teachers in the church itself, who corrupted the doctrines of IV. In all countries the stage has ever furnished different the Gospel for worldly purposes, while they assumed the languages with some of the most beautiful Metaphors and appearance of great disinterestedness and piety.

ALLUSIONS that adorn them.? In every tongue we read of the II. Militarý Sports and exercises appear to have been drama of human life :' its scenes are described as continually common in the earlier periods of the Jewish history. By shifting and varying: mortal life is represented as an intrithese the Jewish youth were taught the use of the bow cate plot, which will gradually unfold and finally wind up (1 Sam. xx. 20. 30–35.), or the hurling of stones from a into harmony and happiness; and the world is styled a magsling with unerring aim. (Judg. xx. 16. 1 Chron. xii. 2.) nificent theatre, in which God has placed us,-assigned to Jerome informs us, that in his days (the fourth century) it every man a character,-is a constant spectator how he supwas a common exercise throughout Judæa for the young men, ports this character,—and will finally applaud or condemn who were ambitious to give proof of their strength, to lift according to the good or bad execution of the part, whatever up round stones of enormous weight, some as high as their it is, he has been appointed to act. The drama was instiknees, others to their navel, shoulders, or head, while others tuted to exhibit a striking picture of human life, and, in a placed them at the top of their heads, with their hands erect faithful mirror, to hold up to the spectator's view that misand joined together. He further states, that he saw at Athens cellany of characters which diversify it, and those interan extremely heavy brazen sphere or globe, which he vainly changes and reverses of fortune which chequer it. It is endeavoured to lift ; and that on inquiring into its use, he scarcely necessary to remark, though the observation is prowas informed, that no one was permitted to contend in the per for the sake of illustrating a very beautiful passage in games until, by his lifting of this weight, it was ascertained one of St. Paul's Epistles, that a variety of scenes is painted, who could be matched with him. From this exercise Jerome which by means of the requisite machinery are very freelucidates a difficult passage in Zech. xii. 3., in which the pro- quently shifting, in order to show the characters in a variety phet compares Jerusalemn to a stone of great weight, which of places and fortunes. To the spectator, lively and affecting being too heavy for those who attempted to lift it up, or even views are by turns displayed, sometimes, for example, of to remove it, falls back upon them, and crushes them to pieces. Thebes, sometimes of Athens, one while of a palace, at

III. Among the great changes which were effected in the another of a prison; now of a splendid triumph, and now manners and customs of the Jews, subsequently to the time of a funeral procession,-every thing, from the beginning to of Alexander the Great, may be reckoned the introduction of the catastrophe, perpetually varying and changing according Gymnastic Sports and Games, in imitation of those cele- to the rules and conduct of the drama. Agreeably to this, brated by the Greeks; who, it is well known, were passion with what elegance and propriety does St. Paul, whom we ately fond of theatrical exhibitions. These amusements they find quoting Menander, one of the most celebrated writers of carried, with their victorious arms, into the various countries the Greek comedy, represent the fashion of this world as of the East; the inhabitants of which, in imitation of their continually passing away,l2 and all the scenes of this vain masters, addicted themselves to the same diversions, and and visionary life as perpetually shifting ! “ The imagery," endeavoured to distinguish themselves in the same exercises. says Grotius, “ is taken from the theatre, where the scenery The profligate high-priest Jason, in the reign of Antiochus is suddenly changed, and exhibits an appearance totally difEpiphanes, first introduced public games at Jerusalem, where ferent.”13 And as the transactions of the drama are not real, he erected a gymnasium, or place for exercise, and for the but fictitious and imaginary, such and such characters being training up of youth in the fashions of the heathen.” (2 Macc. assumed and personated, in whose joys or griefs, in whose iv. 9.)

" The avowed purpose of these athletic exercises domestic felicities or infelicities, in whose elevation or dewas, the strengthening of the body; but the real design went pression, the actor is not really and personally interested, but to the gradual change of judaism for heathenism, as was only supports a character, perhaps entirely foreign from his clearly indicated by the pains which many took to efface the own, and represents passions and affections in which his own mark of circumcision. The games, besides, were closely heart has no share: how beautiful and expressive, when conconnected with idolatry; for they were generally celebrated sidered in this light, is that passage of Scripture wherein the in honour of some pagan god. The innovations of Jason apostle is inculcating a Christian indifference for this world, were therefore extremely odious to the more pious part of the and exhorting us not to suffer ourselves to be unduly affected nation, and even his own adherents did not enter fully into either by the joys or sorrows of so fugitive and transitory a all his views." They also produced a demoralizing effect scene! (1 Cor. vii. 29–31.) But this I say, brethren, the upon the Jews. Even the very priests, neglecting the duties time is short. It remaineth that both they that have wives be as of their sacred office, hastened to be partakers of these un- though they had none : and they that weep as though they wept lawful sports, and were ambitious of obtaining the prizes not: and ihey that rejoice as though they rejoiced not : and they awarded to the victors. (10–15.). The restoration of divine that buy as though they possessed not: and they that use this worship, and of the observance of the Mosaic laws and insti- world as not abusing it.itFor the fashion of this world passeth tutions under the Maccabæan princes, put an end to these . For the following account of the theatrical representations, and of the spectacles. They were, however, revived by Herod, who, Grecian games alluded to in the New Testainent, the author is indebted to in order to ingratiate himself with the emperor Augustus De Jarwood's Inuroduction, vol. ii. sections 1. and 4., collated with Bruna (B. c. 7.), built a theatre at Jerusalem, and also a capacious –376., from which treatise Dr. H. appears to bave derived a considerable amphitheatre, without the city, in the plain; and who also portion of his materials. erected similar edifices at Cæsarea, and appointed games to

8 Σκηνη πας και βιος, και ταιγνιον: η μαθε σαιζαν,

Την σπουδην μελαθεις, και φέρε τας οδυνας. be solemnized every fifth year with great splendour, and

Epigram in Antholog. amid a vast concourse of spectators, who were invited by Quomodo fabula, sic vita ; non quàm diu, sed quàm bene acta sil, refert. proclamation from the neighbouring countries. Josephus' Nihil ad rem pertinet, quo loco desivas : quocunque voles desine : tantùm narrative of these circumstances is not sufficiently minute to

bonain clausulam impone. Seneca, epist. lxxvii. tom. ii, p. 306. edit. Elz.

