1. 13, 14, 15.; sists: thus Heidegger and the elder Carpzov institute two xix. 10.); though, in the increasing heat of the dispute, they leading, divisions, with a multitude of subdivisions; Van seem to drop this sentiment in their following answers, as if Til divides it into four leading parts, Moldenhawer into three, they supposed Job to be too bad to hope for any favour from and Mr. Noyes into two, with a number of subordinate God. He hoped, however, that his character would be cleared heads; Dr. Good divides it into six books or parts; and Dr in the day of judgment; though he was greatly concerned that Hales into five parts, independently of the exordium and conit could not be cleared before ; that, after a life led in the most clusion: but as these are requisite to the unity of the book, conspicuous virtues, his reputation, in the opinion of his nearest it does not appear that they should be excluded from the arfriends, would sit under a black cloud, and, with regard to the rangement. The poem, then, may be conveniently divided ignorant and profane, leave an odious reproach upon a profession into six parts: the first of these contains the exordium

or of religion. This touched him to the heart, exasperated all his narrative part (ch. i. ii.); the second comprises the first desufferings, and made him often wish, that God would bring him bate or dialogue of Job and his friends (iii.- xiv.); the third to his trial here in this life, that his integrity

might be vindicated, includes the second series of debate or controversy (xv. xxi.); and that all, friends and enemies, might understand the true end the fourth comprehends the third series of controversy (xxii. or design of God in his sufferings, and the honour of religion

• See Bishop Patrick's Paraphrase on Job x. 2–3. might be secured. (chap. x. 2, 3.) It is good unto thee, that • The following Synopsis exhibits the divisions, and subdivisions, adopted thou shouldstshine upon the counsel of the wicked? who by Mr. Noyes in his “Amended Version of the Book of Job:" (Cambridge, from my case take occasion to reproach and vilify true religion,

1. Historical Introduction in Prose. Ch. I. II. and to confirm themselves in their wicked and idolatrous prac- II. Controversy in Verse. Ch. III.-XLII. 7. tices. (chap. viii. 20—22.; xi. 17–20.; xvi. 9-11.)

The Speech of Job, in which he curses his birth-day, is succeeded by 1. The first series of Controversy. Ch. IV.-XIV.

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Ch. IV. v. His first name was Jobab; and having married an Arabian woman, he had by her a son whose name was Ennon. Now he himself was the son of 3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. Vin. Zave, one of the sons of Esan: so that he was the fifth in descent from Abraham. Now these were the kings who reigned in Edom, over which 5. Speech of Zophar. Ch. XI. country he also bare rule. The first was Balak the son of Beor, and the

6. Answer or Job. Ch. XII. XIII. XIV. name of his city was Dannaba: and after Balak, Jobab, who is called Job : II. Becond series of Controversy: Ch. XV-XXI. and after him, Ason, who was general over the region of Thamanitis (Te. 1. Speech of Eliphaz.. Ch. XV. man); and after him, Adad, the son of Barad, who smote Madiam in the

2. Answer of Job. Ch. XVI. XVII. land of Moab: and the name of his city was Gethaim. And the_friends 3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. XVIII. who came to Job were Eliphaz of the sons of Esau king of the Thama. nites: Baldad, the sovereign of the Saucheans (Shuhites); and Bophar 5. Speech of Zophar. Ch. XX. (Zophar), the king of the Minains" (Naamathites).

Calinet's Dictionary, vol. i. art. Job. Herder on Hebrew Poetry in M. R. (O. S.) vol. Ixxx. p. 644.

III. Third series of Controversy. Ch. XXII.-XXXI. 9 $ III. pp. 228, 229. supra.

1. Speech of Eliphaz. Ch. XXII.

2. Answer of Job. Ch. XXIII. XXIV. * These rules are extracted from Dr. John Taylor's Scheme of Scripture 3. Speech of Bildad. Ch. XXV. Divinity, chap. xxiii. in Bishop Watson's Collection of Theological Tracts, 4. Answer of Job. Ch. XXVI. --XXXI. vol i. pp. 97, 98. Dr. Taylor of Norwich was an eminent divine of the last IV, The Judgment of Elihu respecting the Discussion. Ch. XXXIL century; who was distinguished for his command of temper, benevolent feeling, and deep acquaintance with the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. His Scheme of Divinity, it is deeply to be regretted, was Arian, and, there.

V. The Speech of the Deity, which terminates the Discussion. Ch. fore, cannot be recommended to students, indiscriminately.

