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their great flocks of cattle which made them in those primi- I mentioned in Scripture, because they were commonly used tive times put such a price upon wells. These were posses- in sacrifices. The fatted calf (1 Sam. xxviii. 24. Luke xv. sions of inestimable value in a country where it seldom 23.) was stall-fed, with a special reference to a particular rained, and where there were but few rivers or brooks, and, festival or extraordinary sacrifice. therefore, it is no wonder that we read of so many contests 2. So useful to the Hebrews were asses, that the coveting about them.
of them is prohibited in the decalogue, equally with oxen: In succeeding ages, we find, that the greatest and weal- in the East they attain to a considerable size and beauty. thiest men did not disdain to follow husbandry, however Princes and people of distinction did not think it beneath mean that occupation is now accounted. Moses, the great their dignity to ride on asses (Num. xxii. 21. Judg. i. 4. lawgiver of the Israelites, was a shepherd. Shamgar was v. 10. x. 4. 2 Sam. xvi. 2.); when, therefore, Jesus Christ taken from the herd to be a judge in Israel, and Gideon from rode into Jerusalem on an ass, he was received like a prince his threshing-floor (Judg. vi. 11.), as were Jair and Jephthah or sovereign. (Matt. xxi. 1—9.) The Hebrews were forfrom the keeping of sheep.
When Saul received the news bidden to draw with an ox and an ass together (Deut. xxii. of the danger to which the city of Jabesh-gilead was exposed, 10.), probably because one was a clean animal, and, consehe was coming after the herd out of the field, notwithstanding quently, edible, while the other was declared to be unclean, he was a king. (1 Sam. xi. 5.) And king David, from feed- and, consequently, unfit for food. The habits and speed of ing the ewes great with young, was brought to feed Jacob his wild asses, which anciently were numerous in Arabia Deserta people and Israel his inheritance (Psal. Ixxviii. 71.); and it and the neighbouring countries, are described with great should seem,
from 2 Sam. xiii. 23., that Absalom was a large force and poetical beauty in Job xxxix. 5–8. sheep-owner. King Uzziah is said to be a lover of hus- Mules, which animals partake of the horse and ass, were bandry (2 Chron. xxvi. 10.); and some of the prophets were probably unknown in the earlier ages. It is very certain called from that employment to the prophetic dignity, as that the Jews did not breed them, because they were forbidElisha was from the plough (1 Kings xix. 19.), and Åmos den to couple together two creatures of different species. from being a herdsman. But the tending of the flocks was (Lev. xix. 19.) They seem to have been brought to the not confined to the men :? in the primitive ages, rich and Jews from other nations; and the use of them was become noble women were accustomed to keep sheep, and to draw very common in the time of David, and they formed a conwater as well as those of inferior quality. Thus, Rebecca, siderable part of the royal equipage. (2 Sam. xiii. 29. xviii. 9. the daughter of Bethuel, Abraham's brother, carried a pitcher, 1 Kings i. 33. 38. 44. x. 25. 2 Chron. ix. 24.) and drew water (Gen. xxiv. 15. 19.), as the women of Pales- 3. Horses were not used by the Jews for cultivating the tine still generally do: Rachel, the daughter of Laban, kept soil : indeed, though they abounded in Egypt in the time of her father's sheep (Gen. xxix. 9.); and Zipporah, with her Moses (as may be inferred from Exod. 1x. 3. xiv. 6, 7. 9. six sisters, had the care of their father Jethro's flocks, who 23—28. xv. 4.), yet we do not find any mention of their was a prince, or (which in those times was an honour scarcely being used before the time of David, who reserved only a inferior) a priest of Midian. (Exod. ii. 16.) Repeated in- hundred horses for his mounted life-guard, or perhaps for his stances occur in Homer of the daughters of princes tending chariots, out of one thousand which he captured (2 Sam. viii. flocks, and performing other menial services.3
4.), the remainder being houghed, according to the Mosaic 1. Among the larger animals kept by the Hebrews or injunction. Solomon carried on a trade in Egyptian horses Jews, NEAT CATTLE claim first to be noticed, on account of for the benefit of the crown.s their great utility. They are termed collectively p2 (BUKOR), 4. Camels are frequently mentioned in the Scriptures: and though they are of so small stature in the East, yet they anciently, they were very numerous in Judea, and throughout attain to considerable strength. (Prov. xiv. 4.) The bulls the East, where they were reckoned among the most valuaof Bashan were celebrated for their strength. (Psal. xxii. 12.) ble live stock. The patriarch Job had at first three thousand The castration of bulls, or the males of the ox-tribe, as welí |(Job i. 3.), and, after his restoration to prosperity, six thouas of other male animals, which was common among other sand. (xlii. 12.) The camels of the Midianites and Amaleknations, was prohibited to the Hebrews. (Lev. xxii. 24, 25.) ites were without number, as the sand by the sea-side for mulOxen were used both for draught and for tillage, as is still titude. (Judg. vii. 12.). So great was the importance attached the case in the East: they were also employed in treading to the propagation and management of camels, that a particuout the corn, during which they were not to be muzzled lar officer was appointed in the reign of David to superintend (Deut. xxv. 4.); and were driven by means of ox-goads their keepers; and as the sacred historian particularly men(Judg. iii. 31.), which, if they resembled those used in more tions that he was an Ishmaelite, we may presume that he was recent times in the East, must have been of considerable selected for his office on account of his superior skill in the size. Calves, or the young of the ox-kind, are frequently treatment of these animals. (1 Chron. xxvii. 30.) 1 Honourable as the occupation of a shepherd was among the Hebrews,
Two species of camels are mentioned in the Scripture, viz. it was an abomination to the Egyptians (Gen. xlvi. 34.) at the time when 1. the soi (Gamal) or common camel, which has two bunches Jacob and his children went down into Egypt.- From the fragments of the on its back, that 'distinguish it from, 2. the 132 (Bakar), or ancient historian Manetho, preserved in Josephus and Africanus, it appears dromedary, which has only one bunch. The dromedary is descended from Cush, who established themselves there, and had a suc: remarkable for its fleetness. Both species are now, as well eession of kings. After many wars between them and the Egyptians, in which some of their principal cities were burnt, and great cruelties were camels' furniture, mentioned in Gen. xxxi. 34., is most
as anciently, much used for travelling long journeys. The had beco in possession of it for a period of nine hundred years. This alone bably the large seat or pack-saddle, invariably observed in was sufficient to render shepherds odious to the Egyptians; but they were the East upon the back of camels. When taken off, at the still awre obnoxious, because they killed and ate those animals
, particu: close of a journey, it would equally afford a place of conceallarly the sheep and the ox, which were accounted most sacred among theis. See Bryant's Analysis of Ancient Mythology, vol. vi. pp. 193—211. ment for the images, and a convenient seat for Rachel.6 The
Arabs eat both the flesh and milk of camels, which, however, 9 From Hector's address to his horses, it appears that his wife, Andromarhe, though a princess, did not think it beneath her dignity to feed those
were forbidden to the Israelites, as being unclean animals. animals herself. Tiad. viii. 185—199.
