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cient times, for a series of many years, this people had been strained to emigrate from their native country; hence, at the favoured with numerous signal manifestations from heaven : time of our Saviour's birth, there was scarcely a province in a cloud had conducted them by day, and a pillar of fire by the Roman empire in which they were not to be found, either pight; their law was given them accompanied by a peculiar serving in the army, engaged in the pursuits of commerce, display of solemn pomp and magnificence; and the glory of or exercising some lucrative arts. They were maintained, God had repeatedly filled their temple. Habituated as their in foreign countries, against injurious treatment and violence, understandings had been, for many ages, to receive as truth by various special edicts of the emperors and magistrates in only what should be attested and ratified by signs from hea- their favour; though from the peculiarities of their religion ven, and by some grand and striking phenomena in the sky, and manners, they were held in very general contempt, and it was natural for them, long accustomed as they had been were not unfrequently exposed to much vexation and annoyto this kind of evidence, to ask our Saviour to give them ance, from the jealousy and indignation of an ignorant and some sign from heaven (Matt. xvi. 1.), to exhibit before them superstitious populace. Many of them, in consequence of some amazing and stupendous prodigy in the air to convince their long residence and intercourse with foreign nations, fell them of the dignity and divinity of his character. The Jews, into the error of endeavouring to make their religion accomsays St. Paul, require a sign (1 Cor. i. 22.); it was that modate itself to the principles and institutions of some of the species of evidence to which their nation had been accus- different systems of heathen discipline; but, on the other tomed. Thus we read that the Scribes and Pharisees came hand, it is clear that the Jews brought many of those among to John, desiring him that he would show them a sign from whom they resided to perceive the superiority of the Mosaic heaven. Again, we read that the Jews came and said to religion over the Gentile superstitions, and were highly inJesus, What sign showest thou unto us, seeing that thou dost strumental in causing them to forsake the worship of a plathese things ? Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this rality of gods. Although the knowledge which the Gentiles temple, and in three days I will raise it up! (John ii. 18, 19.) | thus acquired from the Jews respecting the only true God, What kind of signs these were which they expected, and the Creator and Governor of the universe, was, doubtless, what sort of preternatural prodigies they wanted him to dis- both partial and limited, yet it inclined many of them the play in order to authenticate his divine mission to them, ap- more readily to listen to the subsequent arguments and expears from the following passages : They said, therefore, unto hortations of the apostles of our Saviour, for the purpose of him, What sign showest thou then, that we may see and believe exploding the worship of false deities, and recalling men to thee? What dost thou work? Our fathers did eat manna in the knowledge of true religion. All which, Mosheim obthe desert; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven! serves, with equal truth and piety, appears to have been most (John vi. 30, 31.) This method, therefore, of espousing singularly and wisely directed by the adorable hand of an religious doctrines, only as they should be confirmed by some interposing Providence: to the end that this people, who signal and indubitable interposition of the Deity, and their were the sole depository of the true religion and of the knowcherishing the vanity and presumption that heaven would ledge of the one supreme God, being spread abroad through lavish its miraculous signs whenever they called for them, the whole earth, might be every where, by their example, a constitute a striking and very distinguishing feature in the reproach to superstition, contribute in some measure to check national character of this people.”
it, and thus prepare the way for that fuller display of divine So exceedingly great was the fecundity of the Jewish truth which was to shine upon the world from the ministry people, that multitudes of them had occasionally been con-) and Gospel of the Son of God.2
DOMESTIC ANTIQUITIES OF THE JEWS, AND OF OTHER NATIONS INCIDENTALLY
MENTIONED IN THE SCRIPTURES.
ON THE DWELLINGS OF THE JEWS.
I. Caves.-II. Tents.—III. Houses--Their Arrangement Materials and Conveniences.-IV. Furniture.–V. Cities,
Markets, and Gates.'
1. As men, in the primitive condition of society, were un- bary and Egypt, as well as in various other parts of the acquainted with the arts, they, of course, were not able to East. The Horites, who dwelt on Mount Seir, the Zambuild themselves houses ; they abode, therefore, necessarily zummim, and the Emims or Anakim, are supposed to have under the shade of trees. It is probable that when mankind resided in caves. began to multiply on the earth, they dwelt in Caves, many II. In succeeding ages, they abode generally in Tents, as of which, in the Holy Land, are both capacious and dry, and the Arabs of the Desert do to this day. The invention of still afford occasional shelter to the wandering shepherds and these is ascribed to Jabal the son of Lamech, who is, theretheir flocks. Thus, Lot and his daughters abode in a cave, fore, termed the father of such as dwell in tents. (Gen. iv. 20.) after the destruction of Sodom. (Gen. xix. 30.) Ancient The patriarchs pitched their tents where they pleased, and, historians3 contain many notices of troglodytes, or dwellers it should seem, under the shade of trees whenever this was in caves, and modern travellers have met with them in Bar- practicable. Thus, Abraham's tent was pitched under a tree
in the plains of Mamre (Gen. xviii. 4.), and Deborah the creta Romana et Asiatica pro Judæis ad cultuin divinum per Asia Minoris Bethel, in Mount Ephraim."(Judg. iv. 5.) In the East, to
• In proof of this observation, Mosheim refers to Jacobi Gronovii De prophetess dwelt under a palm tree between Ramah and Credibility, part i. book i. ch. 8. (Works, vol. 1. pp. 164–201.) where nu. this day, it is the custom in many
places to plant about and 2. Mosheim's Commentaries, vol i. p. 106. Eccl. Hist. vol. i. p. 52. edir. among their buildings trees, which grow both high and
Besides the authorities cited in the preceding chapter, the Jewish broad, and afford a cooling and refreshing shade. It appears sects, &c, are largely discussed by Prideaux, Connection, book v. vol. i. from 1 Kings iv. 25. that this practice anciently obtained in pp. 333–358. Relandi Antiq. Sacr. Hebræorum, pp. 276. et seq. Ikenius, Judæa, and that vines and fig trees were commonly used for Macknight's Harmony, vol. i. disc. 1. Lamy's Apparatus Biblicus, vol. I: this purpose. These trees furnished two great articles of pp225-243. Dr. Lardner's Credibility, part i. book i. ch. 4. Leusden's food for their consumption, and the cuttings of their vines Philologus Hebræo-Mixtus, pp. 138–170. Buddei Hist. Philosophice Hebræ.
