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TABLE OF THE STATIONS OF THE ISRAELITES IN THE
Y. M. D.
Water from the rock
12. (From Dr. Hales's Analysis of Chronology, Vol. I. pp. 395—400.)
39. Mount Hor, or Seir, on Y M. D.
the edge of Edom
Num.xxxjii. 37. 1 1.15. 1. Rameses, near Cairo Exod. xii. 37. Num.xxxiii. 3.
xxxii. 38. xxxiii. 3.
King Arad attacks the
40. Kibroth Halataavah, or
1. 5. Shur;-Ain Musa
41. Zalmonah, or Hashmo. 6. Desert of Shur,
The People bitten by
The Brazen Serpent Num. xxi.
erected 9. Encampment by the
42. Punon Red Sea
xxxiij. 42. 43. Oboth
xxi. 1. 2. 15. 10. Desert of Sin, Valley or
xxxiii. 43. xvi. 1. Baharan
44. Jiu, or Jie Abarim in
15. The valley and brook
Deut. ii. 13.
Num. xxi. 12. revived
47. Beer, or Beer Elim
xxi. 11. Dopkah.
Isaiah xy. 8.
Num. xxi. 23.
5. Judges appointed
Og defeated. xviii. 25.
52. Dibon Gad 1. 3. 15.) 14. Mount Sinai, or Horeb
53. Almon Diblat haim
xxxii. 45. XX 1.
Xxxiii. 46. 55. Nahiliel
57. Pisgah The Covenant renewed
59. Shittim, or Abel Shit-
Num. XXV. tim
1. , xxxii. 47. 2.) L. 1. The Tabernacle erected xl. 17.
In the Plains of Moab Josh. iii. 1.
xxxiii. 48. Aaron consecrated and Lev. viii. 6.
Idolatry of Baal Peor .
3. his sons
XXY 2 1 S. Sacrifices of Atonement ix. I.
The third Muster.
xxvi. 2. 2 1.14. The second Passover. Num. ix. 5.
40.1) 1. Last exhortation of Moses Dent i.
2. 2.) 2. l. The second Muster
10.12 1. Joshua appointed his Num. xxvii. 18.
• S Deut. xxxiv. 9. stroyed
Death of Moses
Xxxiv. 2. 2. 20./15. Desert of Paran
Num. X. 12.
41. 1. 1. 60. Joshua sends two Spies Josh. ii. 1. 16. Taberah
41. 1. 10. Passage of the river
VII. Few passages in the Pentateuch have more exercised
the ingenuity of biblical critics, than the Book of the Wars of Plagne of the People
the Lord mentioned in Num. xxi. 14. Aben-Ezra, HottinCouncil of LXX. ap
ger, and others, are of opinion that it refers to this book of pointed 18. Hazeroth Num. xi. 35.
the Pentateuch, because in it are related various battles of the Deut. i.
xxxiii. 17. Israelites with the Amorites: Hezelius, and after him MiMiriam's Leprosy Num. xii.
chaelis, think it was an Amoritish writing, containing tri2.) 5. 19. Kadesh Barnea, in Rith.
Num. xii. 16.) mah, or "the De.
xxxiii. 18. umphal songs in honour of the victories obtained by Sihon
xxxii. 8.3 sert' of Sin, or Paran)
king of the Amorites, from which Moses cited the words that Twelve Spies sent
immediately follow. Fonseca and some others refer it to the 2. 7. 6. Their return
book of Judges. Le Clerc understands it of the wars of the
Israelites, who fought under the direction of Jehovah, and, forty years xxxii. 13. S
instead of book, he translates it, with most of the Jewish Ten of the Spies de.
doctors, narration ; and proposes to render the verse thus:xiv. 37. stroyed
" Wherefore, in the narration of the wars of the Lord, there The People defeated by
is (or shall be) mention of what he did in the Red Sea, and the Amalekites Rebellion of Korah, &c. xvi. 1.
in the brooks of Arnon.”—Lastly, Dr. Lightfoot considers Budding of Aaron's Rod xvii. 10.
this book to have been some book of remembrances and direc20. Rimmon Parez
tions written by Moses for Joshua's private instruction, for 21. Libnah, or Leban Deut. i.
xxxii. 20. 22. Rissah
xxxiii. 21. the prosecution of the wars after his decease. (See Exod. 23. Kehelathah
xxxiii. 22. xvii. 14-16.) This opinion appears to us the most simple, 24. Mount Shaphar
xxxiii. 23 and is, in all probability, the true one.