(Lev. xi. 4. Deut. xiv. 7.) A coarse cloth is manufactured • See particularly liad, lib. vi. 59. 78. Odyss. lib. vi. 57. xii. 131. of camels' hair in the East, which is used for making the • The intclligent traveller, Maundrell, in his journey from Jerusalem to Aleppo, relatex, that when he was near Jerusalem, he came to a certain
coats of shepherds and camel drivers, and also for the coverplace, where (says he) "the country people were every where at plough ing of tents. It was, doubtless, this coarse kind which was in the fields, in order to sow cotton : it was observable, that in ploughing, worn by John the Baptist, and which distinguished him from in circumference. They were armed at the lesser end with a sharp (Matt. iii. 4. xi. 8.) found them to be about eight feet long, and, at the bigger end, six inches those residents in royal palaces, who wore soft raiment. prickle, for driving of the oxen, and at the other end with a small spade, or peddle of iron, strong and massy, for cleansing the plough from the clay, most valuable, and were reared in great numbers on account
5. Among the smaller cattle, Goats and SHEEP were the was with such a goad as one of these, that Shamgar made that prodigious of their flesh and milk; the latter animals were also of great slaughter related or him? I am confident that whoever should see one of value on account of their wool, which was shorn twice in the ter, than a sword for such an execution : goads of this sort', 'saw always year. Sheep-shearing was season of great festivity. used hereabouts, and also in Syria; and the reason is, because the same (2 Sam. xiii. 23—27. 1 Sam. xxv. 2, &c.) Jahn enumerates einzle person both drives the oxen, and also holds and manages the plough; three varieties of sheep, but Dr. Harris specifies only two which makes it necessary to use such a goad as is achieve described, to avoid breeds as being found in Syria; viz. 1. The Bedouin sheep, January, 1B16, Mr. Buckingham obeerved similar goads in use, at Ras-el- Michaelis's Conmentaries, vol. ii. pp. 394, 393. In pp. 431-514. there is lin, in the vicinity of the modern town of Sour, which stands on the site an elaborate dissertation on the ancieni history and uses of horses. For of ancient Tyre (Travels in Palestine, p. 57.); and the Rev. Mr. Ilartley, in the reason why the Israelitish sovereigns were prohibited from multiplying March, 192, met with the same kind of goads in Greece. (Missionary horses, see p. 13. of the present volumne Register, May, 1530, p. 223.)
• Hartley's Researches in Greece, p. 232.
which differs little in its appearance from our common breed, of such landmarks (Deut. xix. 14.), and denounced a curse except that the tail is somewhat longer and thicker; and, 2. against the person who removed them without authority. A breed which is of more frequent occurrence than the other, (Deut. xxvii. 17.) In giving this law, Moses reminded the and which is much more valued on account of the extraordi- Israelites, that it was God who gave them the land ; thus nary bulk of its tail, which has been noticed by all travellers. insinuating that the landmarks should all in some sense be The ancient Hebrews, like the modern Arabs, were accus- sacred to the giver. Among the Romans, they actually were tomed to give names of endearment to favourite sheep held sacred. `Indeed, they can be so easily removed, and, (2 Sam. xii. 3.); the shepherds also called them generally consequently, a man be so unobservedly deprived of his proby name, and the sheep knowing the shepherd's voice obeyed perty, that it becomes necessary to call in the aid of the fear the call (John X. 3. 14.), while they disregarded the voice of God to prevent it; and this Moses, who gave his laws by of strangers.' They also appear to have numbered them divine command, did with peculiar propriety. (Jer. xxxiii. 13.), as the shepherds count their flocks in These regulations having been made in respect to the modern Greece, by admitting them one by one into a pen.2 tenure, encumbrances, &c. of landed property, Joshua divided
It was the duty of the shepherds to conduct the flocks to the whole country which he had occupied, first, among the pasture, and to protect them from the attacks of thieves and several tribes, and, secondly, among individual Israelites, wild beasts (John x. 10–12.): for this purpose they were running it out with the aid of a measuring line. (Josh. xvii. furnished with a crook (Psal. xxiii. 4.) and with a sling and 5–14.compared with Amos vii. 17. Mic. ii. 5. Psal. lxxvii.