• The inhabitants of Anah, a town on the east of the river Jordan (lat. 32. a llerodotus, lib.lij. c. 74. Diod. Sic. lib. iii. c. 31. Quintus Curtius, lib. long. 35. E.), all live in grottoes or caves excavated in the rock. BuckingV. c. 6. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. XV. C. 4. $ 1.
ham's Travels among the Arab Tribes, p. 61.
oruin, pp. 6. et sey.
would be useful to them for fuel. The tents of the emirs Indies, also, nothing is more common than for thieves to dig and sovereigns of the East are both large and magnificent, or break through these mud walls, while the unsuspecting and furnished with costly hangings. Those of the Turco- inhabitants are overcome by sleep, and to plunder them. To mans are said to be black;' and those of the Turks green : similar depredations Jesus Christ appears to allude, when he but, according to D'Arvieux, Dr. Shaw, and M. Volney, the exhorts his disciples not to lay up their treasure where tents of the Bedouins, or Arabs of the Desert, are univer- thieves BREAK THROUGH and steal. (Matt. vi. 19, 20.) Job also sally black, or of a very dusky brown. To these the bride seems to refer to the same practice. (xxiv. 16.) In the holes in the Canticles compares herself (i. 5.) I am black (or, and chinks of these walls serpents sometimes concealed tawney) as the tents of Kedar, but comely, or beautiful as the themselves. (Amos v. 19.) In Egypt, it appears from Exod. curtains of Solomon. In the East, those who lead a pastoral v. 7, that straw anciently entered into the composition of life frequently sit (as Abraham did) in the tent-door in the bricks; and some expositors have imagined that it was used heat of the day. (Gen. xviii. 1.) The Arabian tents are of (as with us) merely for burning them ; but this notion is unan oblong figure, supported according to their size, some founded. The Egyptian bricks were a mixture of clay, mud, with one pillar, others with two or three, while a curtain or and straw, slightly blended and kneaded together, and aftercarpet, occasionally let down from each of these divisions, wards baked in the sun. Philo, in his life of Moses, says, converts the whole into so many separate apartments. These that they used straw to bind their bricks. The straw still tents are kept firm and steady by bracing or stretching down preserves its original colour, and is a proof that these bricks their eaves with cords, tied to hookei wooden pins, well were never burnt in stacks or kilns. Part of the bricks of pointed, which they drive into the ground with a mallet: the celebrated tower of Babel (or of Belus, as the Greeks one of these pins answering to the nail, as the mallet does termed it) were made of clay mixed with chopped straw, or to the hammer, which Jael used in fastening the temples of broken reeds, to compact it, and then dried in ihe sun. Their Sisera to the ground. (Judg: iv. 21.). In these dwellings solidity is equal to that of the hardest stone. Among the the Arabian shepherds and their families repose upon the ruins discovered on the site of ancient Nineveh, are houses, bare ground, or with only a mat or carpet beneath them. built of sun-dried bricks, cemented with mud; and similarly Those who are married have each of them a portion of the constructed dwellings were observed by Mr. Buckingham in tent to themselves separated by a curtain. The more opu- the village of Karagoosh, near Mousul in Mesopotamia." At lent Arabs, however, always have two tents, one for them- this day the town of Busheher (or Bushire), like most of the selves, and another for their wives, besides others for their towns in Persia, is built with sun-dried bricks and mud,12 servants; in like manner, a particular tent was allotted to There is an allusion to this mode of building in Nahum Sarah. (Gen. xxiv. 67.) When travelling, they were care- iii. 14. ful to pitch their tents near some river, fountain, or well. At first, houses were small; afterwards they were larger, (1 Sam. xxix. 1. xxx. 21.) In countries subject to violent especially in extensive cities, the capitals of empires. The tempests as well as to intolerable heat, a portable tent is a art of multiplying stories in a building is very ancient, as we necessary part of a traveller's baggage, both for defence and may conclude from the construction of Noah's ark and the shelter. To this the prophet Isaiah appears to allude. tower of Babel. The houses in Babylon, according to Hero(iv. 6.)