Josh. xv. 3.
xxxiji. 25. 27. Tahath
xxxiii. 26. 28. Tarath,
SECTION VI. 29. Mitcah
xxxiii. 28. 30. Hashmonah, or
ON THE BOOK OF DEUTERONOMY.
Josh. xv. 4.
I. Title, date, and chronology,-II. Scope.-III. Predictions 32. Moseroth, or Mosera .
xxxiii. 30. 33. Benejaakan, or Banea
of the Messiah.-IV. Synopsis of contents.-V. Observa
Xxxiii. 31 34. Horhagidgad, or
xxxiii. 32. tions.—Table or harmony of the Mosaic law. Gulvodah
7. 35. Jotbatha, or
I. The Jews call this fifth book of Moses, 092277 obx
(aleh HADEBURIM), that is, “ These are the words,” because the 36. Ebrona
xxxiii. 34 original commences with these words: by some rabbins it is 37. Ezion Geber, or
xxxiii. 36. called Join njen (MisNeH torah), or the repetition of the law, Dizahab
1. 40.1 1. 38. Kadesh Barnea again,
while others term it add ningin (SCPHER TUKHHUTH), or the after 38 years
Book of Reproofs, on account of the numerous reproofs of the Miriain's Death
Israelites hy Moses. The Greeks and Latins respectively - in the Bible de Vence, tom. iii. pp. 365–405. there is an elaborate Geo | call it SETTEPONOMJON, Deuteronomium (whence our graphical Dissertation sur les xlii. Slations des lsraelites.
English title Deuteronomy is derived), that is to say, the
second law (LEUTEDOS Nopeos), because it contains a second state-, accomplished in the present day :-all these circumstances, ment of the laws which Moses had formerly promulgated to when united, bear ample testimony to the truth and authenthe Israelites. From a comparison of Deut. i. 5. with xxxiv. ticity of this sacred book, and present to our minds a memo1. it appears to have been written by Moses on the plains of rable instance of the divine justice." Moab, a short time before his death'; and this circumstance IV. The Jews divide this book into ten paraschioth or will account for that affectionate earnestness with which he chapters : in our Bibles it consists of thirty-four chapters, the addresses the Israelites. The period of time comprised in this contents of which may be arranged under the four following book is five lunar weeks, or, according to some chronologers, heads :about two months, viz. from the first day of the eleventh Part I. A Repetition of the History related in the preceding month of the fortieth year after the exodus of Israel from Books ; comprising, Egypi, to the eleventh day of the twelfth month of the same
Sect. 1. A relation of the events that took place in the wilderyear, A. M. 2553, B. c. 1451. From the account of Moses's death recorded in the thirty-fourth chapter of this book, and
ness, from their leaving Mount Horeb until their arrival at
Kadesh. (Deut. i.) the insertion of some explanatory words in other parts of Deuteronomy, it has been insinuated that Moses could not
Sect. 2. Their journey from Kadesh till they came to the land have been its author : but the following remark will clearly
of the Amorites, and the defeat of Sihon their king, and of prove this notion to be unfounded. The words of Moses (as
Og king of Bashan, together with the division of their terriwe have already had occasion to remark) evidently conclude
tories among the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the half with the thirty-third chapter : the thirty-fourth was added to
tribe of Manasseh. (ii. iii.) complete the history, the first eight verses probably imme
Sect. 3. An exhortation to obey the divine law, and to avoid diately after his death by his successor Joshua, the last four idolatry, founded on their past experience of the goodness by some later writer, probably Samuel or Ezra, or some pro
of God. (iv.) phet that succeeded Samuel. . Another and equally satisfac- Part II. A Repetition of the Moral, Ceremonial, and Judicial tory solution of this difficulty is the following ; viz. that what Law; containing, now forms the last chapter of Deuteronomy, was formerly the first of Joshua, but was removed thence, and joined to Deu
Sect. 1. A Repetition of the Moral Law or Ten Command
ments (v. 1—22.) and its effect upon the people of Israel teronomy by way of supplement. This opinion will not
(v. 22–33.) ;-an exposition of the first commandment, appear improbable, when it is considered that sections and
