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twenty years before, the Rev. Dr. E. D. Clarke, while explor- V. In progress of time, as men increased upon the earth, ing the ruins of Cana in Galilee, saw several large massy and found themselves less safe in their detached tents, they stone water-pots, answering the description given of the began to live in society, and fortified their simple dwellings ancient vessels of the country (John ii. 6.); not preserved nor by surrounding them with a ditch, and a rude breastwork, exhibited as relics, but lying about, disregarded by the pre- or wall, whence they could hurl stones against their enemies. sent inhabitants as antiquities with whose original use they Hence arose villages, towns, and Cities, of which Cain is were acquainted. From their appearance, and the number of said to have been the first builder. In the time of Moses, them, it was quite evident that the practice of keeping water the cities of the Canaanites were both numerous and strongly in large stone pots, each holding from eighteen to twenty- fortified. (Num. xiii. 28.) In the time of David, when the seven gallons, was once common in the country. In the later number of the Israelites was greatly increased, their cities times of the Jewish polity, Baskets formed a necessary article must have proportionably increased ; and the vast population of furniture to the Jews; who, when travelling either among which (we have already seen) Palestine maintained in the the Gentiles or the Samaritans, were accustomed to carry time of the Romans is a proof both of the size and number their provisions with them in ecowol, baskets, in order to avoid of their cities. The principal strength of the cities in Palesdefilement by eating with strangers. Large sacks are still, tine consisted in their situation : they were for the most part as they anciently were (John ix. 11. Gen. xliv. 1-3.), em- erected on mountains or other eminences which were diffiployed for carrying provisions and baggage of every descrip- cult of access; and the weakest places were strengthened by tion.3
fortifications and walls of extraordinary thickness. Bowls, cups, and drinking vessels of gold and silver, it The streets in the Asiatic cities do not exceed from two to appears from 1 Kings x. 21. were used in the courts of four cubits in breadth, in order that the rays of the sun may princes; but the modern Arabs, as the Jewish people an- be kept off; but it is evident that they must have formerly ciently
did, keep their water, milk, wine, and other liquors, been wider, from the fact that carriages were driven through in Bottles made of skins, which are chiefly of a red colour them, which are now very seldom, if ever, to be seen in the (Exod. xxv. 5.); and their mouths are closed by slips of East. The houses, however, rarely stand together, and wood, that they may contain milk or other liquids. These most of them have spacious gardens annexed to them. It is bottles, when old, are frequently rent, but are capable of be- not to be supposed that the almost incredible tract of land, ing repaired, by being bound up or pieced in various ways, which Nineveh and Babylon are said to have covered, could of this description were the wine bottles of the Gibeonites, old have been filled with houses closely standing together: anand rent, and bound up. (Josh. ix. 4.) As new wine was cient writers, indeed, testify that almost a third part of Babyliable to ferment, and, consequently, would burst the old lon was occupied by fields and gardens. skins, all prudent persons would put it into new skins. To
In the early ages of the world the MarkETS were held at this usage our Lord alludes in Matt
. ix. 17. Mark ii. 22. and or near the Gates of the Cities (which, we have already Luke v. 37, 38. Bottles of skin, it is well known, are still seen,' were the seats of justice), generally within the walls, in nse in Spain, where they are called Borrachas. As the though sometimes without them. Here commodities were Arabs make fires in their tents, which have no chimneys, exposed to sale, either in the open air or in tents (2 Kings they must be greatly incommoded by the smoke, which vii. 18. 2 Chron. xviii. 9. Job xxix. 7.): but in the time of blackens all their utensils and taints their skins. David, Christ, as we learn from Josephus, the markets were enwhen driven from the court of Saul, compares himself to a closed in the same manner as the modern eastern bazars, bottle in the smuke. (Psal. cxix. 83.) He must have felt which are shut at night, and where the traders' shops acutely, when he was driven from the vessels of gold and are disposed in rows or streets; and (in large towns) the silver in the palace of Saul, to live like an Arab, and drink dealers in particular commodities are confined to particular out of a smoky leathern bottle. His language is, as if he had streets. said, "My present appearance is as different from what it The Gates of the Cities, and the vacant places next adwas when I dwelt at court, as the furniture of a palace differs jacent to them, must have been of considerable size; for we from that of a poor Arab's tent." Apartments were lighted read that Ahab king of Israel assembled four hundred false by means of Lamps, which were fed with olive oil, and were prophets before himself and Jehoshaphat king of Judah, in commonly placed upon elevated stands. (Matt. v. 15.) The ihe Gate of Samaria. (1 Kings xxii. 10.) And besides these lamps of Gideon's soldiers (Judg. vii. 16.), and those of the prophets, we may readily conclude that each of these mowise and foolish virgins (Matt. xxv. 1—10.), were of a dif-narchs had numerous attendants in waiting. Over or by the ferent sort. They were a kind of torches or flambeaux made side of many gates there were towers, in which watchmen of iron or earthenware, wrapped about with old linen, were stationed to observe what was going on at a distance. moistened from time to time with oil.6
(2 Sam. xviii. 24. 33.)3
ON THE DRESS OF THE Jews.
I. Dress in the early Ager.-II. Tunic.-III. Upper Garment.-Other Articles of Apparel.-IV. Coverings for the Head.
Mode of dressing the Hair.-V. Sandals.-VI. Seals or Signets, and Rings.-VII. Some Articles of Female Apparel elucidated.- Complexion of the Women.— VIII. Rending of Garments, a Sign of Mourning.--IX. Numerous Changes of Apparel deemed a necessary Part of their Treasure.