dotus,13 were three and four stories high; and those in Thebes III. In progress of time men erected Houses for their habi- or Diospolis,14 in Egypt, were four or five stories. In Palestations : those of the rich were formed of stone or bricks, but tine they appear to have been low, during the time of Joshua; the dwellings of the poor were formed of wood, or more fre- an upper story, though it may have existed, is not mentioned quently of mud, as they are to this day in the East Indies ;5 till a more recent age. The houses of the rich and powerful which material is but ill calculated to resist the effects of the in Palestine, in the time of Christ, were splendid, and were impetuous torrents, that descended from the mountains of built according to the rules of Grecian architecture. Palestine. Our Lord alludes to this circumstance at the Of all modern travellers, no one has so happily described close of his sermon on the mount. (Matt. vii. 26, 27.) In the the form and structure of the eastern buildings as Dr. Shaw,
from whose account the following particulars are derived, · Emerson's Letters from the Ægean, vol. I. p. 192.
which admirably elucidate several interesting passages of - Fron Hit, a town on the banks of the Euphrates, to Hilla, the site of ancient Babylon, “the black tent of the Bedouin, forined of strong cloth
Holy Writ. de of goat's hair and wool mixed, supported by low poles, is almost the
• The streets of the cities, the better to shade them from oniy kind of habitation met with.” (Capt. Chesney's Reports on the Navi. gation of the Euphrates, p. 3. London, 1833. folio.) The Illyauts, a wan. * Ward's History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p.
325. dering tribe of Arabs, have black tents. (Hon. Capt. Keppel's Narrative & Philonis Opera, tom. ii. p. 86. (edit. Mangey.) of Travels from India to England, vol. I. p. 100.)
. Shaw's Travels, vol. i. p. 250. Mr. Belzoni, in his Researches in Egypt : shaw's Travels, vol. i. pp. 399, 399. The description given by the intelli. found similar bricks in an ancient arch which he discovered at Thebes, and gent traveller Mr. Buckingham of the tent of the Sheik Barak, who was at which he has engraved among the plates illustrative of his Researches in the head of a tribe of Turcomans, wandering in the vicinity of Aleppo, Egypt, Nubia, &c. Plate xliv. No. 2. In and near the ruins of the ancient will enable us to form some idea of the shape and arrangement of the tent Teniyra, Dr. Richardson also found huts built of sun-dried brick, made of of the patriarch, Abraham. "The tent occupied a space of about thirty straw and clay. (Travels, vol. i. pp. 185. 259.) They are thus described by feet square, and was formed by one large awning, supported by twenty-four the Rev. Mr. Jowett, as they appeared in February, 1819.-Speaking of the small poles in four rows of six each, the ends of the awning being drawn remains of ancient buildings in that part of Egypt, he says, -" These mag. out by cordə fastened to pegs in the ground. Each of these poles giving a nificent edifices, while they display the grandeur of former times, exhibit printed form to the part of the awning, which it supported, the outside no less the meanness of the present. This temple, built of massive stone, looked like a number of umbrella tops, or small Chinese spires. The with a portico of twenty-four pillars, adorned with innumerable hieroglyph. half of this square was open in front and at the sides, having two rows of ics, and painted with beautiful colours, the brightness of which in many poles clear, and the third was closed by a reeded partition, behind which | parts remains to this day, is choked up with dusty earth. Village after vil. was the apartinent for females, surrounded entirely by the same kind of lage, built of unburnt brick, crumbling into ruins, and giving place to new
..."When the three angels are said to have appeared in the habitations, bave raised the earth, in some parts, nearly to the level of the pain or Mamre, he is represented as willing in the tent-door in the heat summit of the temple; and fragments of the walls of these mud huts appear of the day,” (Gen. xviii. 1-10.) "And when he saw them, he ran to even on the roof of the temple. In every part of Egypt, we find the lowns meet them from the tent-poor, and bowed himself towards the ground... built in this manner, upon the ruins, or rather the rubbish, of the former And Abrahain bastened into the tent unto Sarah, and said, Make ready habitation. The expression in Jeremiah xxx. 18. literally applies to Egypt quickly three measures of fine meal, knead it, and make cakes upon the in the very meanest sense–The city shall be builded upon her ouen henp; hearth. And he took butter, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and the expression in Job xv. 28. might be illustrated by many of these an 1 set it before them, and he stood by them, under the tree, and they did deserted hovels-Ile duelleth in desolate cities, and in houses which no
When inquiry was made after his wife, he replied, 'Belold, she is man inhabileth, which are ready to become heaps. Still more touching is in the tent' And when it was promised him that Sarah should have a son, the allusion in Job iv. 19.; where the perishing generations of men are it is said, 'And Sarah heard in the tent-door which was behind him.'...... fitly compared to habitations of the frailest materials, built upon the heap The form of Abraham's tent, as thus described, seems to have been ex- of similar dwelling places, now reduced to rubbish--- How much less in them actly like the one in which we sit: for in both there was a shaded open that duell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust!”—(Jowett's front in which he could sit in the heat of the day, and yet be seen from afar Researches in the Mediterranean, pp. 131, 132.)--In one place, says the off; and the apartment of the fernales, where Sarah' was, when he stated same intelligent traveller, "the people were making bricks with straw cut her to be within the tent, was immediately behind this, wherein she pre. | into small pieces, and mingled with the clay to bind it. Hence it is, thal, pared the meal for the guests, and from whence she listened to their pro. when villages built of these bricks fall into rubbish, which is often the phetie declaration." Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. i. pp. 30. 33, 34.