with an exhortation to love God with all their hearts (vi.); other divisions, as well as points and pauses, were invented long since these books were written: for, in those early ages
-an exposition of the second commandment against idolaseveral books were connected together, and followed each
try, prohibiting any intercourse with the idolatrous nations, other on the same roll. The beginning of one book might,
and enjoining the extirpation of the Canaanites and every therefore, be easily transferred to the end of another, and in
vestige of their idolatry (vii.) ;-strong motives to obediprocess of time be considered as its real conclusion, as in the
ence, arising from a review of their past mercies, and from
the consideration that Jehovah was about to conduct them case of Deuteronomy; especially as the supplemental chapter contains an account of the last transactions and death of the
into the promised land, not on account of their own rightgreat author of the Pentateuch.
eousness, but of his great mercy. (viii. ix. X. xi.) II. The Scope of the book of Deuteronomy is, to repeat to
Sect. 2. A Repetition of the Ceremonial Law (xii.—xvi.) ; the Israelites, before Moses left them, the chief laws of God -a command to abolish all idolatry, and regulations for the which had been given to them; that those who were not born
worship of God (xii.) ;-laws against false prophets, and at the time when they were originally delivered, or were in
idolatrous cities (xiii.) ;-prohibition against disfiguring capable of understanding them, might be instructed in these themselves in mourning (xiv. 1, 2.) ;-a recapitulation of laws, and excited to attend to them, and, consequently, be the law concerning clean and unclean animals (xiv. 3—21.), better prepared for the promised land upon which they were -and the payment of tithes to the Levites (xiv. 22—29.); entering. With this view the sacred historian recapitulates -regulations concerning the year of release (xv.) ;-conthe various mercies which God had bestowed upon them and cerning the stated annual feasts, the Passover, Pentecost, their forefathers, from their departure out of Egypt; the vic- and Feast of Tabernacles (xvi. 1–17.) ;—the election of tories which by divine assistance they had obtained over their judges, and administration of justice (xvi. 18—20.) ;-a enemies; their rebellion, ingratitude, and chastisements. The prohibition against planting groves or setting up idols near moral, ceremonial, and judicial laws are repeated with addi- the altar of God. (xvi. 21, 22.) tions and explanations; and the people are urged to obedience Sect. 3. A Repetition and Exposition of the Judicial Law in the most affectionate manner, from the consideration of the (xvii.—xxvi.) ;-a command to put idolaters to death, reguendearing promises made to them by God, which he would lations for determining difficult controversies, and concernassuredly perform, if they did not frustrate his designs of
ing the election and qualifications of a king (xvii.) ;-the Inercy by their own wiltul obstinacy. That no person might maintenance of the priests and Levites (xviii. 1–8.) ; thereafter plead ignorance of the divine law, he commanded
cautions against following the abominations of the Gentile that it should be read to all the people at the end of every nations, especially divination (xviii. 9—14.) ;-a prediction seventh year; and concluded his ministerial labours among
relative to the great prophet that should arise (xviii. 15– the Israelites by a most adınirable ode, which he commanded
19.) ;-criteria for distinguishing false prophets from true every one to learn, and by giving his prophetic benediction
ones (xviii. 20—22.) ;-laws relative to the cities of refuge to the twelve tribes. III. This book contains only one PROPHECY RELATIVE TO
(xix. 1–10.), the treatment of murderers (xix. 11–13.),
and the evidence of witnesses (xix. 15—21.) ;-laws conThe Messiah, viz. Deut. xviii. 15. 18, 19., which was ful
cerning war and the treatment of the Canaanites (xx.) ;—the filled fifteen hundred years after it had been delivered, and is
expiation of uncertain murder, marriage with captives, expressly applied to Jesus Christ in Acts iii. 22, 23. and vii.