Οιον εν κιμωδον απολυει της σκηνης και παραλαβαν σρατηγος αλλ' ουκ enable us to determine with accuracy all the exhibitions which ιπον τα τεν]μέρη, αλλά τα τρια, καλως ειπα, εν μινlαι τωειω τα τρια took place on these occasions. But we may collect, that they LOU TO Spepix ès*. Mar. Antoninus, lib. xii. p. 236. edit. Oxon. The words consisted of wrestling, chariot-racing, music, and combats of of the Psalmist

, --" we spend our days as a tale that is told,”—have been wild beasts, which either fought with one another, or with in this view, would be striking, did we know that the early Jews ever had men who were under sentence of death :-a barbarous amuse- any scenical representations. ment which has happily been abolished by the beneficent Arriano. lib. iv. p. 580. Upton.

• Epicteti Enchirid. cap. 17. p. 699. Upton. Epicteti Nissertationes ab influence of the Gospel. Further, the most distinguished 10 M. Antoninus, lib. xi. S vi. p. 204. edit. Oxon. wrestlers were invited to attend by the promise of very great

Modd me Thebis, modò ponit Athenis. rewards to the victors. The Gentiles were highly delighted

Horai. Epist. lib. ii. ver. 213. with these exhibitions, which were so utterly repugnant to 11 Cor. vii. 31. Παράγει γαρ το σχήμα του κοσμου τουτου. the laws and customs of the Jews, that they regarded them plane

ostendit faciem. Grotius, ad loc. Mais comme Grotius remarque with the utmost horror and detestation.

que cette reflexion de l'Apôtre est empruntée du théâtre, et que le mot

Grec om***, que l'on traduit la figure, signifie proprement un personnage 1 Dr. Macknight on Eph. iv. 14.

de theatre, ou une décoration dans Euripide et dans Aristophane, et que Jerome on Zech, xii. 3. (Op. tom. iii. col. 1780. edit. Benedictin.) W. les Grecs disoient pour marquer le changement de scène, ou de décoration Lowth on Zech. xii. 3.

du théâtre sapryki to omrz TMS Exmons, on croit qu'il faudroit traduire, La • Jahn's Hist. of the Hebrew Commonwealth, vol. i. p. 308.

face de ce monde change, ce qui convient parfaitement au dessein de * Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xv. c. 8. $ 1.

l'Apôtre dans cette conjoncture. Projet d'une Nouvelle Version, par le • Bell. Jud. lib. I. c. 21. $8. The different passages of Josephus are Cene, p. 674. Rotter. 1696. examined in detail by Eichhorn (10 whom we are indebted for the facts 14 Kisl. pas je svou is very unhappily rendered abuse. It is here used in a above stated) in his Cominentatio de Judæorum Re Scenica, inserted in the good sense, as the whole passage requires. From the transiency of human second volume of the Commentationes Societatis Regiæ Gottingensis Re. life the apostle observes, that those who are now using this world's happi. centiores. Gottingüe, 1813. 4to.

ness will soon be as those who had never enjoyed it. The Greek writers • Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xv. c. 8. $S 1, 2,

use Ilup*%proj*. or Aro % * 9 *** to abuse.


away. If we keep in mind the supposed allusion in the text combat with wild beasts in the theatre,”-as Roman citizens (the fashion of this world passeth away), we shall discern a were never subjected to such a degradation : "he seems peculiar beauty and force in his language and sentiment, For only to have employed this strong phraseology, to denote the actors in a play, whether it be comedy or tragedy, do not the violence and ferocity of his adversaries, which resembled act their own proper and personal concerns, but only perso- the rage and fury of brutes, and to compare his contention nate and mimic the characters and conditions of other men. with these fierce pagan zealots and fanatics, to the common And so when they weep in acting some tragical part, it is as theatrical conflict of men with wild beasts.". though they wept not; and there is more show and appear- Let it be farther observed, for the elucidating a very ance, than truth and reality, of grief and sorrow in the case. striking passage in 1 Cor. iv. 9. that in the Roman amphiOn the other hand, if they rejoice in acting some brighter theatre the bestiarii, who in the morning combated with wild scene, it is as though they rejoiced not; it is but a feigned beasts, had armour with which to defend themselves, and to semblance of joy, and forced air of mirth and gayety, which annoy and slay their antagonist. But the last who were they exhibit to the spectators, no real inward gladness of brought upon the stage, which was about noon, were a miheart. If they seem to contract marriages, or act the mer- serable number, quite naked, without any weapons to assail chant, or personate a gentleman of fortune, still it is nothing their adversary-with immediate and inevitable death before but fiction. And so when the play is over, they have no them in all its horrors, and destined to be mangled and wives, no possessions or goods, no enjoyments of the world, butchered in the direst manner. In allusion to this custom, in consequence of such representations. In like manner, by with what sublimity and energy are the apostles représented this apt comparison, the apostle would teach us to moderate to be brought out last upon the stage, as being devoted to our desires and affections towards every thing in this world; certain death, and being made a public spectacle to the and rather, as it were, to personate such things as matters of world, to angels and men! For I think that God huth set a foreign nature, than to incorporate ourselves with them, as forth us the apostles last, as it were appointed to deuth : for our own proper and personal concern.!