case, the roads are full of small particles of straws extremely offensive to Bp. Lowth on Isaiah iv. 6. Parean, Antiq. Hebr. pp. 353-356. Bru. the eyes in a high wind. They were, in short, engaged exactly as the Israel. ning Antiq. Hebr. p. 273. Jahn et Ackermann, Archæol. Biblica, $S 26–31. ites used to be, making bricks with straw; and for a similar purpose-to
* In Bengal and Ceylon, as well as in Egypt, houses are constructed with build extensive granaries for the basbaw; treasure-cities for Pharaoh.” this srail material. Dr. Mary's Account of the Interior of Ceylon, p. 256. Exod. i. 11. (Ibid. p. 167.) See also Hariner's Observations, vol. i. pp. 205. 287. The houses at Mousul 10 Sir R. K. Porter's Travels in Georgia, Persia, Babylonia, &c. vol. ii. pp. *are most)y constructed of sinall unhewn stones, ceinented by mortar, 329, 330. and plastered over with mnd, though some are built of burnt and unburnt 11 Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. ii. p. 71. brieks" Buckingham's Travels in Mesopotamia, vol. ii. p. 28.
19 Price's Journal of the British Embassy to Persia, part i. p.
6. Lond. . See instances of the frailly of these tenements in Dr. Shaw's Travels, 183. folio. vol. 1. p. 20. Belzoni's Researches in Egypt, p. 299., and Ward's View of 13 Herodot. lib. i. c. 180.
14 Diod. Sic. lib. I. c. 45. the History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 335.
18 Jahn et Ackermann, Archæol. Bibl. $ 33.
the sun, are usually narrow, sometimes with a range of shops on each side. If from these we enter into any of the princi
с pal houses, we shall first pass through a porch' or gateway, with benches on each side, where the master of the family
D receives visits, and despatches business; few persons, not
A, A, the street. even the nearest relations, having admission any farther, except upon extraordinary occasions. From hence we are
B, the outer porch. received into the court, which lying open to the weather, is, according to the ability of the owner, paved with marble, or
C, C, C, the gallery.
С such proper materials as will carry off the water into the com
С mon sewers." This court corresponded to the cæva adium or
D, the porch at the impluvium of the Romans; the use of which was to give light
entrance into the to the windows and carry off the rain. “When much people
main building. are to be admitted, as upon the celebration of a marriage, the circumcising of a child, or occasions of the like nature, the company is seldom or never admitted into one of the chambers. The court is the usual place of their reception, which
B is strewed accordingly with mats or carpets, for their more commodious entertainment. The stairs which lead to the
A roof are never placed on the outside of the house in the street, but usually at the gateway or passage room to the court;
Now, let it be supposed, that Jesus was sitting at D in the sometimes at the entrance within the court. This court is porch, at the entrance into the main building, and speaking now called in Arabic el woost, or the middle of the house, to the people, when the four men carrying the paralytic came literally answering to the to usscy of St. Luke. (v. 19.) In this to the front gate or porch, B. Finding the porch so crowded area our Saviour probably taught. In the summer season, and that they could not carry him in and lay him before Jesus, upon all occasions when a large company is to be received, they carried him up the stairs at the porch to the top of the the court is commonly sheltered from the heat and inclemen- gallery, C, C, C, and along the gallery round to the place cies of the weather by a vellum umbrella er veil, which, being where Jesus was sitting, and forcing a passage by removing expanded upon ropes from one side of the parallel wall to the the balustrade, they lowered down the paralytic, with the other, may be folded or unfolded at pleasure. The Psalmist couch on which he lay, into the court before Jesus. Thus we seems to allude either to the tents of the Bedouins, or to some are enabled to understand the manner in which the paralytic covering of this kind, in that beautiful expression, of spreading was brought in and laid before the compassionate Redeemer. out the heavens like a veil or curtain.” (Psal. civ. 2. See also “ The court is for the most part surrounded with a cloister, Isaiah xl. 22.)