David was equipped with his shepherd's staff and 55. and Ezek. xl. 3.) From this circumstance the line is sling when he went forth to encounter the Philistine giant frequently used, by a figure of speech, for the heritage itself. Goliath. (1 Sam. xvii. 40.). And as it sometimes happened (See instances in Psal. xvi. 6. and Josh. xix. 9. Heb.), that the owners of large flocks made very hard bargains with The fixing of every one's inheritance in the family to which their shepherds (as Laban did with Jacob, Gen. xxxi. it had been appropriated in the first division of Canaan was 38—40.), Moses made various enactments in this respect doubtless one great reason, which made the Jews chiefly which are equally characterized by their equity and huma- follow husbandry and improve their estates; for though (as nity. In guarding and managing their flocks dogs were of we have seen) an inheritance might have been alienated for great use; though these animals, being declared by the law a time, yet it always returned in the year of jubilee. Their of Moses to be unclean, were held in great contempt among being prohibited, also, to take any interest from their brethren the Jews. (1 Sam. xvii. 43. xxiv. 14. 2 Sam. ix. 8. 2 Kings for the use of money, and the strict injunctions laid upon viii. 13.). They had them, however, in considerable numbers them by Jehovah, with respect to their dealings and comin their cities, where they were not confined in the houses or
merce with foreigners, deprived them so much of the ordinary courts, but were forced to seek their food where they could advantages thence arising, that they were in a manner obliged find it. The Psalmist compares violent men to dogs, that go to procure their living from the fruits and produce of the about the city by night in quest of food, and growl if they be earth, the improvement of which constituted their chief care. not satisfied. (Psal. Tix. 6. 14, 15.) Being frequently almost III. Although the Scriptures do not furnish us with any starved, they devour corpses. (1 Kings xiv. 11. xvi. 4. details respecting the state of agriculture in Judea, yet we xxi. 19.)
may collect from various passages many interesting hints When the sheep were pastured in the open country, the that will enable us to form a tolerably correct idea of the high shepherds were accustomed to keep watch in turns by night. state of its cultivation. From the parable of the vineyard let The shepherds to whom the glad tidings of the Messiah's forth to husband men (Matt. xxi. 33, 34.) we learn that rents advent were announced were thus employed. (Luke ii. 8.) of land were paid by a part of the produce; a mode of pay"The Jews, however, had sheepfolds, which were enclosures ment formerly practised by the Romans, which anciently without roofs, surrounded by walls, with doors at which the obtained in this country, and which is still practised by the animals entered : here they were confined both at the season Italians. of sheepshearing, as well as during the night. (John x. 1.
The soil of Palestine is very fruitful, if the dews and vernal Num. xxxii. 16. 2 Sam. vii. 8. Zeph. ii. 6.). In Palestine and autumnal rains are not withheld: but the Hebrews, notflocks anciently were, as they still are, tended, not only by withstanding the richness of the soil, endeavoured to increase the owner, but also by his sons and daughters, as well as its fertility in various ways. With the use of Manures, the servants. Consequently they were exposed to all the vicis- Jews were unquestionably acquainted. Doves' dung (2 Kings situdes of the seasons, which circumstance explains the vi. 25.) appears to have been very highly valued by the Jews, observation of Jacob, who, in reinonstrating with the merce- as to this day it is by the Persians. Salt, either by itself nary Laban, says that in the day the drought consumed him, or mixed in the dunghill in order to promote putrefaction, is and the frost by night, and his sleep departed from his eyes. specially mentioned as one article of manure (Matt. v. 13. (Gen. xxxi. 40.)
Luke xiv. 34, 35.); and as the river Jordan annually overII. Moses, following the example of the Egyptians, made flowed its banks, the mud deposited when its waters subsided AGRICULTURE the basis of the state. He accordingly ap- must have served as a valuable irrigation and top-dressing, pointed to every citizen a certain quantity of land, and gave particularly to the pasture lands. It is probable that, after him the right of cultivating it himself, and of transmitting it the waters had thus subsided, seed was sown on the wet soft to his heirs. The person who had thus come into possession ground; in allusion to which Solomon says, Cast thy bread could not alienate the property for any longer period than |(corn or seed) upon the waters : for thou shalt find it again, until the next jubilee: a regulation which prevented the rich with increase, after many days. (Eccles. xi. 1.) And Isaiah, from coming into the possession of large tracts of land, and promising a time of peace and plenty, says, Blessed are ye then leasing them out to the poor, in small parcels ;-a prac- that sow besidu all waters, and send forth thither the feet of tice which anciently prevailed, and exists to this day in the the ox and the ass. (Isa. xxxii
. 30.) East. The law of Moses further enacted, that the vendor of
In Egypt, such vegetable productions as require more a piece of land, or his nearest relative, had a right to redeem moisture than that which is produced by the inundation of the land sold, whenever they chose, by paying the amount the Nile are refreshed by water drawn out of the river, and of profits up to the year of jubilee (Ruth iv. 4. Jer, xxxii. 7 afterwards deposited in capacious cisterns. When, therefore, 8.); and by a third law the Israelites were required (as was their various sorts of pulse, melons, sugar-canes, &c. all of the case among the Egyptians after the time of Joseph, Gen. xlvii. 18—26.) to pay a tax of two-tenths of their income
: Jahn et Ackermann, Archæol. Bibl. $ 55. Michaelis's Commentaries,
vol. iii. pp. 373, 374. unto God; whose servants they were to consider themselves,
& See Plin. Epist. lib. ix. Ep. 37. Horat. Epist. lib. i. Ep. 14. 42 and whom they were to obey as their king. (Lev. xxvii. 30, • The Boldon Book, a survey of the state of the bishopric of Durbam, 31. Deut. xii, 17—19. xiv. 22—29.) The custom of mark- made in 1183, shows what proportion of the rent was paid in cows, sheep, ing the boundaries of lands by stones (though it prevailed a labour.
pigs, fowls, eggs, &c., the remainder being made up chiefly by manual long time before Moses, Job xxiv. 2.) was confirmed and * See Blunt's Vestiges of Ancient Manners and Customs in Modern perpetuated by an express law, which prohibited the removal Italy; L: 220. London, 1823, 8vo.