III. The Conclusion, in Prose. Ch. XLII. 7. to the end.

North Am. 1827.)

2. Answer of Job. Ch. VI. VII.

4. Answer of Job. Ch. IX. X.

4. Answer of Job. Ch. XIX.

6. Answer of Job. Ch. XXI.



—xxxi.); in the fifth part Elihu sums up the argument (xxxii. Sect. 4. The answer of Job, who, having reproved the harsh --xxxvii.), and in the sixth part Jehovah determines the con- conduct of Bildad, re-vindicates his own conduct with great troversy; Job humbles himself, is accepted, and restored to warmth and animation, and takes a retrospect of his for. health and prosperity. (xxxiii. xlii.)

mer character in the relative situations of life, as a husband, Part I. The Exordium, containing the Narration of Job's as a master, and as a magistrate : and concludes by repeatCircumstances and Trials (ch. i. ii.) which is written in

ing his ardent wish for an immediate trial with his calum.

niator before the tribunal of God. (xxvi-xxxi.) prose. Sect. 1. The situation and circumstances of Job. (i. 1–6.) Part V. Contains the summing up of the whole argu Sect. 2. The first trial of Job by Satan, with divine permis- ment by Elihu; who, having condemned the conduct of all

sion, in the loss of his property and children; the integrity the disputants, whose reasonings were not calculated to proof Job declared. (i. 7–22.)

duce conviction (xxxii.), proceeds to contest several of Job's Sect. 3. The second trial of Job by Satan, in the severe af- positions, and to show that God frequently afflicts the chil.

fliction of his person (ii. 1-10.), and the visit of his friends dren of men for the best of purposes, and that in every in. to console him.

stance our duty is submission. He concludes with a grand Part II. The first Dialogue or Controversy between Job and

description of the omnipotence of the Creator. (xxxiji.

xxxvii.) his friends. (iii.-xiv.) Sect. 1. The complaint of Job on his calamitous situation, Part Vl. The Termination of the Controversy, and the Rewhich is the ground-work of the following arguments. (ii.)

storation of Job to his former Prosperity (xxxviii.-xlii.); Sect. 2. The speech of Eliphaz, in which he reproves the containing,

impatience of Job, and insinuates that his sufferings were Sect. 1. The appearance of Jehovah to pronounce judge the punishment of some secret iniquity. (iv. v.)

ment; who addresses Job, out of a whirlwind, in a most Sect. 3. Job's reply, in which he apologizes for the intempe- sublime and magnificent speech, the substance of which is

rance of his grief by the magnitude of his calamities, prays nearly a counterpart to that of Elihu. In it are illustrated for speedy death, accuses his friends of cruelty, and expos- the omnipotence of God, and man's utter ignorance of his

tulates with God, whose mercy he supplicates. (vi. vii.) ways, and works of creation and providence. (xxxvii.- xli.) Sect. 4. The argument of Eliphaz resumed by Bildad, who Secr. 2. The submission of Job, which is accepted, his re

reproves Job with still greater acrimony, and accuses him of storation to his former prosperity, and the increase of his irreligion and impiety. (viii.)

substance to double. (xlii. 1-10.) Sect. 5. Job's rejoinder, in which, while he acknowledges the Sect. 3. A more particular account of Job's restoration and

justice and sovereignty of God, he argues that his afflictions prosperity. (xlii. 11-17.)? are no proof of his wickedness, and in despair again wishes

XI. Independently of the important instruction and benefor death. (ix. x.) This passionate reply calls forth, fit which may be derived from a devout perusal of the book Sect. 6. Zophar, who prosecutes the argument begun by of Job, this divine poem is of no small value, as transmit

Eliphaz, and continued by Bildad, with still greater severity; ting to us a faithful delineation of the patriarchal doctrines and exhorts him to repentance, as the only means by which of religion; that confirms and illustrates the notices of that to recover his former prosperity. (xi.)

religion contained in the book of Genesis, an outline of which Sect. 7. The answer of Job, who retorts on his friends, cen- has been given in the first volume. On this account, we

suring their pretensions to superior knowledge, and charging trust, the reader will not be reluctantly detained, if we take them with false and partial pleading against him, and ap- a brief retrospect of the patriarchal creed,-more especially peals to God, professing his hope in a future resurrection. as some very learned men have denied that it contained any (xii.-xiv.)