? The arrangement of oriental houses satis- as the cava ædium of the Romans was with a peristylium or factorily explains the circumstances of the letting down of colonnade, over which, when the house has one or more the paralytic into the presence of Jesus Christ, in order that stories (and they sometimes have two or three), there is a he might heal him. (Mark ii. 4. Luke v. 19.) The paralytic gallery erected of the same dimensions with the cloister, was carried by some of his neighbours to the top of the house, having a balustrade, or else a piece of carved or latticed either by forcing their way through the crowd by the gateway work going round about it, to prevent people from falling and passages up the staircase, or else by conveying him over from it into the court. From the cloisters and galleries we some of the neighbouring terraces ; and there, after they had are conducted into large spacious chambers of the same drawn away the otizm or awning, they let him down along length of the court, but seldom or never communicating with the side of the roof through the opening or impluvium into one another. One of them frequently serves a whole family, the midst of the court before Jesus. Et87", Dr. Shaw remarks, particularly when a father indulges his married children to may with propriety denote no less than tatlilo (the corres- live with him ; or when several persons join in the rent of the ponding word in the Syriac version), any kind of covering; same house. Hence it is that the cities of these countries, and, consequently, atcOTty -[sv may signify, the removal of which are generally much inferior in size to those of Eusuch a covering 'E5-pugnvtec is in the Vulgate Latin version rope, are so exceedingly populous, that great numbers of the rendered patefacientes, as if further explanatory of a TESTEY2021. inhabitants are swept away by the plague, or any other The same in the Persian version is connected with spa életcv, contagious distemper. In houses of better fashion, these and there implies making holes in it for the cords to pass chambers, from the middle of the wall downwards, are cothrough. That neither anestey nor i crue&rtes imply any vered and adorned with velvet or damask hangings, of white, force or violence offered to the roof, appears from the parallel blue, red, green, or other colours (Esth. i. 6.), suspended passage in St. Luke; where, though Sie für sefe pecev 227nxev upon hooks, or taken down at pleasure. But the upper avtov, per tegulas demiserunt illum, is rendered by our trans- part is embellished with more permanent ornaments, being lators, they let him down through the tiling, as if that had been adorned with the most ingenious wreathings and devices in previously broken up, it should be rendered, they let him down stucco and fret-work. The ceiling is generally of wainscot over, along the side, or by the way of the roof, as in Acts ix. either very artfully painted, or else thrown into a variety of 25. and 2 Cor. xi. 33., where the like phraseology is observed panels, with gilded mouldings and scrolls of their korar: as in St. Luke : Sız is rendered in both places by, that is, intermixed. The prophet Jeremiah (xxii. 14.) exclaims along the side, or by the way of the wall. 'ES-Peçertes may express the plucking away or removing any obstacle, such as * Mr. Hartley has dissented from the interpretation above given by Dr. awning or part of a parapet, which might be in their way. frequently above my head, and contemplate the facility with which the
Sbaw. "When I lived in Ægina” (he relates), "I used to look up not un. Kep?pıcı was first used for a roof of tiles, but afterwards came whole transaction might take place. The roof was constructed in this to signify any kind of roof.3
The following diagram will perhaps give the reader a On these a quantity of heather (heath) was strewed; upon the heather tolerably accurate idea of the arrangement of an eastern culty
could there be in removing, first the earth, then the heather, nen house :
the reeds ? Nor would the difficulty be increased, if the earth had a pave.
ment of tiling (xepe Mwv) laid upon it. In Bengal, servants and others generally sleep in the verandah or porch, heather and reeds would intercept any thing which might otherwise fall
the persons in the house from ihe removal of the tiles and earth; for the in front of their master's house. (Ward's History, &c. of the Hindoos, down, and would be removed last of all." (Hartley's Researches in Greece, vol. ii. p. 323.) The Arab servants in Egypt do the saine. (Wilson's Tra. vels in Egypt and the Holy Land, p. 55.) In this way Uriah slept at the
p. 240.) door of the king's house, with all the servants of his lord. (2 Sam. xi. 9.)
3 Sinilar costly hangings appear to have decorated the pavilion or state Dr. Shaw's Travels, vol. i. pp. 374-376.
tent of Solomon, alluded to in Cant. i.5.; the beauty and elegance of which
would form a striking contrast to the black tents of the nomadic Arabs. py's Gr. Test. on Mark 1.4. if the circumstances related by the evange superb: of this gorgeous splendour, Mr. Harmer has given some instances
: Shaw's Travels in Barbary, &c. vol. i. pp. 332–384. 8vo. edition. Val- The state tents of modern oriental sovereigns, it is well known, are very list had happened in India, nothing could be easier than the mode of letting from the travels of Egmont and Hayman. The tent of the Grand Seignior down the paralytic. A plank or two might be started from the top bal was covered and lined with silk. Nadir Shah had a very superb one, cony or viranda in the back court , where the congregation was probably covered on the
outside with scarlet broad cloth, and lined within with violet assembled, and the man [be] let down in his hammock.” Callaway's coloured satin, ornamented with a great variety of animals, flowers, &c Oriental Observations, p. 71.