I. In the early ages, the dress of mankind was very sim- | wards fine linen, and silk, dyed with purple, scarlet, and ple. Skins of animals furnished the first materials (Gen. crimson, became the usual apparel of the more opulent. iii. 21. Heb. xi. 37.),10 which, as men increased in numbers (2 Sam. i. 24. Prov. xxxi. 22. Luke xvi. 19.) In the more and civilization, were exchanged for more costly articles, early ages, garments of various colours were in great esteem: made of wool and flax, of which they manufactured woollen such was Joseph's robe, of which his envious brethren stripand linen garments (Lev. xiii. 47. Prov. xxxi. 13.); after-ped him, when they resolved to sell him." (Gen. xxxvii. 23.) 1 Travels, vol. ii. p. 445.
* Kuinöel, on Matt
. xiv. 19. Robes of various colours were likewise appropriated to the 3 Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. i. pp. 175, 176. • Ibid. vol. i. p. 176. virgin daughters of kings (2 Sam. xiii. 18.), who also wore various remarks illustrative of the nature of the drinking vessels anciently that the Jewish garments were worn pretty long; for it is
• Harmer's Observations, vol. 1. p. 217. See also vol. ii. pp. 135–138. for richly embroidered vests. (Psal. xlv. 13, 14.)12 It appears in use among the Jews.
• Jahn et Ackermann, Archæol. Bibl. $ 40. Calmet's Dictionary, voce mentioned as an aggravation of the affront done to David's Lamps.
ambassadors by the king of Ammon, that he cut off their + See p. 54. supra.
: Bruning, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 279–281. Calmet, Dissertations, tom. 1. pp. garments in the middle, even to their buttocks. (2 Sam. x. 4.) 313-315. Jahn et Ackermann, Archæol. Bibl. § 41. Parcau, Ant. Hebr. The dress of the Jews, in the ordinary ranks of life, was pp. 367-371. • The principal authorities for this chapter are Calmet's Dissertation sur
simple and nearly uniform. John the Baptist had his raiment les Habits des Hebreux, Dissert. tom. i. pp. 337—371.; and Pareau, 11 A coat of many colours is as much esteemed in some parts of Pales. Antiquitas Hebraica, pp. 371–385.
tine at this day as it was in the time of Jacob, and of Sisera. Bucking. 16 Mr. Rae Wilson met with some Arabs, residing near the (so called) ham's Travels among the Arab Tribes, p. 31. Emerson's Letters from the village of Jeremiah, who were clothed in sheep and goal skins, open at Æg ean, vol. ii. p. 31. the neck. Travels in the Holy Land, &c. vol. i. p. 189. 3d edition.
iz Jahn et Ackermann, $$ 118, 119.
of camels' hair (Matt. iii. 4.),—not of the fine hair of that incumbrance in their hykes. Instead of the fibrıla that was animal which is wrought into camlets (in imitation of used by the Romans, the Arabs join together with thread or which, though made of wool, is the English camlet), but of a wooden bodkin the two upper corners of this garment; and the long and shaggy hair of camels, which in the East is after having placed them first over one of their shoulders, manufactured into a coarse stuff like that anciently worn by they then fold the rest of it about their bodies. The outer monks and anchorets."
fold serves them frequently instead of an apron, wherein they It is evident, from the prohibition against changing the carry herbs, leaves, corn, &c., and may illustrate several dresses of the two sexes, that in the time of Moses there was allusions made thereto in Scripture; as gathering the lap full a difference between the garments worn respectively by men of wild gourds (2 Kings iv. 39.), rendering seven-fold, giving and women; but in what that difference consisted it is now good measure into the bosom (Psalm cxxix. 7. Luke vi. 38.), impossible to determine. The fashion, too, of their apparel and shaking the lap.". (Neh. v. 13.). It was these juetid, does not appear to have continued always the same; for, or upper garments, which the Jewish populace strewed in the before the first subversion of the Jewish monarchy by Nebu- road during Christ's triumphant progress to Jerusalem. chadnezzar, there were some who delighted to wear strange (Matt. xxi. 8.) A person divested of this garment, conforma(that is, foreign) apparel. In every age, however, there bly to the Hebrew idiom, is said to be naked. (2 Sam. vi. 20. were certain garments (as there still are in the East) which John xxi. 7.) By the Mosaic constitution, in Num. xv. were common to both sexes, though their shape was some- 37–40., the Israelites were enjoined to put fringes on the what different.