we are made a spectacle to the world, to angels and men. Dr. “ The theatre is also furnished with dresses suitable to Whitby's illustration of this distinguished passage is accuevery age, and adapted to every circumstance and change of rate and judicious. “ Here the apostle seems to allude to fortune. The persons of the drama, in one and the same the Roman spectacles, inç tav Inpsc pese y cor meus fecroper zens avdprepresentation, frequently support a variety of characters : porcu, that of the bestiarii and the gladiators, where in the the prince and the beggar, the young and the old, change morning men were brought upon the theatre to fight with wild their dress according to the characters in which they respect-beasts, and to them was allowed armour to defend themselves, ively appear, by turns laying aside one habit and assuming and smite the beasts that did assail them: but in the merianother, agreeably to every condition and age. The apostle dian spectacle were brought forth the gladiators naked, and Paul seems to allude to this custom, and his expressions re- without any thing to defend them from the sword of the garded in this light have a peculiar beauty and energy, when assailant, and he that then escaped was only reserved for he exhorts Christians to PUT OFF THE OLD MAN with his deeds, slaughter to another day; so that these men might well be and to put ON THE NEw man. (Coloss. iii. 9, 10. Eph. iv. called e7132V1701, men appointed for death; and this being 22, 23, 24.) That ye PUT OFF, concerning the former conver- the last appearance on the theatre for that day, they are said sition, the OLD MAN, which is corrupt according to the deceitful here to be set forth 247, the last.” lusts : and be renewed in the spirit of your minds, and that ye V. But the most splendid and renowned solemnities, PUT ON THE NEW MAN, which after God is created in righteous- which ancient history has transmitted to us, were the Olymnees and true holiness.

pic Games. Historians, orators, and poets, abound with " It is, moreover, well known, that in the Roman theatres references to them, and their sublimest imagery is borrowed and amphitheatres, malefactors and criminals were con- from these celebrated exercises. “These games were sodemned to fight with lions, bears, elephants, and tigers, for lemnized every fifth year by an infinite concourse of people which all parts of the Roman dominions were industriously from almost all parts of the world. They were celebrated ransacked, to afford this very polite and elegant amusement with the greatest pomp and magnificence: hecatombs of to this most refined and civilized people. The wretched victims were slain in honour of the immortal gods; and Elis miscreant was brought upon the stage, regarded with the was a scene of universal festivity and joy. There were last ignominy and contempt by the assembled multitudes, other public games instituted, as the Pythian, Nemean, made a gazing-stock to the world, as the apostle expresses Isthmian; which could also boast of the valour and dexterity it; and a wild beast, instigated to madness by the 'shouts of their combatants, and show a splendid list of illustrious and light missive darts of the spectators, was let loose upon names, who had, from time to time, honoured them with him, to tear and worry him in a miserable manner. To ihis their presence. But the lustre of these, though maintained sanguinary and brutal custom the following expressions of for a series of years, was obscured, and almost totally the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews allude. (x. 32, 33.) eclipsed by the Olympic. We find that the most formidable Ye endured a great fight of afflictions, partly whilst ye were and opulent sovereigns of those times were competitors for made a gazing-stock, both by reproaches and afflictions. The

• The same metaphors are of frequent occurrence in the New Testaoriginal is very emphatical; being openly exposed as on a Herod is called a fox; Go and tell that fox. (Luke xiii. 32.) Hypopublic theatre to ignominious insults and to the last cruel-crites are called wolves in sheep's clothing. (Matt. vii. 15.) Rapacious and ties. In another passage also, St. Paul, speaking of the mercenary preachers are styled wolves, that will enter and ravage the fold: determined fierceness and bigotry with which the citizens xx. 29.) The apostle uses a harshier metaphor to denote the malice and of Ephesus opposed him, uses a strong metaphorical expres- rage of his adversaries : Beware of dogs. (Phil. iii. 2.) Had St. Paul been sion taken from the theatre :-If after the manner of men I hus engaged, says Dr. Ward, it is difficult to apprehend how he could have have fought with beasts at Ephesus. Not that the apostle afterwards obliged to fight with men till they were killed themselves. It appears to have been actually condemned by his enemies to seems most reasonable, therefore, to understand the expression (abupooledo

295x) as metaphorical, and that he alludes to the tumuli raised by Demne. 1 Brekell's Discourses, p. 318.

He uses the like metaphor, and with respect to the same thing 5 Εισαι γαρ έμοιον τω αγχω υποκριτή τον σοφον ός αν τε Θερσιτου αν τε (1 Cor. iv. 9.), and again (13.), alluding to another custom. As to the expres. Agaus vores 7057-75v zvehzor, exzlopov izoxporotni zapornnovla's. Diogenes sion, Kur' avsporov in 1 Cor. xv. 32. the sense seems to be humanitus Laertius, lib. vii. p. 468. edit. Meibomii. 1692.

loquendo. Dr. Ward's Dissertations on Scripture, dissert. xlix, pp. 200, 201. * Mini quidem dubium non est quin hiec loquendi ratio ducta sit ab acto. The very same word which the apostle here employs to denote the vio. sitrus, qui, habitu mutato, vestibusque depositis, alias partes agunt, aliosque lence and fury of his adversaries is used by Ignatius in the like metaphori. SP esse produnt, quain qui in scena esse videbantur. Krebsii Observationes cal sense, Απο Συρια μεχρι Ρωμης ΘΗΡΙΟΜΑΧΩ δικ γης και θαλάσσης, ja Nov. Test. p 312. Lipsiæ, 1755.

All the way from Syria to Rome, by sea and by land, by Quodcunque tremendum est

night and by day, do I pight WITH WILD BEASTS. Ignatii Epist. ad Rom. p

94, edit. Oxon. 1703. Προφυλασσυ δε υμας απο ταν θηριων ανθρωπομορφων. Ι Dentibus, aut insigne jubis, aut nobile cornu, Aut rigidum setis capitur, decus omne timorque

advise you to beware of beasts in the shape of men, p. 22. So also the Sylvarum, non caule latent, non mole resistunt.---Claudian.