formed entirely of pearls and precious stones. (Harmer on Sul. Song,
No inconvenience could result to
loft is very
against the eastern houses that were ceiled with cedar, and illustrate the prophet Isaiah's comparison of the Assyrians painted with vermilion. The floors are laid with painted to the grass upon the house-tops. (Isa. xxxvii. 27.) When tiles, or plaster of terrace. But as these people make little any of these cities are built upon level ground, one may pass or no use of chairs (either sitting cross-legged or lying at along the tops of houses from one end of them to the other, length), they always cover and spread them over with car- without coming down into the street.”6 In the mountainous pets, which, for the most part, are of the richest materials. parts of modern Palestine these terraces are composed of Along the sides of the wall or floor, a range of narrow beds earth, spread evenly on the roof of the house, and rolled hard or mattresses is often placed upon these carpets : and for and fat
. On the top of every house a large stone roller is their farther ease and convenience, several velvet or damask kept, for the purpose of hardening and flattening this layer bolsters are placed upon these carpets or mattresses ; indul- of rude soil, to prevent the rain from penetrating ; but upon gences which seem to be alluded to by their stretching them- this surface, as may be supposed, grass and weeds grow selres upon couches, and by the sewing of pillows to the arm- freely. Similar terraces appear to have been anciently conholes, as we have it expressed in Amos vi. 4. and Ezek. xiii. structed in that country: it is to such grass that the Psalmist 18. 'At one end of the chamber there is a little gallery, alludes as useless and bad — Let them be as the grass upon the raised three, four, or five feet above the floor, with a balus- house-tops, which withereth afore it groweth up. (Psal. cxxix. trade in the front of it, with a few steps likewise leading up 6.) These low and flat-roofed houses afford opportunities to to it. Here they place their beds ; a situation frequently speak to many on the house as well as to many in the courtalluded to in the Holy Scriptures; which may likewise illus- yard below : this circumstance will illustrate the meaning trate the circumstance of Hezekiah’s turning his face when he of our Lord's command to his apostles, What ye hear in the prayed towards the wall, i. e. from his attendants (2 Kings ear, that preach ye upon the house-tops. (Matt. x. 27.)? On xx. 2.), that the fervency of his devotion might be the less these terraces incense was anciently burnt (Jer. xix. 13. taken notice of and observed. Th like is related of Ahab xxxii. 29.), and the host of heaven was worshipped. (Zeph. (1 Kings xxi. 4.), though probably not upon a religious ac- i. 5.). count, but in order to conceal from his attendants the anguish In Barbary, the hills and valleys in the vicinity of Algiers he felt for his late disappointments. The stairs are some are beautified with numerous country seats and gardens, times placed in the porch, sometimes at the entrance into the whither the opulent resort during the intense heats of sumcourt. When there is one or more stories, they are after- mer. In all probability, the summer-houses of the Jews, wards continued through one corner or other of the gallery to mentioned by the prophet Amos (iii. 15.), were of this dethe top of the house, whither they conduct us through a door scription; though these have been supposed to mean differthat is constantly kept shut to prevent their domestic animals ent'apartments of the same house, the one exposed to a from daubing the terrace, and thereby spoiling the water northern and the other to a southern aspect. which falls from thence into the cisterns below the court. During the Rev. Mr. Jowett's residence at Haivali, in May, This door, like most others we meet with in these countries, 1818, he relates that the house, in which he abode, gave him is hung, not with hinges, but by having the jamb formed at a correct idea of the scene of Eutychus's falling from the each end into an axle-tree or pívot, whereof the uppermost, upper loft, while Paul was preaching at Troas. (Acts xx. which is the longest, is to be received into a correspondent 6–12.) “ According to our idea of houses,” he remarks, socket in the lintel, while the other falls into a cavity of the the scene of Eutychus's falling from the upper same fashion in the threshold."| Anciently, it was the cus- far from intelligible; and, besides this, the circumstance of tom to secure the door of a house, by a cross-bar or bolt, preaching generally leaves on the mind of cursory readers which by night was fastened by a little button or pin : in the the notion of a church. To describe this house, which is upper part of the door was left a round hole, through which not many miles distant from the Troad, and perhaps, from any person from without might thrust his arm, and remove the unchanging character of oriental customs, nearly resemthe bar, unless this additional security were superadded. To bles the houses then built, will fully illustrate the narrative. such a mode of fastening the bride alludes in Cant. v. 4.2 “On entering my host's door, we find the ground floor
“The top of the house, which is always flat, is covered entirely used as a store: it is filled with large barrels of oil, with a strong plaster of terrace, whence in the Frank lan- the produce of the rich country for many miles round : this guage it has obtained the name of the terrace. This is space, so far from being habitable, is sometimes so dirty with usually surrounded by two walls, the outermost whereof is the dripping of the oil, that it is difficult to pick out a clean partly built over the street, and partly makes the partition footing from the door to the first step of the staircase. On with the contiguous houses, being frequently so low that one ascending, we find the first floor, consisting of a humble may easily climb over it. The other, which may be called suite of rooms, not very high; these are occupied by the the parapet wall, hangs immediately over the court, being family, for their daily use. It is on the next story that all always breast high, and answers to the npyp, or lorica, Deut. their expense is lavished : here, my courteous host has apxxii. 8., which we render the battlements. Instead of this pointed my lodging: beautiful curtains, and mats, and cushparapet wall, some terraces are guarded, like the galleries, ions to the divan, display the respect with which they mean with balustrades only, or latticed work; in which fashion, to receive their guest: here, likewise, their splendour, being probably, as the name seems to import, was the nov, or net, at the top of the house, is enjoyed, by the poor Greeks, with or lattice, as we render it, that Ahaziah (2 Kings i. 2.) might more retirement and less chance of molestation from the be carelessly leaning over, when he felì down from thence intrusion of Turks: here, when the Professors of the Colinto the court. For upon those terraces several offices of the lege waited upon me to pay their respects, they were received family are performed, such as the drying of linen and flax in ceremony and sat at the window. The room is both (Josh. ii. 6.), the preparing of figs or raisins, where likewise higher and also larger than those below: it has two projectthey enjoy the cool refreshing breezes of the evening, con- ing windows; and the whole floor is so much extended in verse with one another, and offer up their devotions." At front beyond the lower part of the building, that the projectTiberias, we are informed that the parapet is commonly made ing windows considerably overhang the street. In such an of wicker-work and sometimes of green branches ; which upper room—secluded, spacious, and commodious-Paul mode of constructing booths seems to be as ancient as the was invited to preach his parting discourse. The divan, or days of Nehemiah, when the people went forth, at the feast of raised seat, with mats or cushions, encircles the interior of tabernacles, and brought branches and made themselves booths, each projecting window: and I have remarked, that when erery one upon the top of his house. (Neh. viii. 16.) “ As company is numerous, they sometimes place large cushions these terraces are thus frequently used and trampled upon, behind the company seated on the divan; so that a second not to mention the solidity of the materials with which they tier of company, with their feet upon the seat of the divan, are made, they will not easily permit any, vegetable sub- are sitting behind, higħer than the front row. Eutychus, thus stances to take root or thrive upon them; which perhaps may sitting, would be on a level with the open window; and, being
overcome with sleep, he would easily fall out from the third 1 Dr. Shaw's Travels in Barbary, vol. i. pp. 374—379.