"The dung of pigeons is the dearest manure that the Persians use;
and as they apply it almost entirely for the rearing of melons, it is pro1 The Icelanders to this day call their sheep by name (Dr. Henderson's bable, on that account, that the melons of Ispahan are so much finer than Travels in Iceland, vol. i. pp. 189, 190.); so also do the inodern Greeks. those of other cities. The revenue of a pigeon-house is about a hundred (Hartley's Journal of a Tour in 1828. Missionary Register, May, 1830, Pomauns per annum; and the great value of this dung, which rears a fruit p. 223.)
that is indispensable to the existence of the natives during the great heats 2 Hartley's Researches in Greece, p. 238.
of suinmer, will probably throw some light upon that passage in Scripture, Pareau, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 412-416. Jahn et Ackermann, Archæol. Bibl. where, in the fainine of Samaria, the fourth part of a cab of doves' dung $1.26 -51. Harris's Nat. Hist. of the Bible, at the articles, Asses, Mules, was sold for five pieces of silver. 2 Kings vi. 25.” Morier's Second Jour llorses, Camels, Sheep, and Dogs.
ney through Persia, p. 141. See also Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Persia, • Rae Wilson's Travels in the Holy Land, vol. i. p. 400. 3d edition. vol. i. p. 451.
Jer. xvii. 8.
which are commonly ploughed in rills, require to be re-drawn, frequently by one small cow, at most with two, and freshed, they strike out the plugs which are fixed in the bot- sometimes only by an ass. In Persia, Mr. Morier states, tom of the cisterns: whence the water, gushing out, is con- that it is for the most part drawn by one ox only, and not unducted from one rill to another by the gardener, who is always frequently by an ass. In Egypt they plough with two ready, as occasion requires, to stop and divert the torrent, by oxen. The plough appears to have been furnished with a turning the earth against it by his foot, and at the same time share and coulter, probably not very unlike those which are opening, with his mattock, a new trench to receive it. A now in use. (1 Sam. xiii. 20, 21. Isa. ii. 4. Joel iii. 10. similar mode of irrigating lands obtains in the island of Cy- Mic. iv. 3.) “The plough in use at Nazareth is not moved prus and also in India. This method of imparting moisture upon wheels. The share, which is small, scarcely grazes and nourishment to a land, rarely, if ever, refreshed with rain, the earth ; and it has only one handle or shaft, with a small is often alluded to in the Scriptures, where it is made the dis- piece of wood across the top, for the husbandman to guide it, tinguishing, quality between Egypt and the land of Canaan. resembling the head of a staff or the handle of a spade. The For the land, says Moses, whither thou goest in to possess it, is man holds this in his right hand, with which he goads the not as the land of Egypt from whence ye came out, where thou the oxen. The whole machine is made so extremely light, sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with thy foot as a garden of that a person might with facility carry it in his arms. The herbs : but the land, whither ye go to possess it, is a land of share is covered with a piece of broad iron pointed at the hills and valleys, and drinketh water of the rain of heaven. end, so that it might be converted into a weapon of warfare. (Deut. xi. 10, 11.)This mode of irrigation is alluded to in In all probability, it is to this peculiarity that one of the proPsal. i. 3., where the good man is compared to a fruitful phets refers, when he calls on the nations to relinquish rural tree, planted by the rivers of water O'Dvabo (PALGEY-Mayim), occupations, and converts their ploughs into instruments of that is, the streams or divisions of the waters, meaning those battle. (Joel iii. 10.) Another of the sacred writers has rewhich are turned on and off as above-mentioned by the culti- versed this recommendation, and applied it to the tranquillity vator. The prophet Jeremiah has imitated, and elegantly with which it is prophesied [that] the church shall be amplified, the passage of the Psalmist above referred io. ultimately blessed in the latter days. (Isa. ii. 4.)"9.
The method of managing the ground, and preparing it for “He shall be like a tree planted by the water-side,
the seed, was much the same with the practice of the present And which sendeth forth her roots to the aqueduct: She shall not fear when the heat cometh,
times; for Jeremiah speaks of ploughing up the fallow ground But her leaf shall be green;
(Jer. iv. 3.), and Isaiah of harrowing or breaking up the And in the year of drought she shall not be anxious, Neither shall she cease from bearing fruit."
clods (Isa. xxviii. 24.); but Moses, for wise reasons, doubt
less, gave a positive injunction, that they should not sow From this image the son of Sirach has most beautifully their fields with mingled seed. Ulustrated the influence and the increase of religious wisdom The kind of grain sown by the Jews were fitches, cummin, in a well-prepared heart :
wheat, barley, and rye. (Isa. xxviii. 25.) The cultivated
fields were guarded by watchmen (as they still are in the "I also came forth as a canal from a river, And as a conduit flowing into a paradise.
East,) who sit upon a seat hung in a tree, or in a lodge or I said, I will water my garden,
watch-tower made of planks, and keep off birds, beasts, and And I will abundantly moisten my border;
thieves. (Jer. iv. 16, 17. Isa. xxiv. 20.) It was lawful for And, lo! my canal became a river, And my river became a sea."
Ecclus. xxiv. 30, 31.
travellers to pluck ears from the standing corn in another's
field, and to eat them; but they were on no account to use a This gives us the true meaning of the following elegant sickle. (Deut. xxii. 25. compared with Matt. xii. 1. Mark ii. proverb:
23. and Luke vi. 1.) Their corn fields were infested with "The heart of the king is like the canals of waters in the hand of Jehovah; version rendered tares; but it is evident that this is a differ
a worthless kind of weed resembling corn (5 Favor), in our Whithersoever it pleaseth him, he inclineth it.”