reference either to fallen angelic spirits, or to a future resurI'ART III. The second Dialogue or Controversy (XV.—xxi.); rection of the body from the grave, and consequently to a in which we have,

future state of existence. Sect. 1. The argument renewed, nearly in the same manner

The two grand articles of patriarchal faith, from the earlias it had been commenced by Eliphaz, who accuses Job of That there is a God, and, 2. That he is a rewarder of them

est days, according to Saint Paul (Heb. xi. 6.), were, 1. impiety in justifying himself. (xv.) Sect. 2. Job's reply, who complains of the increasing un- tained in Job's declaration,

that diligently seek him. These articles are particularly conkindness of his friends, protests his innocency, and looks to death as his last resource. (xvi. xvii.)

I know that my Redeemer liveth,

And that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth. Sect. 3. Bildad, going over his former line of argument, with

increased asperity, applies it to Job, whose aggravated suf- But there are several other important points of doctrine ferings, he urges, are justly inflicted upon him. (xviii.)

either directly stated, or which may be legitimately inferred Secr. 4. Job's appeal to the sympathy of his friends, and from different parts of this book; they may be reduced to

from them to God: professing his faith in a future resur- the following nine articles :rection, he cautions his friends to cease from their invec- 1. The creation of the world by one supreme, omnipresent, tives, lest God should chastise them. (xix.)

and eternal Being, of boundless wisdom, irresistible power, inSect. 5. Job's appeal is retorted upon himself by Zophar describable glory, inflexible justice, and infinite goodness. This

(xx.); to whom the patriarch replies by discussing at large first great principle of what is usually called natural religion, is the conduct of Divine Providence, in order to evince the laid down throughout the whole book as an incontestable truth; fallacy of Zophar's argument of the short-lived triumph of but it is particularly illustrated in the speech of Jehovah him. the wicked. (xxi.)

self in Job xxxvii.- xli. Part IV. The third Debate or Controversy (xxii.--xxxi.); in

2. The government of the world by the perpetual and super which,

intending providence of God. This article of the patriarchal Sect. 1. Eliphaz resumes the charge, representing Job's vin- creed is particularly noticed in Job i. 9. 21.; ii. 10.; 1.8–27.;

dication and appeal as displeasing to God: contends that ix. 4-13.; and in almost every other chapter of the book : in certain and utter ruin is the uniform lot of the wicked, as

every instance, this doctrine is proposed, not as a matter of nice was evinced in the destruction of the old world by the de- obligations to fear and serve, to submit to and trust in their

speculation, but as laying mankind under the most powerful luge ; and concludes with renewed exhortation to repent- Creator, Lord, and Ruler.

ance and prayer. (xxii.) Sect. 2. In reply, Job ardently desires to plead his cause be carried on by the ministration of a heavenly hierarchy (i. 6,

3. That the providential government of the Almighty is fore God, whose omnipresence he delineates in the sublim- 7.; iv. 18, 19. ; v. 1. ; xxxiii. 22, 23.), which is composed of est language, urging that his sufferings were designed as trials of his faith and integrity ; and he shows in various

1 Dr. Hales is or opinion that the last six verses of this chapter, 11-W. instances that the wicked frequently escape punishment in (which particularize ihe increase of Job's family, the names of his daugh. this life. (xxiü. xxiv.)

ters, who, according to prinitive usage were made co-heiresses with their Sect. 3. The rejoinder of Bildad, who repeats his former pro- trial), form an appendix ; which was probably added in later times from

brothers, together with the number of years during which he survived his position, that, since no man is without sin in the sight tradition, either by Moses, who resided so long in his neighbourhood, or of God, consequently Job cannot be justified in his sight. by Samuel, or by the person (whoever he was) that introduced the book

into the sacred canon. Analysis of Chronology, vol. ij. book i. p. 101. (XIV.)

» See Vol. I. Chap. V. Sect. I. $ 1. pp. 142, 143,

various ranks and orders, possessing different names, dignities, Nor was the morality of Job less excellent than his theo. and offices,

logy. He thus expresses his undeviating obedience to the 4. An apostacy or defection in some rank or order of these laws of God, and his delight therein :powers (iv. 18.; xv. 15.); of which Satan seems to have been xxiii. 11. My foot hath held his steps, one, and perhaps chief. (i. 6–12. ; ii. 2–7.)