borders of their upper garments that they might remember alı II. The simplest and most ancient was the Tunic, or inner the commandments of the Lord to do them. A similar exhortagarment, which was worn next the body. At first, it seems tion is recorded in Deut. vi. 8. compared with Exod. xiii. 16. to have been a large linen cloth, which hung down to the But, in succeeding ages, these injunctions were abused to knees, but which was afterwards better adapted to the form superstitious purposes; and among the charges alleged of the body, and was sometimes furnished with sleeves. The against the Pharisees by Jesus Christ, is that of enlarging tunics of the women were larger than those worn by men. their PHYLACTERIES, and the fringes of their garments (Mati. Ordinarily they were composed of two breadths of cloth xxji. 5.), as indicating their pretensions to a more studious sewed together; hence those which were woven whole, or and perfect observance of the law. These phylacteries conwithout seam on the sides or shoulders, were greatly sisted of four strips or scrolls of parchment, or the dressed esteemed. Such was the tunic or coat of Jesus Christ men- skin of some clean animal, inscribed with four paragraphs of tioned in John xix. 23. A similar tunic was worn by the the law, taken from Exod. xiii. 1–10. and xiii. 11-16. high-priest. This garment was fastened round the soins, Deut. vi. 4–9. and xi. 13—21. all inclusive, ; which the whenever activity was required, by a girdle. (2 Kings iv. 29. Pharisees, interpreting literally (as do the modern rabbins) John xxi. 7. Acts xii. 8.). The prophets and poorer class Deut. vi. 8. and other similar passages, tied to the fronts of of people wore leathern girdles (2 Kings i. 8. Matt. iii. 4.), their caps and on their arms, and also inscribed on their dooras is still the case in the East; but the girdles of the opulent, posts. These phylacteries were regarded as amulets, or, at especially those worn by women of quality, were composed least, as efficacious in keeping off evil spirits, whence their of more precious materials, and were more skilfully wrought. Greek name duaextupen, from ourattu, to guard or preserve. (Ezek. xvi. 10. Isa. iii. 24.) The girdles of the inhabitants The practice of inscribing passages of the Koran upon the of the East, Dr. Shaw informs us, are usually of worsted, door-posts of their houses is said to be still continued by the very artfully woven into a variety of figures, such as the rich Mohammedans in Judæa and Syria. The xp25 Sov, hem, or girdles of the virtuous virgins may be supposed to have been. border of Christ's garment, out of which a healing power (Prov. xxxi. 24.). They are made to fold several times about issued to the diseased who touched it (Matt. ix. 20. xiv. 36. the body; one end of which being doubled back, and sown Mark vi. 56. Luke viii. 44.), was the fringe which he wore. along the edges, serves them for a purse, agreeably to the in obedience to the law. acceptation of sworn in the Scriptures (Matt. x. 9. Mark viii. The Xieuws, chlamys, or scarlet robe with which our Sa6. where it is rendered a purse). The Turks make a further viour was arrayed in mock majesty (Matt. xxvii. 28. 31.), use of these girdles, by fixing therein their knives and was a scarlet robe worn by the Roman soldiers. The Steam poniards : whilst the Hojias, i. e. the writers and secretaries, was a flowing robe reaching to the feet, and worn by persons suspend in the same their inkhorns; a custom as old as the of distinction. (Mark xii. 38. xvi. 5. Luke xv. 22. xx. 46. prophet Ezekiel, who mentions (ix. 2.) a person clothed in Rev. vi. 11. vii. 9. 13, 14.) The End was a linen upper white linen, with an inkhorn upon his loins. 3
garment, worn by the Orientals in summer and by night, inIII. Over the tunic was worn a larger vest, or Upper stead of the usual sustav. (Mark xiv. 51, 52.) It was also GARMENT. It was a piece of cloth nearly square, like the used as an envelope for dead bodies. (Matt. xxvii. 59. Mark hykes or blankets woven by the Barbary women, about six xv. 46. Luke xxiii. 53.) The Prsa cva, or cloak (2 Tim. iv. yards long, and five or six feet broad. The two corners, 13.), was the same as the penula of the Romans, viz. a trawhich were thrown over the shoulders, were called the velling cloak with a hood to protect the wearer against the skirts, literally, the wings of the garment. (1 Sam. xv. 11. weather. The Ecus epocy, or handkerchief, corresponded to the xxiv. 4, 5. 11. Hag. ii. 12. Zech. viii. 23.), This garment Kefa EWTKY of the Greeks, and the sudarium of the Romans, serves the Kabyles or Arabs for a complete dress in the day; from whom it passed to the Chaldæans and Syrians with and as they sleep in their raiment (as the Israelites did of greater latitude of signification, and was used to denote any old, Deut. xxiv. 13.), it likewise serves them for their bed linen cloth. (John xi. 44. xx. 7. Acts xix. 12.) The Equoriva and covering in the night. “It is a loos but troublesome TICV (semicinctium), or apron, passed also from the Romans : kind of garment, being frequently disconcerted and falling to it was made of linen, surrounded half the body (Acts xix. the ground, so that the person who wears it is every moment | 12.), and corresponded nearly to the Tepes to use of the Greeks. obliged to tuck it up, and fold it anew around his body. Whenever the men journeyed, a staff was a necessary accom. This shows the great use of a girdle whenever they are paniment. (Gen. xxxii. 10. xxxviii. 18. Matt. x. 10. Mark engaged in any active employment, and the force of the vi. 8.) Scripture injunction alluding to it, of having our loins girded, IV. Originally, men had no other CoverING FOR THE HEAD in order to set about it. The method of wearing these gar- than that which nature itself supplied,—the hair. Calmet ments, with the use to which they are at other times put, in is of opinion, that the Hebrews never wore any dress or serving for coverlids to their beds, leads us to infer that the covering on their heads : David, when driven from Jerusafiner sort of them (such as are worn by the ladies and by lem (he urges), fled with his head covered with his upper persons of distinction) are the peplus of the ancients... Ruth's garment; and Absalom would not have been suspended among veil, which held six measures of barley (Ruth iii. 15.), the boughs of an oak by his hair, if he had worn a covering. might be of the like fashion, and have served extraordinarily |(2 Sam. xvi. 30. xviii. 9.) But may not these have been for the same use; as were also the clothes (Ta iurtid, the upper garments) of the Israelites (Exod. xii. 34.), in which
• Shaw's Travels, vol. i. pp. 401-406. they folded up their kneading-troughs : as the Moors, Arabs, - Calinet's Dictionary, voce Phylacteries. Robinson's Greek Lexicon. and Kabyles do, to this day, things of the like burden and roce Duncu tupest Respecting the phylacteries of the modern Jews, Mr.