The direction of it is in the hand of Jehovah, as the distri- ent production from our tare or vetch, which is a very useful bution of the water of the reservoir, through the garden by species of darnel growing among corn, to which it bears
It is supposed to have been the lolium temulentum, a different canals, is at the will of the gardener. Solomon mentions his own works of this kind :
some resemblance. Bread, which may be made from a mix
ture of darnel ground with corn, will produce giddiness and “I made me gardens and paradises;
sickness; an effect which the straw is known to have upon And I planted in them all kinds of fruit trees,
There were three months between their sowing and their
first reaping, and four months to their full harvest : their IV. In the first ages of the world, men were chiefly em- barley harvest was at the Passover, and their wheat harvest ployed in digging and throwing up the earth with their own at the Pentecost. The reapers made use of sickles, and achands; but Noah advanced the art of husbandry (Gen. ix. cording to the present custom they filled their hands with 20.), and contrived fitter instruments for ploughing than were the corn, and those who bound up the sheaves their bosom : known before. This patriarch is called a man of the ground, there was a person set over the reapers (Ruth ii. 5.) to see but in our translation, a husbandınan, on account of his im- that they did their work, that they had provision proper for provements in agriculture, and his inventions for making the them, and to pay them their wages; the Chaldees call him earth more tractable and fruitful. It was a curse upon the Rab, the master, the ruler, or governor of the reapers. Woearth after the fall, that it should bring forth thorns and this- men were employed in reaping as well as the men; and the tles: these obstructions were to be removed, which required reapers were usually entertained above the rank of common much labour, and the ground was to be corrected by plough- servants, though in the time of Boaz we find nothing proing.
vided for them but bread and parched corn; and their sauce The earliest mention made in the Old Testament of a was vinegar (a kind of weak wine), which, doubtless, was Plough is in Deut. xxii. 10. where the Israelites are prohi- very cooling in those hot countries. (Ruth ii. 14.) The bited from ploughing with an ox and an ass together ; a plain poor were allowed the liberty of gleaning, though the landintimation that it had been customary with the idolatrous na- owners were not bound to admit them immediately into the tions of the East to do so. In Syria, the plough is still field as soon as the reapers had cut down the corn and bound
it up in sheaves, but after it was carried off: they might 1 Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. i. p. 185. 3d edition.
choose also among the poor, whom they thought most Statham's Indian Recollections, p. 429.
worthy or most necessitous. A sheaf left in the field, even : Dr. Shaw's Travels in Barbary, &c. vol. ii. pp. 266, 267.
Dr. A. Clarke on Psal. i. 3. See also Burder's Oriental Literature, though discovered, was not to be taken up, but to be left for vol ii. p. 1.
the poor. (Deut. xxiv. 19.) The conclusion of the harvest, • Bp. Lowth's Isaiah, vol. ii. pp. 24, 25. Maundrell (p. 88.) has given a description of the remains, as they are said to be, of these very pools of joyous festivity, and was celebrated with a harvest feast.
or carrying home the last load, was with the Jews a season spring, rising at a little distance from them; which will give us a perfect (Psal. cxxvi. 6. Ísa. ix. 3. xvi. 9, 10.) pools, they are three in number, lying in a row above each other being pulled, lo or cut, and carried in wagons or carts (Num. vis. so disposed, that the waters of the uppermost may descend into the second, 6 Dr. Russel's History of Aleppo, vol. I. p. 73. and those of the second into the third. Their figure is quadrangular; the + Morier's First Travels in Persia, p. 60. breadth is the same in all, amounting to about ninety paces: in their length & Dr. Richardson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 167. there is some difference between them; the first being one hundred and 9 Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. i. p. 901. 3d edition. sixty paces long; the second, two hundred; the third, two hundred and 10 In crossing one of the plains of the Turcomans, "we passed,” says twenty. They are all lined with wall, and plastered, and contain a great Mr. Buckinghani, " a party or husbandmen gathering in the harvest, the depth of water.''
greater portion of the grain being now fully ripe. They plucked up the VOL. II.
Eccles. ii. 5. 9.3
3–8. Isa. xxviii. 27, 28. Amos ii. 13.), was either laid up, sometimes used in this manner for food without any farther in stacks (Exod. xxii. 6.) or barns (Matt
. vi. 26. xiii. 30. preparation, but generally the parching or drying of it was in Luke xii. 18. 24.); and when threshed out, was stored in order to make it more fit for grinding. This process was granaries or garners. (Matt. iii
. 12.), David had storehouses performed either in mortars or mills, both of which are menin the fields, in the cities, and in the villages, and in the castles. tioned in Num. xi. 8. And Solomon speaks of the former, (1 Chron. xxvii. 25.)
when he compares the braying of a fool in a mortar to the V. After the grain was carried into the barn, the next con- like practice used with wheat. (Prov. xxvii. 22.) But mills cern was to thresh or beat the corn out of the ear, which pro- were chiefly employed for this purpose ; and they were deemed cess was performed in various ways. Sometimes it was of such use and necessity, that the Israelites were strictly done by horses (Isa. xxviii. 28.), as is the practice to this forbidden to take the nether or upper mill-stone in pledge; the day among the Koords,' and by oxen, that trod out the corn reason of which is added, because this was taking a man's with their hoofs shod with brass. (Mic. iv. 12, 13.) This life in pledge (Deut. xxiv. 6.), intimating that while the mill mode of threshing is expressly referred to by Hosea (x. 11,), ceases to grind, people are in danger of being starved. and in the prohibition of Moses against muzzling the ox that The grinding at mills was accounted an inferior sort of treadeth out the corn (Deut. xxv. 4.), and it obtains in Persial work, and, therefore, prisoners and captives were generally and India to this day, where oxen are employed; as buffa- put to it. To this work Samson was set, while he was in loes are in Ceylon, asses in North Africa, and horses in the prison-house. (Judg. xvi. 21.) There hand-mills were Crim Tatary. Another mode of threshing was, by draw. usually kept, by which prisoners earned their living. (Lam. ing a loaded cart with wheels over the corn, backwards and v. 13.). The expression in Isa. xlvii. 2.-Take the mill-stones forwards; so that the wheels running over it, forcibly shook and grind meal,-is part of the description of a slave. In out the grain (Isa. xxviii. 28.); but the most common mode Barbary, most families grind their wheat and barley at home, appears to have been that which is in use in this country, having two portable mill-stones for that purpose: the upperviz. by flails. Thus the fitches are said to be beaten out most of which is turned round by a small handle of wood or with a staff, and the cummin with a rod. In this manner iron, that is placed in the rim. When this stone is large, or Gideon and Araunah or Ornan threshed out their wheat expedition is required, a second person is called in to assist ; (Judg. vi. 11. 1 Chron. xxi. 20.); for it is represented as and it is in that country usual for the women alone to be thus their own personal action.