Psalmist, My soul is among lions, eren the sons of men, whose teeth are

spears and arrous. (Psal. lvii. 4.) Break their teeth, O God, in their mouths. 1 Owusu 455 TI *2. Snowroo @sa?pelousvos, exposed on a public stage. Break out the greal teeth of the young lions, O Lord. (Psal. Ivini. 6.) See Dispensatorem ad bestias dedit. Hoc est, seipsum traducere. Id est, says also Lakemacher's Observationes Sacræ, part ii. pp. 194–196. one of the commentators, ludibrio exponere. Petronius Arbiter, p. 220. - Matutinarum non ultima præda ferarum. Martial. xiii. 95. Casu in edit

. Burunan. 1709. Etexpaszy szulous. They openly exposed them meridianum spectaculum incidi-quicquid ante pugnatum est, misericordia selves. Polybius, p. 361. Hanov. 1619. Eusebins relates that Attalus, a fuit, nunc omíssis nugis mera homicidia sunt: nihil habent quo tegantur, Christian, was led round the amphitheatre, and exposed to the insults and ad ictum totis corporibus expositi-non galeà, non scuto repellitur ferrum. Violence of the multitude depozn305 XUXAW Tous le otsa pow. Eusebius, Seneca, tom. ii. epist. vii. pp. 17, 18. edit. Gronov. 1672, Απολλυνο μεν Ilist. Eccles. lib. v. p. 206. Cantab. Solebant olim gladiatores et bestiarii, θηρία ελαχιστα, ανθρωποι δε πολλοι, οι μεν αλληλοις μαχομενοι, οι δε και υπ' antequain certainen obirent per ora populi circumduci. Valesii not, in loc.

Dion. Cassius, lib. Ix. p. 95). Reimar. See also pp. There is a striking passage in Philo, where, in the same strong metaphori. 971, 972. ejusdein editionis. See also Beausobre's note on 1 Cor. iv. 9. and cal inagery the apostle here employs, Flaccus is represented deploring Lipsii Saturnalia, tom. vi. p. 951. the public ignominy to which he was now reduced. See Philonis Opera, * Josephus, De Bell. Jud. lib. I. cap. 21. $ 12. ed. Havercamp. Arriani con. ii. p. 512. edit. Mangey.

Epictetus, lib. iii. p. 456. edit. Upton. 1741. "



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the Olympic crown. We see the kings of Macedon, the your master, as to a physician. Then, in the combat you tyrants of Sicily, the princes of Asia Minor, and at last the may be thrown into a ditch, dislocate your arm, turn your lords of imperial Rome, and emperors of the world, incited ankle, swallow abundance of dust, be whipped, and, after all, by a love of glory, the last infirmity of noble minds, enter lose the victory. When you have reckoned up all this, if their names among the candidates, and contend for the envied your inclination still holds, set about the combat."'s palm ;-judging their felicity completed, and the career of 2. “ After this preparatory discipline, on the day appointed all human glory and greatness happily terminated, if they for the celebration, a herald called over their names, recited could but interweave the Olympic garland with the laurels to them the laws of the games, encouraged them to exert all they had purchased in fields of blood.". The various games, their powers, and expatiated upon the blessings and advanwhich the Romans celebrated in their capital and in the tages of victory. He then introduced the competitors into principal cities and towns of Italy, with such splendour, the stadium, led them around it, and, with a loud voice, deostentation, and expense, seem to have been instituted in manded if any one in that assembly could charge any of the imitation of the Grecian; though these were greatly inferior candidates with being infamous in his life and morals, or in point of real merit and intrinsic glory: for though the could prove him a slave, a robber, or illegitimate. They Romans had the gymnastic exercises of the stadium and the were then conducted to the altar, and a solemn oath exacted chariot-race, yet ihe mutual slaughter of such numbers of from them, that they would observe the strictest honour in gladiators, the combats with lions, bears, and tigers, though the contention. Afterwards, those who were to engage in the congenial to the sanguinary ferocity and brutality of these foot-race were brought to the barrier, along which they were people,—for no public entertainment could be made agreea- arranged, and waited, in all the excesses of ardour and impable without these scenes,—must present spectacles to the tience, for the signal. The cord being dropped, they all at last degree shocking, to humanity; for every crown here once sprung forward," fired with the love of glory, conscious won was dipt in blood.

that the eyes of all assembled Greece were now upon them, 1. “The 'Olympic exercises principally consisted in run- and that the envied palm, if they won it, would secure them ning, wrestling, and the chariot-race; for leaping, throwing the the highest honours, and immortalize their memory. It is dari, and discus, were parts of that they called the Pantathlon. natural to imagine with what rapidity they would urge their The candidates were to be freemen, and persons of unexcep; course, and, emulous of glory, stretch every nerve to reach tionable morals. A defect in legitimacy or in personal the goal. This is beautifully represented in the following character totally disqualified them. It was indispensably elegant epigram (translated by Mr. West) on Arias of Tarsus, necessary for them previously to submit to a severe regimen. victor in the stadium :At their own houses they prescribed themselves a particular course of diet; and the laws required them, when they had

The speed of Arias, victor in the race,

Brings to thy founder, Tarsus, no disgrace ; given in their names to be enrolled in the list of competitors,

For, able in the course with bím to vie, to resort to Elis, and reside there thirty days before the games

Like him, he seems on seather'd feet to fly, commenced; where the regimen and preparatory exercises

The barrier when he quits, the dazzled sight

In vain essays to catch him in his flight. were regulated and directed by a number of illustrious per

Lost is the racer through the whole career, sons who were appointed every day to superintend them.