Modern Judaism, pp. 304
-318. In the Bibliotheca Sussexiana there is a description of three Jewish 1 On this subject see Capt. Light's Travels in Egypt, &c. p. 135. and Mr. phylacteries, which are preserved among the Mss. in the library of his Morier's second Journey in Persia, p. 44. Chardin assures us, that the Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. Bibl. Sussex. vol. i. part i. pp. xxxvi. modern Dervises wear garments of coarse camels' hair and also great-xxxix. leathern girdles. Harmer's Obs, vol. ii.
& Robinson's Lexicon. vocibus. . Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iii. c. 7. $ 4.
• Adam's Roman Antiquities, p. 386. • Shaw's Travels, vol. i. pp. 409, 410. 8vo. edit.
• Valpy's Gr. Test. on Luke xix. 20. and Acts xix. 12.
Allen has collected much curious inforination.
particular cases? David went up the Mount of Olives, as a JOf God of great price. (1 Pet. iii. 3.)3. On the contrary, the mourner and a fugitive; and Absalom, fleeing in battle, men in those times universally wore their hair short, as apmight have lost his cap or bonnet. It is certain, that the pears from all the books, medals, and statues that have been 9935 (Tsagiph), or turban, was common both to men and wo- transmitted to us. This circumstance, which formed a prinmen. (Job xxix. 14. Isa. iii. 23.)
cipal distinction in dress between the sexes, happily illusLong hair was in great esteem among the Jews. The hair trates the following passage in St. Paul (1 Cor. xi. 14, 15.): of Absalom's head was of such prodigious length, that in his | Doth not even nature itself teach you, that if a man have long flight, when defeated in battle, as he was riding with great hair it is a shame to him. But if a woman have LONG HAIR speed under the trees, it caught hold of one of the boughs; it is a glory to her : for her hair is given her for a covering. in consequence of which he was lifted off his saddle, and his “ The Jewish and Grecian ladies, moreover, never apmule running from beneath him, left him suspended in the peared in public without a veil. Hence St. Paul severely air, unable to extricate himself. (2 Sam. xvíii. 9.) The censures the Corinthian women for appearing in the church plucking off the hair was a great disgrace among the Jews; without a veil, and praying to God uncovered, by which they and, therefore, Nehemiah punished in this manner those threw off the decency and modesty of the sex, and exposed Jews who had been guilty of irregular marriages, in order to themselves and their religion to the satire and calumny of put them to the greater shame. (Neh. xiii. 25.) Baldness the heathens. The whole passage beautifully and clearly was also considered as a disgrace. (2 Sam. xiv. 26. 2 Kings exhibits to the reader's ideas the distinguishing customs ii. 23. Isa. iii. 24.) On festive occasions, the more opulent which then prevailed in the different dress and appearance perfumed their hair with fragrant unguents. (Psal. xxiii. 5. of the sexes." (Compare 1 Cor. xi. 13–16.): Eccl. ix. 8. Matt. vi. 17. xxvi. 7.) And it should seem, V. Their legs were bare, and on the feet they wore SANfrom Cant. v. 11., that black hair was considered to be the Dals, or soles made of leather or of wood, and fastened around most beautiful.
the feet in various ways, after the oriental fashion. (Gen. The Jews wore their beards very long, as we may see xiv. 23. Exod. xii. 11. Isa. v. 27. Mark vi. 9. John ì. 27. from the example of the ambassadors, whom David sent to Acts xii. 8.). As luxury increased, magnificent sandals conthe king of the Ammonites, and whom that ill-advised king stituted, in the East, a part of the dress of both males and caused to be shaved by way of affront. (2 Sam. x. 4.). And females, who could afford such a luxury. (Cant. vii. 1. as the shaving of them was accounted a great indignity, so Ezek. xvi. 10.) The sandals of Judith were so brilliant, the cutting off half their beards, which made them still more that, notwithstanding the general splendour of her bracelets, ridiculous, was a great addition to the affront, in a country rings, and necklaces, these principally succeeded in captiwhere beards were held in such great veneration.