employed, who seat themselves over-against each other with The threshing floors were places of great note among the the mill-stones between them. This practice illustrates the ancient Hebrews, particularly that of Araunah the Jebusite, propriety of the expression of sitting behind the mill (Exod. which was the spot of ground chosen by king David on xi. 5.), and also the declaration of our Lord, that two women which to build the altar of God (2 Sam. xxiv. 23.), and this shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken and the was the very place where the temple of Solomon was after- other left. (Matt. xxiv. 41.). From Jer. xxv. 10. and Rev. wards erected. (2 Chron. iii. 1.) These floors were covered xviii. 22., it appears that those who were occupied in grindat the top to keep off the rain, but lay open on all sides, that ing beguiled their laborious task by singing, as the Barbary the wind might come in freely for the winnowing of the corn; women continue to do to this day. which being done, they were shut up at night, with doors VI. Palestine abounded with generous wine; and in some fitted to them, that if any body lay there, he might be kept districts the grapes were of superior quality. The canton warm, and the corn be secured from the danger of robbers allotted to Judah was celebrated on this account; and it is, (Ruth iii. 6.): the time of winnowing, or separating the corn perhaps, with reference to this circomstance, that the venerafrom the chaff
, was in the evening, when the heat of the day ble patriarch said of his son Judah,--He washed his garments was over, and cool breezes began to rise ; for this purpose, IN WINE, and his clothes in the BLOOD OF GRAPES. (Gen. xlix. they had the same implements which are in common use; for 11.) In this district were the vales of Sorek and of Eshcol ; Isaiah speaks of winnowing with the shovel, and with the fan. and the cluster which the Hebrew spies carried from this (Isa. xxx. 24.). The grain, being threshed, was thrown into last place was so large as to be carried on a staff between two the middle of the threshing floor; it was then exposed with of them. (Num. xiii. 23.) a fork to a gentle wind (Jer. iv. 11, 12.), which separated The Jews planted their vineyards most commonly on the the broken straw and the chaff: so that the kernels, and clods south side of a hill or mountain, the stones being gathered of earth with grain cleaving to them, and the ears not yet out and the space hedged round with thorns or walled. (Isa. thoroughly threshed, fell upon the ground. The clods of v. 1-6. compared with Psal. lxxx. 8–16. and Matt. xxi. earth, as is customary in the East at the present day, were 33.). A good vineyard consisted of a thousand vines, and collected, broken in pieces, and separated from the grain by produced a rent of a thousand silverlings, or shekels of silver. a sieve; whence the operation of sifting is, in prophetic lan-Isa. vii. 23.) It required two hundred more to pay the guage, a symbol of mistortune and overthrows. (Amos ix. 9. dressers. (Song of Solomon viii. 11, 12.) In these the Luke xxii. 31.) The heap thus winnowed, which still con- keepers and vine-dressers laboured, digging, planting, pruntained many ears that were broken but not fully threshed out, ing, and propping the vines, gathering the grapes, and making was again exposed in the threshing-floor, and several yoke wine. This was at once a laborious task, and often reckoned of oxen were driven over it, for the purpose of treading out a base one. (2 Kings xxv. 12. Song of Solomon i. 6. Isa, lxi. the remainder of the grain. At length the grain, mingled 5.), Some of the best vineyards were at Engedi, or perhaps with the chaff
, was again exposed to the wind by a fan, which at Baal-hamon, which might not be far distant, and at Sibbore off the chaff, so that the pure wheat fell upon the floor. mah. (Song of Solomon i. 14. viii. 11. Isa. xvi. 9.) Vines (Ruth iii. 2. Isa. Xxx. 24.) In the figurative language of also were trained upon the walls of the houses (Psal. prophecy, this process is symbolical of the dispersion of a cxxviii. 3.), and purged or cleaned by lopping off every usevanquished people (Isa. xli. 15, 16. Jer. xv. 7. 'li. 2.), and less and unfruitful branch, and superfluous excrescence, in also of the final separation between the righteous and the order that the fruitful branches might be rendered more prowicked. (Job xxi. 18. Psal. i. 4. xxxv. 5. Matt. iii. 12. Luke ductive. (John xv. 2.): The vines with the tender grapes gave iii. 17.). The scattered straw, as much at least as was re- Dr. Shaw's Travels in Barbary, vol. i. quired for the manufacturing of bricks and for the fodder of 6 The sides of the sun burnt hills near Nablons (the ancient Shechem)cattle, was collected; but the residue was reduced to ashes the mountains of the height of Israel," seem peculiarly adapted for the by fire: from this custom the sacred writers have derived a doubtless, a remarkable contrast to their state in the days of Israel's prosfigurative illustration to denote the destruction of wicked perity, when the drunkards of Ephraim (Isa. xxviii. 1. 3.7.) prided themmen. (Isa. v. 24. xlvii. 14. Nah. i. 10. Mal. iv. 1. Matt. selves in the abundance and strength of their wines. How celebrated
these parts once were for this article of produce we learn from several iii. 12.)
notices in the Old Testament: Gideon, by a happy comparison, thus dis After the com was threshed, it was dried either in the sun, parages his own services, in the presence of the Ephrasinites--Is not the or by a fire, or in a furnace. This is called parched corn (Judg. viii.