rights of the first-born, punishment of a disobedient son, 37.;? it also comprises several very remarkable predictions relative to the Israelites, some of which are fulfilled before
&c. (xxi.) ;-regulations concerning things lost or strayed, our eyes. " These prophecies,” it has been justly remarked,"
the distinguishing of the sexes by their apparel, punishment * become more numerous and distinct towards the close of
of adultery, &c. (xxii.) ;-who may or may not enter into his life. His denunciations with respect to the future state
the congregation-prohibition against all uncleanness of the Israelites; the sufferings, the dispersions, and the de
regulations concerning usury, vows, and trespasses (xxiii.); vastations to which they were to be subject; the prophetic
-of divorces, the privileges of newly married men, pledges, blessings which he pronounced on the different tribes by manstealing, wages, the execution of justice, and gleanings name; the clear foresight which he had of the rapid victories (xxiv.) ;-concerning lawsuits and punishments, weights of their invaders, and of the extreme miseries which they
and measures, &c. (xxv.) ;-ceremonies to be observed in were to experience when besieged; his express predictions
offering first-fruits (xxvi. 1—15.) ;-the covenant between relating to the future condition of the Jews, which we see
God and the Israelites. (xxvi. 16—19.)
Part III. The Confirmation of the Law; for which purpose 1 Alexander's Hebrew and English Pentateuch, cite. by Dr. Clarke on the law was to be written on stones, and set up on Mount Deut. xxxiv., who is or opinion that this chapter should constitute the first chapier of the book of Joshua.
Ebal, (xxvii.) ;—prophetic promises to the obedient, and On the accomplishment of this prediction, see Vol. I. ch. I. Sec. II. App. curses against the disobedient" (xxviii.);"_an exhortation to Bishop Newton's Sirth Dissertation, anu Dr. Jortin's Remarks on Ecclesi.
obedience from a review of their past mercies, and to dedicate astical History, vol. i. pp. 130—149. edit. 1768.
: By Mr. Hewlett, Introd. to Deut. in vol. I. of his Commentary on the • On the prophecies contained in this chapter, see Bishop Newton, vol. i Bible, suo edit.
27. 30. 23.
themselves and their posterity to God (xxix.) ;—promises of
THE SECOND CLAss. pardon to the repentant (xxx. 1-14.) ;-good and evil set
The Ceremonial Law may be fitly reduced to the following before them. (xxx. 15—20.)
Heads ; viz. Part IV. The Personal History of Moses, until his Death ;
or the holy place,
1–8.);—and his delivery of a copy of the law to the priests, tabernacle,
The altar of incense, .
The candlestick of
glory and beauty,
18. 3.8 Sect. 3. His prophetic blessing of the twelve tribes, and their of the priest's office in general,
peculiar felicity and privilege in having Jehovah for their of their office in teaching, God and protector. (xxxiii.)
or their office in blessing, Sect. 4. The death and burial of Moses. (xxxiv.)
of their office in offering which func. V.“ The book of Deuteronomy and the Epistle to the He
tion largely spreading itself is divided
into these heads; viz. brews contain the best comment on the nature, design, and what the sacrifices ought to be,
15. 17. use of the law : the former may be considered as an evan- of the continual fire, :
6, 7. gelica! commentary on the four preceding books, in which of the manner of the burnt-offerings
of the peace offerings, the spiritual reference and signification of the different parts of the law are given, and given in such a manner as none
ing to their several kinds; viz.
4. could give, who had not a clear discovery of the glory which Por sin comunitted through ignorance was to be revealed. It may be safely asserted that very few For sin committed ihrough ignorance parts of the Old Testament Scriptures can be read with of the fact,
5. 7. greater profit by the genuine Christian than the book of Deu- For sin committed wittingly, yet not
through impiety, teronomy.":
The special law of sacrifices for sin, .