vating the ferocious Holofernes. (Judith x. 4. xvi. 9.): ‘On In the East, especially among the Arabs and Turks, the entering a sacred place it was usual to lay them aside (Exod. beard is even now reckoned the greatest ornament of a man, iii. 5. Josh. v. 15.), as is the practice among the Mohammeand is not trimmed or shaven, except in cases of extreme dans in the East to this day. When any one entered a house, grief: the hand is almost constantly employed in smoothing it was customary to take off the sandals, and wash the feet. the beard and keeping it in order, and it is often perfumed as (Gen. xviii. 4. xix. 2.). A similar custom obtains in lia if it were sacred. Thus, we read of the fragrant oil, which at the present time. Among persons of some rank it was ran down from Aaron's beard to the skirts of his garment. the office of servants to take off the sandals of guests, and (Psal. cxxxiii. 2. Exod. xxx. 30.)! A shaven beard is re- (after washing their feet) to return them to the owners on puted to be more unsightly than the loss of a nose; and a their departure. (Matt. iii. 11. Mark v. 7. Luke iii. 16. John man who possesses a reverend beard is, in their opinion, in- xiii. 4, 5. 14—1o. 1 Tim. v. 10.) Persons, who were in capable of acting dishonestly. If they wish to affirm any deep aflliction, went barefoot (2 Sam. xv. 30. xix. 24. Isa. thing with peculiar solemnity, they swear by their beard'; xx. 2-4.); which, under other circumstances, was consiand when they express their good wishes for any one, they, dered to be ignominious and servile. (Deut. xxv. 9, 10. Isa. make use of the ensuing formula—God preserve thy blessed xlvii. 2. Jer. ii. 25.) beard! From these instances, which serve to elucidate VI. Seals or SIGNETS, and Rings, were commonly worn many other passages of the Bible besides that above quoted, by both sexes. we may readily understand the full extent of the disgrace Plinyi states that the use of Seals or Signets was rare at the wantonly inflicted by the Ammonitish king, in cutting off time of the Trojan war; but among the Hebrews they were half the beards of David's ambassadors. Niebuhr relates, of much greater antiquity, for we read that Judah left his that if any one cut off his beard, after having recited a futha, signet as a pledge with Tamar. (Gen. xxxviii. 25.) The or prayer, which is considered in the nature of a vow never ancient Hebrews wore their seals or signets, either as rings to cut it off, he is liable to be severely punished, and also to on their fingers, or as bracelets on their arms, a custom which become the laughing-stock of those who profess his faith. still obtains in the East. Thus the bride in the Canticles The same traveller has also recorded an instance of a modern (viii. 6.) desires that the spouse would wear her as a seal on Arab prince having treated a Persian envoy in the same man- his arm. Occasionally, they were worn upon the bosom by Der as Hanun treated David's ambassadors, which brought a means of an ornamental chain or ligature fastened round the powerful army upon him in the year 1765.2 The not trim- neck. To this custom there is an allusion in Prov, vi. 21. ming of the heard was one of the indications by which the The expression to set as a seal upon the heart, as a seal upon Jews expressed their mourning. (2 Sam. xix. 24.). the arm (Cant. viii. 6.), is a scriptural expression denoting
“ All the Grecian and Roman women, without distinction, the cherishing of a true affection ; with the exhibition of those wore their hair long. On this they lavished all their art, constant attentions which bespeak a real attachment. Comdisposing it in various forms, and embellishing it with divers
3 Mr. Emerson's account of the dress of the younger females in the ornaments. In the ancient medals, statues, and basso-re- house of the British consul in the Isle of Milo, in the Levant, strikingly lievos, we behold those plaited tresses which the apostles illustrates the above-cited passages of St. Peter. He describes their hair Peter and Paul condemn, and see those expensive and fan- as being PL Alted into long triple bands, and then twisted round the head, tastic decorations which the ladies of those times bestowed interlaced with strings of zechins, mahmoudis, and other COLDEN COINS,
or left to flow gracefully behind them. They also wore four or five gowns upon their head-dress. This pride of braided and plaited and other GARMENTS, HEAPED ON with less taste than profusion, and all are tresses, this ostentation of jewels, this vain display of finery, secured at the waist by a velvet stomacher, richly embroidered, and glitthe apostles interdict, as proofs of a light and little mind, and tering, with gilded spangles. (Einerson's Letters froin the Agean, vol. ii. inconsistent with the modesty and decorum of Christian * Harwood's Introd. to the New Test. vol. ii. pp. 101-103. women. St. Paul, in his first Epistle to Timothy, in the the island of Ceylon in particular, " the shoes of brides are made of velvet, passage where he condemns it, shows us in what the pride richly ornamented with gold and silver, not unlike a pair in the tower (of of female dress then consisted. I will, says he, that women London) worn by queen Elizabeth.” Callaway's Oriental Observ. p. 47. adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and tions on this subject: "I never understood the full meaning of our Lord's sobriety, not with BROIDERED HAIR, or GOLD, or PEARLS, or words, as recorded in John xiii. 10., untill be held the better sort of natives COSTLY ARRAY : but (which becometh women professing godli- return home after performing their customary ablutions. The passage
reads thus: 'He that is washed needeth noi save to wash his feet, but is ness) with good works. (1 Tim. ii
. 9.) St. Peter in like man
clean every whit.' Thus, as they return to their habitations barefoot, they ner ordains, that the adorning of the fair sex should not be necessarily contract in their progress some portion of dust on their feet; 80 much that outward adorning of PLAiting the hair, and of and this is universally the case, however nigh their dwellings may be to
When therefore they return, the first thing they do is to venting of GOLD, OF PUTTING ON OF APPAREL: but let it be the the river side.
mount a low stool, and pour a small vessel of water over their feet, to hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even cleanse them from the soil they may have contracted in their journey the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight homewards ; if they are of the higher order of society, a servant performs
it for them, and then they are clean every whit.!'" · Rae Wilson's Travels in the Holy Land, &c. vol. i. p. 147. 3d edition. Recollections, p. 81. London, 1832. 12mo. • Descript de l'Arabie, p. 61.
Nal. Hist. lib. xxxiii. c. 1.
pare also Hag. ii. 23. Jer. xxxii. 24. The Ring is men- 5. Another female ornament was a Chain about the neck tioned in Isa. iii. 21., and also in the parable of the prodigal, (Ezek. xvi. 11.), which appears to have been used also by where the father orders a ring for his returning son (Luke the men, as may be inferred from Prov. i. 9. This was a xv. 22.), and also by the apostle James. (ii. 2.) The com- general ornament in all the eastern countries : thus Pharaoh pliment of a royal ring was a token that the person, to whom is said to have put a chain of gold about Joseph's neck (Gen. it was given, was invested with power and honour : thus xli. 42.); and Belshazzar did the same to Daniel (Dan. v. Pharaoh took off his ring from his hand, and put it on Jo- 29.); and it is mentioned with several other things as part seph's. (Gen. xli. 42.) And Ahasuerus plucked off his ring of the Midianitish spoil. (Num. xxxi. 50.). Further, the from his finger, and bestowed it on Haman (Esther iii. 10.), arms or wrists were adorned with bracelets : these are in the and afterwards on Mordecai. (viii. 2.)