His way have I kept and not declined : 5. The good and evil powers or principles, equally formed

12. Neither have I gone back from the commandment of His lips.

I have esteemed the words of His mouth, by the Creator, and hence equally denominated " Sons of God;"

More than my necessary food. both of them employed by him in the administration of his Pro- From this and other passages, Dr. Hales with great providence: and both amenable to him at stated courts, held for the bability thinks it evident, that there was some collection of purpose of receiving an account of their respective missions.? certain precepts, or rules of religion and morality, in use (i.6, 7. ; ü. 1.)

among the patriarchs ;such were the precepts of the Noa6. That Zabianism, or the idolatrous worship of the stars, chidæ or sons of Noah : and there is great reason to believe, was a judicial offence, cognizable by the pelilim or judges; that the substance at least of the decalogue, given at Sinai, who were arbitrators, consisting of the heads of tribes or fami- was of primitive institution. Compare Gen. ix. 1-6. How lies, appointed by common consent to try offences against the well the venerable patriarch observed the duties of morality, community, and to award summary justice. Such was the will be manifest to every one who will take the trouble of case of the Trans-jordanite tribes, who were suspected of apos- perusing chap. xxix. 11-17. and xxxi. 6–22. tacy, and were threatened with extirpation by the heads of the There is a remarkable reference in the book of Job to the ten tribes on the western side of Jordan. (Josh. xxii. 16–22.)* former destruction of the world by water, and to its final

7. Original sin, or that corruption of the nature of every dissolution by fire ; which was prophesied by Enoch before man that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam."the deluge, whence it must have been known to Noah; and " It is certain," as Bishop Burnet has well remarked, “ that in no doubt transmitted by him to his family, and so might be Scripture this general corruption of our nature is often men- communicated to Job and his friends. It occurs in the last tioned :”; and it is not to be supposed that this article of doc- speech of Eliphaz, the most intelligent of the three. trine, however repugnant to the pride of man, should be omitted xxii. 15. Dost (not) thou keep the old way,

Which wicked men have trodden ? in the book of Job. Accordingly we find it expressly asserted

16. Who were cut off, before their time, in chap. xiv. 4.; xv. 14—16. and xxxv. 3.

The food overthrew their foundation : 8. The propitiation of the Creator in the case of human

17. Who said unto God, Depart from us :"

And, " What can THE ALMIGHTY do for us?" transgressions by sacrifices (i. 5.; xlii. 8.), and the mediation 18. Yet he filleth their houses with good, and intercession of a righteous person. (xlii. 8, 9.) In his in

Though the counsel of the wicked was far from Him. tercession for his friends, Job is generally regarded as a type of

19. The righteous saw, and were glad,

And the innocent (Noah) derided them: Him“ who ever liveth to make intercession” for transgressors.

20. “Is not their substance cut doron? If any evidence were wanting to prove sacrifices of divine insti

And the fire shall consume the remnant of them !" tation, the declaration in xlii. 8. alone would be sufficient.? As if Noah had said, Though this judgment by water,

9. That there will be a day of future resurrection (xiv. however universal, may not so thoroughly purge the earth, 7–11. with verses 12—15. of the same chapter), judgment as that iniquity shall not spring up again, and wicked men (xix. 25—29.), and retribution to all mankind. (xxvii. 8.; xxxi.abound : yet know that a final judgment by fire will utterly 13, 14.)

consume the remnant of such sinners as shall then be found The passage, in which Job expresses his firm faith in a

alive, along with the earth itself.9 Redeemer (xix. 25—29.), has been greatly contested among critics; some of whom refer it simply to his deliverance from his temporal distresses, maintaining that it has no allu

SECTION II. sion whatever to a future state ; while others understand it in the contrary sense, and consider it a noble confession of

ON THE BOOK OF PSALMS. faith in the Redeemer. The latter opinion has been ably advocated by Pfeiffer, the elder Schultens, Michaelis, Velthu- I. General title of this book.-II. Structure of the Psalms.sen, Rosenmüller, Dr. Good, and the Rev. Drs. Hales and III. Their canonical authority.-IV. Authors to whom they J. P. Smith, and is now generally received. The following are ascribed.-1. Moses.-2. David.3. Asaph.-4. The is Dr. Hales's version of this sublime passage of Job: sons of Korah.-5. Jeduthun.-6. Heman and Ethan.I know that my REDEEMER (is) living,

7. Solomon.-8. Anonymous psalms.-V. Chronnlogical ar. And that at the last (day)

rangement of the Psalms by Calmet.-VI. Collection of the He will arise lin judgment) upon dust (mankind).