2.) And the restoration of Israel is described, parily by their (Lev. xxiii. 14. 1 Sam. xvii. 17. and xxv. 18.), and was return to the rearing of vineyards, which should yield, as formerly they
had done, an abundant vintage.” (Jer. xxxi. 5.) Jowett's Christian Recorn by the roots, a practice often spoken of in the Scriptures, though searches in Syria, &c. p. 304. reaping seems to be made the earliest and most frequent mention of." The same mode of culture is practised in Persia to this day. Mr. Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. i. p. 42.
Morier has given an engraving on wood illustrative of this custom, which Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. i. p. 418.
beautifully elucidates the patriarch Jacob's comparison of Joseph to a , Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Georgia, Persia, &c. vol. ii, p. 90. fruitful bough, whose branches run over the wall. (Gen. xlix. 22.) Second • See Turner's Embassy to Thibet, p. 184.
Journey, p. 232. • Ward's History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 320. Dr. Davy's Travels o In modern Greece the vine is cnt or purged in the following manner : in the Interior or Ceylon, p. 275. (London, 1821), where a threshing.floor is -"Only two or three of the principal sprouts are permitted to grow up de lineated. Capt. Lyon's Tour in Mourzouk and Fezzan, p. 169. Mrs. from the root: the rest are cut off, and this practice is often called by the Holderness's Notes on the Crim Tatars, p. 97. (London, 1821.) See also Greeks CLEANING." Rev. John Hartley's Journal of a Tour in Greece, in Mr. Dodwell's Classical Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 10.
1828. (Missionary Register, May, 1820. p. 225.)
a good smell early in the spring (Song of Solomon ii. 13.), only their liquors, but dry things which are not apt to be as we learn, also, from Isa. xviii. 5. afore the harvest, that is, broken; by which means they are well preserved from wet, the barley harvest, when the bud is perfect, and the sour grape dust, or insects. These would in time crack and wear out. is ripening in the flower. It was also usual to erect tempo- Hence, when the Gibeonites came to Joshua, pretending that rary huts or sheds, made of boughs and reeds, to shelter the they came from a far country, amongst other things they servant who was employed to guard the fruit when nearly brought wine bottles old and rent, and bound up where they ripe from birds
and other creatures of prey (Isa. i. 11.),' and had leaked. (Josh. ix. 4. 13.). Thus, too, it was not expeparticularly from the ravages of wild boars (Psal. Ixxx. 13.), dient to put new wine into old bottles, because the fermentawhich to this day are as destructive in Greece, as they tion of it would break or crack the bottles. (Matt. ix. 17.) anciently were in Palestine. As soon as the vintage was And thus David complains, that he is become like a bottle completed, these sheds were either taken down or suffered to in the smoke ; that is, a bottle dried, and cracked, and worn perish. From this circumstance Job derives a beautiful out, and unfit for service. (Psal. cxix. 83.) These bottles simile, to illustrate the short duration of the prosperity of the were probably of various sizes, and sometimes very large; wicked. (xxvii. 18.) But it appears from Isa. v. 1, 2. Matt. for when Abigail went to meet David and his four hundred
xxi. 33. and Mark xii. 1., that towers were erected for this men, and took a present to pacify and supply him, two hunpurpose, as they still are in some parts of Palestine. dred loaves, and five sheep ready dressed, &c. she took only "The vintage followed the wheat harvest and the thresh- Two bottles of wine (1 Sam. xxv. 18.); a very
disproportioning (Lev. xxvi. 5. Amos ix. 13.),
about June or July, when ate quantity, unless the bottles were large. But the Israelthe clusters of the grapes were gathered with a sickle, and ites had bottles likewise made by the potters. (See Isa. xxx. put into baskets (Jer. vi. 9.), carried and thrown into the 14. margin, and Jer. xix. 1. 10. xlviii. 12.) We hear also wine-vat, or wine-press, where they were probably first trod- of vessels called barrels. That of the widow, in which her den by men and then pressed. (Rev. xiv. 18—20.) It is meal was held (1 Kings xvii. 12. 14.) was not, probably, mentioned, as a mark of the great work and power of the very large; but those four in which the water was brought Messiah, I have trodden the figurative wine-press alone ; and up from the sea, at the bottom of Mount Carmel, to pour upon of the people there was none with me. (Isa. Ixiii. 3.; see also Elijah's sacrifice and altar, must have been large. '(1 Kings Rev. xix. 15.). The vintage was a season of great mirth. xviii. 33.) We read likewise of other vessels, which the Of the juice of the squeezed grapes were formed wine and widow of Shunem borrowed of her neighbours, to hold the vinegar. The wines of Helbon, near Damascus, and of miraculous supply of oil (2 Kings iv. 2–6.); and of the Lebanon, where the vines had a fine sun, were reckoned water-pots, or jars, or jugs, of stone, of considerable size, in most excellent. (Ezek. xxvii. 18. Hos. xiv. 7.) The which our Lord caused the water to be converted into wine. wines of Canaan, being very heady, were commonly mixed (John ii. 6.). Grapes, among the Israelites, were likewise with water for common use, as the Italians do theirs; and dried into raisins. A part of Abigail's present to David was sometimes they scented them with frankincense, myrrh, an hundred clusters of raisins (1 Sam. xxv. 18.); and when calamus, and other spices (Prov. ix. 2. 5. Song of Solomon Ziba met David, his present contained the same quantity. vüi. 2.): they also scented their wine with pomegranates, (2 Sam. xvi. 1.; see also 1 Sam. xxx. 12. and 1 Chron. or made wine of their juice, as we do of the juíce of currants, xii. 40.)"? gooseberries, &c. fermented with sugar. Wine is best when It was a curse pronounced upon the Israelites, that, upon old and on the lees, the dregs having sunk to the bottom, their disobedience, they should plant vineyards and dress (Isa. xxv. 6.) Sweet wine is that which is made from them, but they should neither drink of the wine nor eat the grapes fully ripe. (Isa. xlix. 26.) The Israelites had two grapes, for the worms should eat them. (Deut. xxviii. 