Till victor at the goal he reappear This form of diet they authoritatively prescribed, and religiously inspected, that the combatants might acquit them

In all these athletic exercises the combatants contended selves in the conflict in a manner worthy the Grecian name, naked ;12 for though, at first, they wore a scarf round the waist, worthy the solemnity of the occasion, and worthy those yet an unfortunate casualty once happening, when this discrowds of illustrious spectators by whom they would be sur- engaging itself, and entangling round the feet, threw the perrounded. There are many passages in the Greek and Roman son down, and proved the unhappy occasion of his losing the classics which make mention of that extreme strictness, tem- victory, it was, after this accident, adjudged to be laid aside.rs perance, and continence which the candidates were obliged 3. “Chaplets composed of the sprigs of a wild olive, 14 and to observe.

branches of palm, were publicly placed on a tripod in the

middle of the stadium, full in the view of the competitors, Qui studet optatam cursu contingere metam,

to inflame them with all the ardour of contention, and all the Multa tulit fecitque puer; sudavit et alsit :

spirit of the most generous emulation. Near the goal was Abstinuit venere et vino.

Hor. Art. Poet. ver. 412.

erected a tribunal, on which sat the presidents of the games, A youth, who hopes thi Olympic prize to gain, All arts must try, and every toil sustain ;

called Hellanodics, personages venerable for their years and Th'extremes of heat and cold must often prove,

characters, who were the sovereign arbiters and judges of And shun the weak’ning joys of wine and love. Francis. these arduous contentions, the impartial witnesses of the

respective merit and pretensions of each combatant, and with The following is a very distinguished passage in Arrian's the strictest justice conferred the crown. discourses of Epictetus, which both represents to the reader

4. “It is pleasing and instructive to observe, how the sethe severity of this regimen and the arduous nature of the veral particulars here specified concerning these celebrated subsequent contention :8—“Do you wish to conquer at the solemnities, which were held in the highest renown and glory Olympic games?-But consider what precedes and follows, in the days of the apostles, explain and illustrate various pasand then if it be for your advantage, engage in the affair. You sages in their writings, the beauty, energy, and sublimity of must conform to rules; submit to a diet, refrain from dainties, which consist in the metaphorical allusions to these games, exercise your body whether you choose it or not, in a stated from the various gymnastic exercises of which their elegant hour, in heat and cold: you must drink no cold water, nor some- and impressive imagery is borrowed. Thus the writer of the times even wine. In a word, you must give yourself up to Epistle to the Hebrews (an epistle which, in point of com

position, may vie with the most pure and elaborate of the · Philip. Eadem quoque die nuntium pater ejus (Philippus) daurum vic: Greek classics) says, Wherefore seeing we also are compassed quod quadrigaruin currus iniserat. Justin. lib

. xii
. cap
. 16. p. 359. edit.

Gro about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every

. tere, ut etiam Olympio certamine vario ludicrorum genere contenderit. • Mrs. Carter's translation of Arrian, pp. 268, 269. London, 1758. 4to. Justin. lib. vii. cap. 2. p. 217.

10 See West's Dissertation on the Olympic Games, p. 194. 12mo. ? Hiero king of Syracuse. See Pindar's first Olympic ode : his first Py.

signoque repente thian ode. Theron king of Agrigentum. See the second and third Olympic

Corripiunt spatia audito, limenque relinquunt

Effusi, nimbo similes : simul ultima signant. 3 Nero. See Dion Cassius, toin. ii. pp. 1032, 1033. 1066. edit. Reimar.

Virgil. Æneid. v. ver. 315 Aurigavit (Nero) plurifariam, Olympiis etiam decemjugem. Suetonius in Vita Neronis, p. 605. edit. var. Lug. Bat. 1662.

19 Thucydides, lib. i. $ 6. tom. i. pp. 16, 17. ed. Glasg. * Sunt quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum

13 In the xivth Olympiad, one Orsippus, a racer, happened to be thrown

down by his scarf tangling about his feet, and was killed; though others say Collegisse, juvat: metaque fervidis

that he only lost the victory by that fall; but whichever way it was, occa. Evitata rotis, palmaque nobilis Terrarum doininos evebit ad Deos. Horat. lib. j. ode 1.

sion was taken from thence to make a law, that all the athletes for the future

West's Dissertation, p. 66. 12.no. • The candidates were obliged to undergo an examination of another kind, 14 Το γερας εστιν ουκ αργυρος, ουδε χρυσος, ου μην ουδε κοτινου στεφανος η consisting of the following interrogatories :- 1. Were they freemen i retrou. Josephus contra A pion. lib. ii. $30. p. 488. Havercamp. Sırabo, 2. Were ihey Grecians ? 3. Were their characters clear from all infamous in his geographical description of the Elian territories, mentions a grove and immoral stains ? West's Dissertation on the Olympic Games, p. 152.

Εστι δ' αλσος αγριελειων πληρες. Strabo, ib. viii. p. 343. edit. 12mo.

edit. Paris, 1620. Probably from this grove the Olympic crowns were com

posed. · Philostratus, de Vita Apollonii, lib. v. cap. 13. p. 227. edit. Olearii. Lip-object of their ambition, these crowns were laid upon a tripod or table



should contend naked.

of wild olives.