6, 7. The prophetic ode of Moses is one of the noblest composi- of things belonging to the sacrifices,
2.6, 7. tions in the sacred volume; it contains a justification on the or the lamps, · part of God against the Israelites, and an explanation of the or the sweet incense, nature and design of the divine judgments. The exordium, or the use of ordinary oblations, where;
of there were several kinds observed Bishop Lowth remarks, is singularly magnificent : the plan
by and conduct of the poem is just and natural, and well
accom- or the consecration of the high-priests modated to the subject, for it is almost in the order of an his
and other priests,
29, 30. torical narration. It embraces a variety of subjects and sen
of the consecrations and office of the
Levites, timents; it displays the truth and justice of God; his pater- of the dwellings of the Levites,
35. nal love, and his unfailing tenderness to his chosen people; of the anointing the altar, and all the and, on the other hand, their ungrateful and contumacious of the continual daily sacrifices,
29, 30, spirit.-The ardour of the divine indignation, and the heavy or the continual sabbath-days' sacrifice, denunciations of vengeance, are afterwards expressed in a of the solemn sacrifice for feast-days,
which were diverse, and had pecu. remarkable personification, which is not to be paralleled from all the choicest treasures of the muses. The fervour of or trumpets,
liar rites, distinguished into these; viz. wrath is however tempered with the mildest beams of lenity of kalends or beginning of months, and mercy, and ends at last in promises and consolation. The of the three most solemn seasts in
33, 34. subject and style of this poem bear so exact a resemblance to
of the feast of
passover, the prophetic as well as to the lyric compositions of the He
23. brews, that it unites all the force, energy, and boldness of the of the feast of labernacles,
of the feast of pentecost,
23, 24. 23
16. latter, with the exquisite variety and grandeur of the former.2 of the feast of blowing the trumpets, The following useful Table or HARMONY of the entire of the feast of expiation,
16. 13. of the first-fruits,
26. Jewish law, digested into proper heads, with references to
12.14.36. the several parts of the Pentateuch where the respective laws of fruits growing and not eaten of, occur, will assist the Bible student in investigating the tenor of the first born,
25. and design of the Mosaic Institutes, and also facilitate his of the sabbatical year, references to every part of them. It is copied from Mr. Wil- of vows in general, son's “ Archæological Dictionary," article Law; where it is what persons ought not to make vows. stated to be taken from a manuscript in the Library of St. Whecibings cannot be vowed, John Baptist's College” (Oxford), given by Archbishop of the vows of the Nazarites, Laud," and probably either compiled by him or by his direc- of the laws proper for the priests; viz. tion. It is divided into three classes, exhibiting the Moral, or the high-priest's mourning, Ceremonial, and Political Law.
of his marriage,
of the mourning of the ordinary priests, The First Class.
of their marriage,
of their being forbid the use of wine,&c. The Moral Law written on the Two Tables, containing the
of sanctified meats,
5. 18. 12.15.18 Ten Commandments.
or the office of the Levites; viz.
3, 4. 18.
Other promiscuous ceremonial laws; viz The first Table, which includes
of uncleanness in general, The First Commandinent,
Of uncleanness in meats; 1,5,6,7,8. of blood,
7. 17.19. The Second Commandment,
20.23.34. 19.26.18. 10,11,12, or fat,
of dead carcasses, The Third Commandment,
Other meats and diverse living creaThe Fourth Commandment, 19.23.26.
or uncleanness in the issue of seed The second Table, including
15. 12. The Fifth Commandment,
In the dead bodies of men, The Sixth Commandment,
In the leprosy, The Seventh Commandment,
of circumcision, The Eighth Commandment,
of the water of expiation, The Ninth Commandment,
or the mourning of the Israelites, The Tenth Commandinent,
or mixtures, The sum of both tables,
of their garinents and writing the law
privately, · Dr. A. Clarke, Pref. to Deut. p. ii. in vol. i. of his Commentary. of young birds not to be taken . Bishop Lowth's Lectures on Hebrew Poetry, Lect. 28. at the beginning,
the dam, vol. ii. pp. 256, 257. of Dr. Gregory's translation.
of their paddle staves.