39.) kinds of vinegår, the one was a weak wine, which was used It seems that there is a peculiar sort of worms that infest thé for their common drink in the harvest field, &c. (Ruth ii. vines, called by the Latins Volvox and Convolvulus, because 14.), as the Spaniards and Italians still do; and it was pro- it wraps and rolls itself up in the buds, and eats the grapes bably of this that Solomon was to furnish twenty thousand up, when they advance towards ripeness, as the Roman aubaths to Hiram, for his servants, the hewers that cut timber thors explain it.s in Lebanon. (2 Chron. ii. 10.) The other had a sharp acid Besides other fruits that were common in Judæa, as dates, taste, like ours; and hence Solomon hints, that a sluggard figs, cucumbers,9 pomegranates, they had regular plantations vexes and hurts such as employ him in business; as vinegar of olives, which were a very ancient and profitable object of is disagreeable to the teeth, and smoke to the eyes (Prov. x. horticulture. So early as the time of Noah (Gen. viii. 11.) 26.); and as vinegar poured upon nitre spoils its virtue : so the branches of the olive tree were, and since that time have he that singeth songs to a heavy heurt does but add to its grief. been among all nations, the symbol of peace and prosperity. (Prov. xxv. 20.) The poor were allowed to glean grapes, Oil is first mentioned in Gen. xxviii. 18. and Job xxiv. 11.; as well as corn and other articles (Lev. xix. 10. Deut. xxiv. which proves the great antiquity of the cultivation of this 21. Isa. iii. 14. xvii. 6. xxiv. 13. Mic. vii. 1.); and the tree. Olives, in Palestine, are of the best growth, and afford gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim was better than the vintage the finest oil; whence that country is often extolled in the of Abiezer. (Judg: viii. 2.). The vineyard was not to be Scriptures on account of this tree, and especially in opposipruned and dressed in the Sabbatical year. (Lev. xxv. 3, tion to Egypt, which is destitute of good olíves. (Num. 4.) The vessels in which the wine was kept were, proba- xviii. 12. Deut. vii. 13. xi. 14. xii. 17. xviii. 4.) The olive bly, for the most part, bottles, which were usually made of delights in a barren, sandy, dry, and mountainous soil; and leather, or goat-skins, firmly sewed and pitched together. its multiplied branches (which are very agreeable to the eye The Arabs pull the skin off goats in the same manner that as they remain green throughout the winter) have caused it to we do from rabbits, and sew up the places where the legs be represented as the symbol of a numerous progeny-a and tail were cut off, leaving one for the neck of the bottle, to pour from; and in such bags, they put up and carry, not • Investigator, No. iv. pp. 307–309.—The pleasing and instructive Essay
on the Agriculture of the Israelites (by the Rev. James Pluinptre), in the
first, third, and fourth numbers of this journal, contains the fullest account • 182. i. 8. And the daughter of Zion is left as a cottage in a vineyard, of this interesting subject extant in the English language. as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. "There is a small species of • Bochart. Hieroz. p. 3. 1. iv. c. 27. cucumber of which the natives of India are very fond. .... Large fields of • On the cultivation of this valuable article of food in the East, Mr. these are sometimes planted; which, when nearly arrived to maturity, Jowett has communicated the following interesting particulars. During require incessant watching to protect them from the attacks of man and his voyage to Upper Egypt, in February, 1819, he says, “We observed the beast." Statham's Indian Recollections, p. 90.
people making holes in the sandy soil on the side of the river. Into these * Hartley's Researches in Greece, pp. 234, 235.
holes they put a small quantity of pigeons' dung and feathers,
with the seed : Dr. Boothroyd on Job xxvii. 18.
of melons or cucumbers. The value of this manure is alluded to in 2 • In the route between Jerusalem and the convent of Saint Elias (which Kings vi. 25. The produce of this toil I had an opportunity of seeing, in is situated about an hour's distance from that city), Mr. Buckingham was due season ; that is the following month of June. Extensive fields of ripe particularly struck with the appearance of several small and detached melons and cucunibers then adorned the sides of the river. They grew in square towers in the inidst of the vine lands. These, his guide informed such abundance, that the sailors freely helped themselves. Some guard, him, were used as watch-towers, whence
walchmen to this day look out, in however, is placed upon them. Occasionally, but at long and desolate in. order to guard the produce of the lands from depredation. This fact will tervals, we may observe a little hut made of reeds, just capable of containexplain the use and intention of the lower mentioned in Matt. xxi. 33. and ing one man; being, in fact, little more than a fence against a north wind. Mark xii. I. Similar towers were seen by Captains Irby and Mangles, as In these I have observed, sometiines, a poor old man, perhaps lame, they passed between numerous vineyards, some of which
appeared to be feebly protecting the property. It exactly illustrates Isaiah i. 8. And the antique. Travels in Egypt, &c. p. 342.
daughter of Zion is left ..... as a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. The • At one time the wine of Helbon (which place Strabo terms Chaly bon) abundance of these most necessary vegetables brings to mind the mur. was held in such repute, that it was appropriated exclusively
to the use of murs of the Israelites , Num. xi. 5, 6. We remember..... the cucumbers, the kings of Persia.' Strabon, Geographia, tom. ii. p. 1043. édit. Oxon. and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlick; bul nou
• Lebanon and its vicinity still produce excellent wine ;--at least a dozen our soul is dried away." Jowett's Researches in the Mediterranean, Boris, all of which are cheap. Carne's Letters from the East, p. 239. &c. p. 127.