15 To excite the emulation of the competitors, by placing in their view the : Epictetus, lib iii. c. 15. See also Epicteti Enchriidion. cap. 29. p. 710. which during the games was brought out and placed in the middle of the edit. Upton.

stadium. West's Dissertation, p. 174. 12mo.

siæ, 1709.

weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run that which is lame be turned out of the way : exert in the Chris. with patience the race that is set before us ; looking unto Jesus, tian race those nerves that have been relaxed, and collect the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set those spirits which have been sunk in dejection: make a before him, endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set smooth and even path for your steps, and remove every thing down at the right hand of the majesty on high. For consider that would obstruct and retard your velocity. him that endureth such contradiction of sinners against himself, ". The following, distinguished passage in St. Paul's first lest you be wearied and faint in your minds, Wherefore lift Epistle to the Corinthians (ix. 24–27.). abounds with up the hands that hang down, and the feeble knees, and make agonistical terms. Its beautiful and striking imagery is straight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out totally borrowed from the Greek stadium. Know ye not of the way. (Heb. xii. 1-3. 12, 13.). In allusion to that pro- that they who run in a race, run all, but one receiveth the digious assembly, from all parts of the world,' which was prize? So run, that ye may obtain, And every man that convened at Olympia to be spectators of those celebrated striveth for the mastery, is temperate in all things. Now they games, the apostle places the Christian combatant in the do it to obtain a corruptible crown ; but we an incorruptible. midst of a most august and magnificent theatre, composed of I therefore so run, not as uncertainly; so fight I, not as one all those great and illustrious characters, whom in the pre- that beateth the air : but I keep under my body, and bring it ceding chapter he had enumerated, the fancied presence of into subjection ; lest that by any means, when I have preached whom should fire him with a virtuous ambition, and animate the Gospel to others, I myself should be a cast-away : know you him with unconquered ardour to run the race that was set not that in the Grecian stadium great numbers run with the before him. Wherefore seeing we are compassed about with utmost contention to secure the prize, but that only one person such a cloud of witnesses :2 whose eyes are upon us, who expect wins and receives ? With the same ardour and perseverance do every thing from the preparatory discipline we have received, you run, that you may seize the garland of celestial glory. and who long to applaud and congratulate us upon our victory: Every one, also, who enters the list as a combatant, submits let us lay aside every weight, and the sin that doth so easily beset to a very rigid and severe regimen. They do this to gain us ;- let us throw off every impediment, as the competitors for a fading chaplet; that is only composed of the decaying the Olympic crown did, and that sin that would entangle and leaves of a wild olive, but in our view is hung up the impede our steps, and prove the fatal cause of our losing the unfading wreath of immortality.10 With this in full prosvictory; and let us run with patience the race set before us ; pect I run the Christian race, not distressed with wretched like those who ran in the Grecian stadium, let us, inflamed uncertainty concerning its final issue. I engage as a comwith the idea of glory, honour, and immortality, urge our batant, but deal not my blows in empty air.12 But I inure course with unremitting ardour toward the destined happy my body to the severest discipline, and bring all its appetites goal for the prize of our high calling in God our Saviour, into subjection : lest, when I have proclaimed13 the glorious Tooking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith: as the prize to others, I should, at last, be rejected as unworthylt candidates for the Olympic honours, during the arduous con- to obtain it. This representation of the Christian race must tention, had in view those illustrious and venerable per- make a strong impression upon the minds of the Corinthisonages from whose hands they were to receive the envied ans, as they were so often spectators of those games, which palm, and who were immediate witnesses of their respective were celebrated on the Isthmus, upon which their city was conduct and merit; in imitation of them, let us Christians situated. It is very properly introduced with, Know you keep our eyes steadfastly fixed upon Jesus the original intro- Not; for every citizen in Corínth was acquainted with every ducer and perfecter of our religion, who, if we are victorious, minute circumstance of this most splendid and pompous sówill rejoice to adorn our temples with a crown of glory that lemnity. St. Paul, in like manner, in his second Epistle to will never fade; who, for the joy set before him, endured the Timothy (ii. 5.), observes, that if a man strive for mastery, cross, despising the shame, and is now set down at the right hand yet is he not crowned unless he strive lawfully : he who conof God: Jesus himself, to seize the glorious palm which his tends in the Grecian games secures not the crown, unless he God and Father placed full in his view in order to inspirit strictly conform to the rules prescribed. him with ardour and alacrity, in the race he had set before

“ What has been observed concerning the spirit and him, cheerfully submitted to sorrows and sufferings, endured ardour with which the competitors engaged in the race, the cross, contemning the infamy of such a death, and, in and concerning the prize they had in view to reward their consequence of perseverance and victory, is now exalted to arduous contention, will illustrate the following sublime the highest honours, and placed on the right hand of the Su- passage of the same sacred writer in his Epistle to the preme Majesty. For, consider him that endureth such contra- Philippians, (iii. 12–14.) :-Not as though I had already diction of sinners against himself

, lest ye be wearied and faint attained, either were already perfect; but I follow after, i in your minds , consider him who conflicted with such oppo- ο Πας δι ο αγωνιζομενος ταντα εγκρατεύεται, We have already noticed sition of wicked men all confederated against him, and let how rigid and severe this regimen was, and what temperance and contireflections on his fortitude prevent your being languid and nence lompson) those who entered their names in the list of combatants dispirited; therefore lift up the hands which hàng down, and alsit: abstinuit venere et vino, says Horace. See Æliani, Var. Hist. lib. xi. the feeble knees. And make straight paths for your feet, lest cap. 3. p. 681. Gronovii Lug. Bat. 1731, and Plato de Legibus, lib. viii. pp.

139, 140. edit. Serrani, 1578, and Eustathius ad Hom. Iliad ... p. 1472.

$ $$eptov Otaqavov. The chaplet that was bestowed on the victor in the · Not merely the inhabitants of Atheng, of Lacedæmon, and of Nicopolis, Olympic games was made of wild olive, the crowns in the Isthmian games but the inhabitants of the whole world are convened to be spectators of the

were composed of parsley. These chaplets were fading and transitory. Olympic exercises. Arriani Epictetus, lib.ii. p. 456. Upton.