catalogue of the female ornaments used by the Jews (Ezek. VII. Although the garments anciently worn by the Jews xvi. 1ỉ.), and were part of Rebecca's present. They were were few in number, yet their ornaments were many, espe- also worn by men of any considerable figure, for we read of cially those worn by the women. The prophet Isaiah, when Judah's bracelets (Gen. xxxviii. 18.), and of those worn by reproaching the daughters of Sion with their luxury and Saul. (2 Sam. i. 10.) vanity, gives us a particular account of their female orna- 6. We read in Exod. xxxviii. 8. of the women's LOOKING ments. (Isa. iii. 16-24.) The most remarkable were the GLASSES, which were not made of what is now called following :
glass, but of polished brass, otherwise these Jewish women 1. The Nose Jewels (ver. 21.), or, as Bishop Lowth could not have contributed them towards the making of the translates them, the jewels of the nostril. They were rings set brazen laver, as is there mentioned. In later times, mirrors with jewels, pendent from the nostrils, like ear-rings from the were made of other polished metal, which at best could only ears, by holes bored to receive them. Ezekiel, enumerating reflect a very obscure and imperfect image. Hence St. Paul, the common ornaments of women of the first rank, distinctly in a very apt and beautiful simile, describes the defective mentions the nose jewel (Ezek. xvi. 12. marg. rendering); and limited' knowledge of the present state by that opaque and in an elegant Proverb of Solomon (Prov. xi. 22.) there and dim representation of objects, which those mirrors exhi. is a manifest allusion to this kind of ornament, which shows bited. Now we see di Tontgov by means of a mirror, darkly; that it was used in his time. Nose jewels were one of the not through a glass, as in our version of 1 Cor. xiii. 12.; for love-tokens presented to Rebecca by the servant of Abraham telescopes, as every one knows, are a very late invention. in the name of his master. (Gen. xxiv. 22. where the word 7. To the articles of apparel above enumerated may be translated ear-ring ought to have been rendered nose jewel.)added Feet Rings. (Isa. 1.8. in our version rendered TINKHowever singular this custom may appear to us, modern LING ORNAMENTS about the feet.) Most of these articles travellers attest its prevalence in the East among women of of female apparel are still in use in the East. The East all ranks. 3
Indian women, who accompanied the Indo-Anglican army 2. The Ear-ring was an ornament worn by the men as from India to Egypt, wore large rings in their noses, and sil. well as the women, as appears from Gen. xxxv. 4, and ver cinctures about their ankles and wrists, their faces being Exod. xxxii. 2. ; and by other nations as well as the Jews, painted above the eyebrows. In Persia and Arabia, also, it is as is evident from Num. xxxi. 50. and Judg. viii. 24. It well known that the women paint their faces and wear gold should seem that this ornament had been heretofore used for and silver rings about their ankles, which are full of liule idolatrous purposes, since Jacob, in the injunction which he bells that tinkle as they walk or trip along, Cingalese chilgave to his household, commanded them to put away the dren often wear rings about their ankles; Malabar and Moor strange gods that were in their hands, and the ear-rings that children wear rings, hung about with hollow balls, which were in their ears. (Gen. xxxv. 2. 4.)" It appears that the linkle as they run.8 The licensed prostitutes whom Dr. Israelites themselves in subsequent times were not free from Richardson saw at Gheneh (a large commercial town of this superstition ; for Hosea (ií. 13.) represents Jerusalem as Upper Egypt) were attired in a similar manner. having decked herself with ear-rings to Baalim.
8. As large black eyes are greatly esteemed in the East, 3. Perfume Boxes (in our version of Isa. iii. 20. rendered the oriental women have recourse to artificial means, in order tablets) were an essential article in the toilet of a Hebrew to impart a dark and majestic shade to the eyes, Dr. Shaw lady: ' A principal part of the delicacy of the Asiatic ladies informs us, that none of the Moorish ladies think themselves consists in the use of baths, and the richest oils and per- completely dressed, until they have tinged their eyelids with fumes : an attention to which is in some degree necessary in al-ka-hol, that is, with stibium, or the powder of lead ore. those hot countries. Frequent mention is made of the rich As this process is performed by first dipping into this pow. ointments of the bride in the Song of Solomon. (iv. 10, 11.) der a small wooden bodkin of the thickness of a quill, and The preparation for Esther's introduction to king Ahasuerus then drawing it afterwards through the eyelids, over the ball was a course of bathing and perfuming for a whole year : six of the eye, we have a lively image of what the prophet Jeremonths with oil of myrrh, and six months with sweet odours. miah (iv. 30.) may be supposed to mean by renting the eyes (Esth. ii. 12.) A diseased and loathsome habit of body, (not as we render it, with painting, but) with Tip, lead ore. which is denounced against the women of Jerusalem- The sooty colour which in this manner is communicated to
the eyes is thought to add a wonderful gracefulness to And there shall be, instead of perfume, a putrid ulcer
perIsa. iii. 2. Bp. LOWTH's version.
sons of all complexions. The practice of it, no doubt, is of
great antiquity for, besides the instances already noticed, instead of a beautiful skin, softened and made agreeable with we find, that when Jezebel is said to have painted her face all that art could devise, and all that nature, so prodigal in (2 Kings ix. 30.), the original words are up 7102 Dun, i. e. those countries of the richest perfumes, could supply,—must she adjusted, or set off, her eyes with the powder of lead ore. So have been a punishment the most severe, and the most morti- likewise Ezek. xxiii. 40, is to be understood. Keren-hapfying to the delicacy of these haughty daughters of Sion.” puch, i. e. the horn of pouk or lead ore, the name of Job's 4.' The TRANSPARENT GARMENTS (in our version of Isa. iii.