Psalms into a volume.—VII. The inscriptions or titles pre-
And after my skin be mangled thus,
Yet ever from my flesh shall I see God:

fixed to the different psalms.-VIII. Probable meaning of Whom I shall see for me (on my side),

the word Selah.—IX. Scope of the book of Psalms.And mine eyes shall behold him not estranged; [Though) my reins be (now) consumed within me.

X. Rules for better understanding them.—XI. A table of

the psalms classed according to their several subjects. But ye should say, "Why persecute we him [further]?" Since the strength of the argument is found in me,

I. This book is entitled in the Hebrew Dubyan DD (SEPHER Fear ye for yourselves, from the face of the sword;

TEHILIM), that is the Book of Hymns or Praises ; because the For (divine) wrath (punisheth) iniquities (with) the sword; That ye may know there is a judgment..

greater part of them treat of the praises of God, while the

remainder consist either of the complaints of an afflicted soul, : As obedim, servants; malachim, angels ; melizim, intercessors; me- or of penitential effusions, or of the prayers of a heart overmitim, destinies or destroyers; alep, the miliad or thousand ; kedosim, whelmed with grief. In the Roman edition of the SepSANCTI, the heavenly Saints or hosts generally Good's Introd. Diss. to his tuagint Version printed in 1587, which professes to follow translation, compared with p. lxxiv. of his Dissertation, and his notes on the Vatican manuscript, this book is simply denominated the passages cited.

PAAMOI, the Psalms, and in the Alexandrian manuscript, » Ibid. p. lxv.

Job 12xi. 26–28. Dr. Hales, to whose researches we are indebted for preserved in the British Museum, it is entitled YAATHPION the sixth article of the patriarchal creed, translates the 28th verse thus :- MET' NAAIE, the Psalter with Odes or Hymns.10 The Syriac

Even this would be a judicial crime,
For I should have lied unto GOD ABOVE.

• Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i. pp. 111, 112.

10 These Odes or Hymns, which are thirteen in number, are printed in Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. book i. pp. 105, 106.

Dr. Grabe's edition of the Septuagint: they are thus entitled :Article ix. of the Confession of the Anglican Church.

1. The Ode of Moses in Exodus. (ch. xv. v. 1. et seqq.) · Burnett on Art. ix. p. 139. Having cited several passages at length, he 2. The Ode of Moses in Deuteronomy. (ch. xxxii. v. 1. seqq.) thus concludes: "These, with many other places of Scripture to the same 3. The Prayer of Hannah the Mother of Samuel. (1 Sam. ch. ii. v. 1. seqq.) purpose, when they are joined to the universal experience of all mankind 4. The Prayer of Isaiah (in the margin, of Hezekiah). Isa. ch. xxvi. concerning the corruption of our whole race, lead us to settle this point, v. 9. seqq. that in fact it has overrun our whole kind, the contagion is spread over all." 5. The Prayer of Jonah. (Jon. ch. ji. v. 3. seqq.)

• Archbp. Magee has collected all the evidence on this important sub. 6. The Prayer of Habakkuk (Sept. Ambakoum). Hab. ch. iii. v. 2. seqq. jeet with great ability. Discourses on the Atonement, vol. ii. part i. pp. 7. The Prayer of Hezekiah. (Isa. ch. Xxxviii. v. 10. seqq.) 25_46.

8. The Prayer of Manasseh. (2 Chron. ch. xxxiii. according to some . Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. pp. 83–86. For the very elaborate notes copies, but one of the apocryphal pieces in our Bibles.) with which he has supported and vindicated his translation, we must 9. The Prayer of Azariah. (Dan. ch. ill. v. 26. seqq.) refer the reader to his work. Other illustrations of this passage may be 10. The Hymn of

our Fathers. (Dan. ch. iii. v. 52. seqq.? seen in Pfeiffer's Dubia Vexata Scripturæ, Centuria Ill. No. 39. (Op. 11. The Prayer of Mary, the Mother of God. (Lukech. 1. v. 46. seqq.) tom. i. pp. 169–272); and Dr. Smith's Scripture Testimony to the Messiah, 12. The Prayer of Simeon. (Luke ch. ii. v. 29. seqq.) Fol 1. pp. 199–211. In Dr. A. Clarke's Commentary, there is a good illus- 13. A Morning Hymn, the first part of which nearly corresponds with the tration of Job xix. 329.

sublime hymn in the post-communion service of the church of England.

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