Διδους και τοις θυμελικoις στεφανου μεν ου Χρυσους, αλλ' ώσπερ εν ολυμπια, i Ni 5 uzstupov. A cloud of witnesses. This form of expression occurs

Plutarch. Cato, jun. p. 1433. edit. Gr. Steph. 8vo. See also Porin the politest writers. See Miad, x. 133. Æneid, vii. 793. Andron. Rho-phyrius de Antro Nympharum, p. 210. edit. Cantab. 1655. Philonis Opera, dii Argonauticon, iv. 398. Appian, Pisc. I. 463. and Euripidis Hecuba, tom. ii. p. 463. edit. Mangey. Tous gap losure rexwvT+5 oi Ksporg.co twy

2.ww TOP&voutor. Those who conquer in the Isthmian games the Corin. 1 Ογκον αποθεμινοι παντα. A stadio sumpta similitudo : ibi qui cursuri thians crown with parsley. Polyæni Stratag. lib. v. p. 376. edit. Casaubon. sunt, omnia quæ oneri esse possunt, deponunt. Grot. in loc. pusv abjiciamus, quo vocabulo crassa omnis et tarda moles significatur.

10 'Hudos fo, *$ 9xprov. With what ardour in the Christian race this glo.

rious crown should inspire us is well represented by Irenæus. Bonus • Evtop.alzTou. Entangled by wrapping round. An allusion to the gar: igitur agonista ad incorruptelæ agonem adhortatur nos, uti coronemur, et ments of the Greeks which were long, and would entangle and inipede their preciosain arbitremur coronam, videlicet quæ per agonem nobis acquiritur, steps, if not thrown off in the race. See Hallet, in loc.

sed non ultro coalitam. Et quantò per agonem nobis advenit, tantò est pre. Iztopin 5 *VT** %*px;. The joy placed full in his view. In the Olym: ciosior: quantò autem preciosior, tantò eam semper diligamus. Irenæus, pic exercises the prize was publicly placed in the view of the combatants lib. iv. p. 377. edit. Grab. The folly also of Christians in being negligent and to fire their emulation. The following note of Krebsias is very elegant : remiss, when an incorruptible crown awaits their persevering and victoriElegantissima metaphora est vocis = penso povas, e veterum certaminum

ous constancy and virtue, is also beautifully exposed by Justin Martyr. See ratione ducta. Proprie enim =p5x15921 dicuntur ** *J12, sc. præmia cer

his Apol. ii. p. 78. edit. taminis, quæ publicè proponuntur in propatulo, ut eorum aspectus, cer- 11 So we understand oux afmaws. Mr. West renders it, in the illustration taque, eorum adipiscendorum spes, certaturos alacriores redderet ad cer

he has given us of this passage; I so run, as not to pass undistinguished; tamen ineundum, victoriarnque reportandam. J. Tob. Krebsii Observat. in and then adds the following note: Os oux ondw5, may also signity in this NT. e Joseph. p. 377. Lips. 1755. Svo.

place, as if I was unseen, not unobserved, i. e. as if I was in the presence • ίνα μη κομητε, ταις ψυχαις υμων εκλυομενοι. Ηec duo verba a palestra et ab athletis desumpta sunt, qui proprie dicuntur u zhviov et 40%xış ix14655**, sertation, p. 253. 12mo.

of the judge of the games, and a great number of spectators. West's Discurn corporis viribus debilitati et fracti, omnique spe vincendi abjectà, 12 OUTW HUX TEUX, “'s oux aspx dopw. This circumstance is often mentioned victas manus dant adversario-Neque dubium est quin apostolus eo in describing the engagements of combatants; thus, Virgil has, Entellus respexerit. Krebsius, p. 390. 15.ο τις ταριεμινας χείρας και τα παραλελυμενα γονατα ανορθωσατι. | Brachia.

vires in venturn effudit. Æneid. v. 443. Vacuas agit ipconsulta per auras

Valerius Flaccus, iv. 302. tpos & nopee Tui C. 90039. Tiad, 1,416. Quemadmodum Paulus sæpissime delectatur loquendi formulis ex re pa. See also Oppian. Piscat. lib. ii. ver. 450. Ritiershus. Lug. Bat. 1597 la strica petitis; ita dubium non est, quin hic quoque respexisse eo videa. 13 AX2015 **B45; proclaimed, as a herald, the prize to others. A herald, tur. Athletis enim et luctatoribus tribuntur sapourvus zoopes et v&p21.510. xmpuž, made proclamation at the games what rewards would be bestowed

inzy orxia, cuin luctando ita defatigati, viribusque fracti sunt, ut neque on the conquerors. manus neque pedes officio suo fungi possint, ipsique adeo vicios se esse 14 Aigx5405759444, Be disapproved; be rejected as unworthy; come kteri cogantur. Krebsius, p. 392.

off without honour and approbation. VOL. I.



ver. 907.

Monet ut



Paris. 1636.

that I may apprehend that for which also I am apprehended prize before me, pressing with eager and rapid steps, towards of Christ Jesus. Brethren, I count nut myself to have appre- the goal, to seize the immortal palmi which God,

by Christ hended : but this one thing I do, forgetting those things which Jesus, bestows. This affecting passage, also, of the same are behind, and reaching forth unto those things which are apostle, in the second Epistle of Timothy, written a little before, I press towards the mark, for the prize of the high before his martyrdom, is beautifully allusive to the abovecalling of God in Christ Jesus : Not that already I have mentioned race, to the crown that awaited the victory, and acquired this palm ; not that I have already attained per- to the Hellanodics or judges who bestowed it: I have fection; but I pursue my course, that I may seize that crown fought a good fight, I have finished my course,2 I have kept of immortality, to the hope of which I was raised by the the faith. Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of right, gracious appointment of Christ Jesus. My Christian breth- eousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me at ren, I do not esteem myself to have obtained this glorious that day: and not to me only, but to all them also that loo. prize: but one thing, occupies my whole attention; forget- his appearing.” (2 Tim. iv. 7, 8.) ting what I left behind, I stretch every nerve towards the






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Origin and Progress of the Art of Medicine in the East.-II. Notice of Remedies in use among the Jews.-III. Account of some particular Diseases mentioned in the Scriptures ; viz. 1. The Leprosy ;—2. Elephantiasis, the Disease of Job ;3. Disease of the Philistines ;-4. Of King Saul ;-5. Of King Jehoram ;—6. Of King Hezekiah ;—7. Of Nebuchadnezzar; -8. Palsy ;-9. Issue of Blood ;—10. Blindness ;-11. The Reality of demoniacal Possessions proved.