The 'Erortpov, or metallic mirror, is mentioned by the author of the 23. rendered glasses) were a kind of silken dress, transparent apocryphal book of the Visdom of Solomon (vii. 26.); who, speaking of like gauze, worn only by the most delicate women, and by Wisdom, says that she is the brightness of the ererlasting light and such as dressed themselves more elegantly than became ESOU TRON XXS autov the unspoited mirror of the power of God and the women of good character. This sort of garments was after- exhorting to put no trust in an enemy, says, Though he humble himself wards in use both among the Greeks and Romans.6
and go crouching, yet take good heed and berrare of him ; and thou shalt
be unto him as ix piu * %ws 'EXONITPON, as if thou hadsi wiped a MIRROR, · Schroeder has treated at great length on the various articles of female and thou shall knou that his rcst hath not altogether been wiped away. apparel mentioned in Isa. iii. 16–24. in his Commentarius Philologico (Ecclus. xii. 11.) The mention of rust in this place manifestly indicates the Criticus de Vestitu Mulierum Hebræaum. Lug. Bat. 1735. 4to.
metallic composition of the mirror; which is frequently mentioned in the 9 Bp. Lowth on Isaiah, vol. ii. p. 47.
ancient classic writers. See particularly Anacreon, Ode xi. 3. and xx. 5, 3 Ibid. vol. ii. p. 48. Harmer's Observations, vol. iv. pp. 316–320. In the 6. Dr. A. Clarke, on 1 Cor. xiii. 12. East Indies, a small jewel, in form resembling a rose, ornaments one • Dr. Clarke's Travels, vol. v. p. 320. 8vo. edit. Morier's Second Jour. nostril of even the poorest Malabar woman. Callaway's Oriental Obser. ney in Persia, p. 145. Ward's History, &c of the Hindoos, vol. ii. pp. vations, p. 18.
329. 333. Callaway's Oriental Observations, pp. 47, 48. * It is probable that the ear-rings, or jewels, worn by Jacob's house. • "This is the only place in Egypt where we saw the women of the town hold, had been consecrated to superstitious purposes, and worn, perhaps, decked out in all their finery. They were of all nations and of all comas a kind of amulet. It appears that rings, whether on the ears or nose, plexions, and regularly licensed, as in many parts of Europe, to exercise were first superstitiously worn in honour of false gods, and probably of iheir profession. Some of them were highly painted, and gorgeously the sun, whose circular form they inight be designed to represent. Mai attired with costly necklaces, rings in their noses and in their ears, and monides mentions rings and vessels of this kind, with the image of the bracelets on their urists and arms. They sat at the doors of the houses, sun, moon, &c. impressed on them. These superstitious objects were and called on the passengers as they wení by, in the same manner as we concealed by Jacob in a place known only to himself. Grotius on Gen. read in the book of Proverbs.” (vii: 6–23 ] (Richardson's Travels, vol i. XXXV. 4. Calmet's Dictionary, vol. ii. voce Ring.
p. 260.) The same custom was observed by Pitts, a century before, at • Bp. Lowth’s Isaiah, vol. ii. pp. 49, 50.
& Ibid. p. 49. Cairo. See his account of the Mahometans, p. 99.
youngest daughter, was relative to this custom or practice.”! | as a token of mourning for Joseph (Gen. xxxvii. 34.), signiThe modern Persian, Egyptian, and Arab women, continue fying thereby that since he had lost his beloved son he conthe practice of tinging their eyelashes and eyelids.2 sidered himself as reduced to the meanest and lowest condi
It was a particular injunction of the Mosaic law that the tion of life. women shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, nei- IX. A prodigious number of sumptuous and magnificent ther shall a man put on a woman's garment. (Deut. xxii. 5.) habits was in ancient times regarded as a necessary and inThis precaution was very necessary against the abuses which dispensable part of their treasures. Horace, speaking of are the usual consequences of such disguises. For a woman Lucullus (who had pillaged Asia, and first introduced Asiatic drest in a man's clothes will not be restrained so readily by refinements among the Romans), says, that, some persons that modesty which is the peculiar ornament of her sex; and having waited upon him to request the loan of a hundred suits a man drest in a woman's habit may without fear and shame out of his wardrobe for the Roman stage, he exclaimed—“A go into companies where, without this disguise, shame and hundred suits! how is it possible for me to furnish such a fear would hinder his admittance, and prevent his appearing. number? However, I will look over them and send you what
In hot countries, like a considerable part of Palestine, I have."--After some time, he writes a note, and tells them travellers inform us, that the greatest difference imaginable he had FIVE THOUSAND, to the whole or part of which they subsists between the complexions of the women. Those of were welcome. any condition seldom go abroad, and are ever accustomed to This circumstance of amassing and ostentatiously displaybe shaded from the sun, with the greatest attention. Their ing in wardrobes numerous and superb suits, as indispensaskin is, consequently, fair and beautiful. But women in the ble to the idea of wealth, and forming a principal part of the lower ranks of life, especially in the country, being from the opulence of those times, will elucidate several passages of nature of their employments more exposed to the scorching Scripture. The patriarch Job, speaking of riches in his time, rays of the sun, are, in their complexions, remarkably tawny says,- Though they heap up silver as the dust, and prepare and swarthy. Under such circumstances, a high value raiment as the clay. (Job xxvii. 16.). Joseph gave his brethren would, of course, be set, by the eastern ladies, upon the fair- changes of raiment, but to Benjamin he gave three hundred ness of their complexions, as a distinguishing mark of their pieces of silver, and five changes of raiment. (Gen. xlv. 22.)" superior quality, no less than as an enhancement of their Naaman carried for a present to the prophet Elisha ten changes beauty. We perceive, therefore, how natural was the bride's of raiment, that is, according to Calmet, ten tunics and ten self-abasing reflection in Cant. i. 5, 6. respecting her tawny upper garments. (2 Kings v. 5.) In allusion to this custom complexion (caused by exposure to servile employments), our Lord, when describing the short duration and perishing among the fair daughters of Jerusalem; who, as attendants nature of earthly treasures, represents them as subject to the on a royal marriage (we may suppose), were of the highest depredations of moths. Lay not up for yourselves TREASURES rank.)