loft of the house into the street, and be almost certain, from · Bp. Percy's Translation of Solomon's Song, p. 76.
on these terraces, the inhabitants of the East sleep in the open air such a height, to lose his life. Thither St. Paul went down; during the hot season. See instances, illustrating various passages of the and comforted the alarmed company, by bringing up Eutychus Scriptures, in the Travels of Ali Bey, vol. ii. p. 283. Mr. Kinneir's Travels alive. It is noted, that there were many lights in the upper where a wood cut is given explanatory of this practice ; and Mr. Ward's would enable them to afford many lamps : the heat of these History, &c. of the Hindoos, vol. ii. p. 323.
• Thus we read that Samuel communed with Saul upon the house-top (1 Sarn. ix. 25.); David walked upon the roof of the king's house (2 Sam. • This is particularly the case at Aleppo. Irby's and Mangle's Travels, xi. 2); and Peter went up upon the house-top to pray. (Acts x. 9.) p. 238. Shaw's Travels, vol. I. pp. 320, 381. • Madden's Travels in Turkey Egypt, &c. vol. ii. p. 314.
* Jowell's Christian Researches in Syria, de. pp. 89. 95. VOL. II.
and so much company would cause the drowsiness of Euty- ble to one who came behind the couch, as in the annexed chus at that late hour, and be the occasion, likewise, of the diagram :windows being open.”'ı
In most houses, some place must have been appropriated to the preparation of food; but kitchens are for the first time mentioned in Ezek. xlvi. 23, 24. The hearth or fire-place appears to have been on the ground. Chimneys, such as are in use among us, were unknown to the Hebrews, even in the latest times of their polity. The smoke, therefore, escaped through large openings left for that purpose, which in our version of Fos. xiii. 3. are rendered by the equivalent term, chimneys.
: It was common, when any person had finished a house, and entered into it, to celebrate the event with great rejoicing,
A and to perform some religious ceremonies to obtain the divine blessing and protection. The dedication of a newly-built house was a ground of exemption from military service. (Deut. xx. 5.) The xxxth Psalm, as appears from the title, was composed on occasion of the dedication of the house of David ; and this devout practice obtained also among the ancient Romans. In Deut. vi. 9. Moses directs the Israelites to write certain portions of his laws on the doors of their
B houses and the gates of their cities. This direction Michaelis understands not as a positive injunction, but merely an exhortation, to inscribe his laws on the door-posts of their houses. In which A denotes the table, and c, C, C, the couches on “ In Syria and the adjacent countries, it is usual at this day which the guests reclined. B is the lower end, open for serto place inscriptions above the doors of the houses, consist- vants to enter and supply the guests. The knowledge of this ing of passages from the Koran or from the best poets. custom enables us to understand the manner in which John Among us, where, by the aid of printing, books are so abun- leaned on the bosom of his Master (John xiii. 23.), and Mary dantly multiplied, and may be put into the hands of every anointed the feet of Jesus and wiped them with her hair; and child, such measures would be quite superfluous; but, if we also the expression of Lazarus being carried into Abraham's would enter into the ideas of Moses, we must place ourselves bosom (Luke xvi. 22.): that is, he was placed next to Abrain an age when the book of the law could only come into the ham at the splendid banquet, under the image of which the hands of a few opulent people.”4
Jews represented the happy state of the pious after death.10 IV. The Furniture of the oriental dwellings, at least in the Anciently, splendid hangings were used in the palaces of earliest ages, was very simple: that of the poorer classes con- the eastern monarchs, and ample draperies were suspended sisted of but few articles, and those such as were absolutely over the openings in the sides of the apartments, for the twonecessary. The interior of the more common and useful fold purpose of affording air, and of shielding them from the apartments was furnished with sets of large nails with square sun. Of this description were the costly hangings of the heads (like dice), and bent at the head so as to make them Persian sovereigns mentioned in Esth. i. 6.; which passage cramp-irons. In modern Palestine, the plan is to fix nails or is confirmed by the account given by Quintus Curtius of their pins of wood in the walls, while they are still soft, to suspend superb palace at Persepolis. such domestic articles as are required; since, consisting alto
Other articles of necessary furniture were, at least in the gether of clay, they are too frail to admit of the operation of more ancient periods, both few and simple. The principal the hammer.' To this custom there is an allusion in Ezra were a hand-mill, with which they ground their corn, ix. 8. and Isa. xxii. 23. On these nails were hung their kneading-trough, and an oven.