I. The diseases to which the human frame is subject would from producing the effects he ascribes to them. Physicians naturally lead men to try to alleviate or to remove them: are mentioned first in Gen. 1. 2. Exod. xxi. 19. Job xiii. 4. hence sprang the Art of MediciNE. In the early ages of Some acquaintance with chirurgical operations is implied in the world, indeed, there could not be much occasion for an the rite of circumcision. (Gen. xvii. 11-14.) There is art which is now so necessary to the health and happiness ample evidence that the Israelites had some acquaintance of mankind. The simplicity of their manners, the plainness with the internal structure of the human system, although it of their diet, their temperance in meat and drink, and their does not appear that dissections of the human body, for mediactive life (being generally occupied in the field, and in rural cal purposes, were made till as late as the time of Ptolemy. affairs), would naturally tend to strengthen the body, and to That physicians sometimes undertook to exercise their skill

, afford a greater share of health than what we now enjoy. So in removing diseases of an internal nature, is evident from long as our first parents continued in that state of upright- the circumstance of David's playing upon the harp to cure ness in which they were created, there was a tree, emphati- the malady of Saul. (1 Sam. xvi. 18.) The art of healing cally, termed the tree of life, the fruit of which was divinely was committed among the Hebrews, as well as among the appointed for the preservation of health ; but after the fall, Egyptians, to the priests; who, indeed, were obliged, by a being expelled from Eden, and, consequently, banished for law of the state, to take cognizance of leprosies. (Lev. xiii. ever from that tree, they became liable to various diseases, 1–14. 57. Deut. xxiv. 8, 9.) Reference is made to physiwhich, doubtless, they would endeavour to remove, or to miti- cians who were not priests, and to instances of sickness, gate in various ways. From the longevity of the patriarchs disease, healing, &c. in the following passages ; viz. 1 Sam, it is evident that diseases were not very frequent in the early

1 Τα μεν οπισω επιλανθανόμενος, τοις δε εμπροσθεν επεκτεινομενος, επι ages of the world, and they seem to have enjoyed a suffi- -xogov swx 121 to Bpz6vov. Every term here employed by the apostle ciently vigorous old age, except that the eyes became dim is agonistical. The whole passage beautifally

represents that ardour

which and the sight feeble. (Gen. xxvii. 1. xlviii. 10.) Hence it is fired the combatants when engaged in the race. Their spirit and conten recorded as a remarkable circumstance concerning, Moses, lines of Oppian, which happily illustrate this passage :

tion are in a very striking manner described in the following truly poetical that in extreme old age (for he was an hundred and twenty,

“Ως δε ποδοκιμης μεμελημενος ανδρες οεθλων, years old when he died) his eye was not dim, nor his natural

Σταθμης όρμη θιντος, αποσσυτοι ωκεα γουν force abated. (Deut. xxxiv. 7.)

Προπροτιτα ινομενοι δολιχον τελος εγκονεουσιν

Εξ ανυσαι πασιν· δι πονος νυσση το πιλασσαι, The Jews ascribed the origin of the healing art to God him

Νίκης το γλυκυδωρον έλειν κρατος, ες τε θυρεθρο self (Ecclus. xxxviii. 1, 2.), and the Egyptians attributed the

Λίξαι, και καρτος αε θλιον αμφιβολεσθαι. invention of it to their god Thaut or Hermes,or to Osiris or Isis.

Oppian Pisc. lib. iv. ver. 101. edit. Rittershusik Anciently, at Babylon, the sick, when they were first

As when the thirst of praise and conscious force attacked by a disease, were left in the streets, for the purpose

Invite the labours of the panting COURSE,

Prone from the lists the blooming rivals strain, of learning from those who might pass them what practices

And spring exulting in the distant plain, or what medicines had been of assistance to them, when

Alternate feet with nimble-measured bound afflicted with a similar disease. This was, perhaps, done

Impetuous trip along the refluent ground,

In every breast ambitious passions rise, also in other countries. The Egyptians carried their sick

To seize the goal, and snaich th' immortal prize. into the temple of Serapis; the Greeks carried theirs into

Jones's translation. those of Æsculapius. In both of these temples there were

Instat equis auriga suos vincentibus, illum preserved written receipts of the means by which various

Præteritun temnens, extremos inter euntem: cures had been effected. With the aid of these recorded re

Horat. Satyr. lib. i. Sat. i. 115, 116. 9 Tov APOMON TITLE**. I have finished my RACE.

The whole passago medies, the art of healing assumed in the progress of time is beautifully allusive to the celebrated games and exercises of those times the aspect of a science. It assumed such a form, first in Apoue

os properly signifies a race. Theocritus, Idyl. iii. ver. 41. Sophoclis Egypt, and at a much more recent period in Greece; but it Electra ver, 693. See also ver. 686-688. Euripidis Andromache, ver. 599.

155. edit. Paris, was not long before those of the former were surpassed in 0. identopticanis der Morades, per 18

, 2011. Strabo iba ile.

La excellence by the physicians of the latter country. That the to be rendered. (Acts xx. 24.) But none of these things more me, neither Egyptians, however, had no little skill in medicine, may be count I my life dear unto myself; so that I might finish my course with gathered from what is said in the Pentateuch respecting the joy our and TUV A POMON I finish the short race of human life with marks of leprosy. That some of the medical prescriptions these celebrated games. — In the fifth volume of Bishop Horne's Works, should fail of bringing the expected relief is by no means

there is an animated discourse on the Christian race; the materials of which strange, since Pliny himself mentions some which are far are partly derived from Dr. Harwood's Introduction to the New Testament,

this word ought

vol. ii. sect. 4.

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