on earth, where moth and rust do corrupt. (Matt. vi. 19.). The VIII. 'To change habits and wash one's clothes were cere- illustrious apostle of the Gentiles, when appealing to the inmonies used by Jews, in order to dispose them for some tegrity and fidelity with which he had discharged his sacred holy action which required particular purity. Jacob, after office, said, --I have coveted no man's gold, or silver, or APPAREL. his return from Mesopotamia, required his household to change (Acts xx. 33.) The apostle James, likewise (just in the their garments, and go with him to sacri fice at Bethel. (Gen. same manner as the Greek and Roman writers, when they xxxv. 2, 3.) Moses commanded the people to prepare them are particularizing the opulence of those times), specifies selves for the reception of the law by purifying and washing gold, silver, and garments, as the constituents of riches :their clothes. (Exod. xix. 10.) On the other hand, the Go to now, ye rich men ; weep and howl for your miseries that RENDING OF one's clothes is an expression frequently used shall come upon you. Your gold and silver is cankered, and in Scripture, as a token of the highest grief. Reuben, to your GARMENTS are moth-eaten, (James v. 1. 3. 2.)6. The denote his great sorrow for Joseph, rent his clothes (Gen. fashion of hoarding up splendid dresses still subsists in Paxxxvii. 29.); Jacob did the like (ver. 34.); and Ezra, to lestine. It appears from Psal. xlv. 8. that the wardrobes of express the concern and uneasiness of his mind, and the the East were plentifully perfumed with aromatics; and in apprehensions he entertained of the divine displeasure, on Cant. iv. 11. the fragrant odour of the bride's garments is account of the people's unlawful marriages, is said to rend compared to the odour of Lebanon. With robes thus perhis garments and his manile (Ezra ix. 3.); that is, both his fumed Rebecca furnished her son Jacob, when she sent him inner and upper garment: this was also an expression of to obtain by stratagem his father's blessing. And he (Isaac) indignation and holy zeal; the high-priest rent his clothes, smelled the smell (or fragrance) of his raiment and blessed him, pretending that our Saviour had spoken blasphemy. (Matt. and said, See! the smell of my son is as the smell of a field xxvi. 65.) And so did the apostles, when the people intended which the Lord hath blessed. (Gen. xxvii. 27.)' In process to pay them divine honours. (Acts xiv. 14.) “The garments of time, this exquisite fragrance was figuratively applied to of mourners among the Jews were chiefly sackcloth and the moral qualities of the mind; of which we have an examhaircloth. The last sort was the usual clothing of the pro- ple in the Song of Solomon, i. 3. phets, for they were continual penitents by profession; and
Like the fragrance of thine own sweet perfumes therefore Zechariah speaks of the rough garments of the false
Is thy name, --a perfume poured forth.s prophets, which they also wore to deceive. (Zech. xiii. 4.) • Horat. Epist. lib. i. ep. 6. ver. 40–44. Jacob was the first we read of that put sackcloth on his loins, s Presenting garments is one of the modes of complimenting persons in
the East. See several illustrative instances in Burder's Oriental Literature,
vol. i. pp. 93, 91. 1 Dr. Shaw's Travels, vol. I. p. 413.
• Harwood's Introd. vol. ii. pp. 247, 218. ·larıner's Observations, vol. iv. p. 334. Shaw's Travels, vol. i. p. 414.
- Dr. Good's Sacred Idyls, p. 122. In p. 123. he has quoted the following Morier's Second Journey, pp. 61. 145. The eyes of the wife of a Greek priest, whom Mr. Rae Wilson saw at Tiberias, were stained with black passage from Moschus, in which the same idea occurs with singular exact powder. (Travels in the Holy Land, &c. vol. ii. p. 17.) “The Palmyrene
--του αμβροτος οδμη women ...... are the finest looking women of all the Arab tribes of Syria.
Idyl. B. 91. Like other Orientals of their sex, they dye the tips of the fingers and the palms of their hands red, and wear gold rings in their ears; and the
Whose heavenly fragrance far exceeds jer-black dye of the hennah for the eyelashes is never forgotten; they
The fragrance of the breathing meads. troag pe, and, perhaps, with truth, that its blackness gives the eye an addi
Dr. Good's translation of Solomon's Song, p. 123. tional languor and interest." Carne's Letters from the East, p. 592.
Τελοθι και λιιμωνος καινυτο λαρον αυτμην.
Jowett's Christian Researches in Syria, &c. pp. 97, 98. • Pry's Translation of the Song of Soloinon, p. 36.
9 Dr. Good's version.