Thé AAND-yill resembled kitchen utensils or other articles. Instead of chairs they sat the querns, which, in early times, were in general use in this on mats or skins; and the same articles, on which they laid a country, and which still continue to be used in some of the mattrass, served them instead of bedsteads, while their upper more remote northern islands of Scotland, as well as in the garment served them for a covering, and sovereigns had chairs East. So essential were these domestic utensils, that the of state or thrones with footstools. (Exod. xxii. 26, 27. Deut. Israelites were forbidden to take them in pledge. (Deut. xxiv. xxiv. 12.) This circumstance accounts for our Lord's
com- 6.) The KNEADING-TROUGHS (at least those which the Israelmanding the paralytic to take up his bed and go unto his ites carried with them out of Egypt, Exod. xii. 34.) were not house. (Matt. ix. 6.)? The more opulent had (as those in the the cumbersome articles now in use among us, but comparaEast still have) fine carpets, couches, or divans, and sofas, tively small wooden bowls, like those of the modern Arabs, on which they sat,& lay, and slept. (2 Kings iv. 10. 2 Sam. who, after kneading their flour in them, make use of them as xvii. 28.) In later times their couches were splendid, and the dishes out of which they eat their victuals. The Oven was frames inlaid with ivory (Amos vi. 4.), and the coverlids rich sometimes only an earthen pot in which fire was put to heat and perfumed. (Prov. vii
. 16, 17.) On these sofas, in the it, and on the outside of which the batter or dough was spread, latter ages of the Jewish state (for before the time of Moses and almost instantly baked. Cakes of bread were also baked it appears to have been the custom to sit at table, Gen. xliii
. by being placed within the oven. Besides these two articles, 33.), they universally reclined, when taking their meals they must have had different kinds of earthenware vessels, (Amos ví. 4. Luke vií. 36–38.) : resting on their side with i especially pots to hold water for their various ablutions. their heads towards the table, so that their feet were accessi- While sitting upon the shattered wall which enclosed " the
Well of Cana” 'in Galilee, in February, 1820, Mr. Rae Wil* Joweit's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, po. 66, 67.
son observed six females, having their faces veiled (Gen. xxiv. 9 Pareau, Antiquitas Hebraica, p. 363.
66. Cant. v. 7.), come down to the well, each carrying on her • Bruning, Antiq. Hebr. p. 309.
head a pot (John ii. 6–10.), for the purpose of being filled • Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 371, 372. 5 Rae Wilson's Travels, vol. ii. p. 118. 3d edit.
with water: one of whom lowered her pitcher into the well & Bp. Lowth on Isa. lii. 2.
and offered him water to drink, preciesly in the same manner "A mat and pillow form all the bed of the common people in the East ; in which Rebekah, many centuries before, had offered water and the rolling up the one in the
viher has often struck me as illustrating to Abraham's servant. (Gen. xxiv. 18.) These water-pots 11.) In Acts ix. 31. Peter said to Eneas, Arise and spread thy bed for are formed of clay, hardened by the heat of the sun, and are thyself David's bed (1 Sam. xix. 15.) was probably the duan" (livan) " or of a globular shape, large at the mouth, not unlike the bottles raised bench with two quilts, one doubled and serving for a mattrass, and used in our country for holding vitriol, but not so large. the other as a covering he was probably not unlikeser sailor's, pamunock, Many of them have handles attached to the sides : and it was
• A passage in Jeremiah xiii. 22. uiay in some degree be explained by a wonderful coincidence with Scripture that the vessels the oriental mode of sitting. For the greatness of nine iniquity are the appeared to contain much about the same quantity as those says Mr. Jowell, with ihe manner in which a great man sits ; for ex which, the evangelist informs us, were employed on occasion ample, when I visited the bashaw, I never saw his feet: they were entirely of the marriage which was honoured by the Saviour's predrawn up under him, and covered by his dress. This was dignified. TO see his feet his skirts must have been discovered: still inore so, in order sence; namely, three firkins, or twelve gallons each. About 10 see the heels, which often serve as the actual seat of an Oriental.”Jowett's Christian Researches in the Mediterranean, p. 169.
10 Robinson's Greek Lexicon, voce KoX 70$, • Jahn et Ackermann, Archæologia Biblica, $ 10.
11 Rae Wilson's Travels in the Holy Land, &c. vol. ii. pp. 3, 4. 3d edition