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Deut. xxvi. 2. Neh. x. 35, 36.);' and the first-fruits of corn, are called second tithes. The Levites paid a tenth of the wine, oil, and sheep's wool were offered for the use of the tithes they received to the priests. Lastly, there were tithes Levites. (Deut. xviii. 4.) The amount of this gift is not allotted to the poor, for whom there was also a corner left in specified in the law of Moses, which leaves it entirely to the every field, which it was not lawful to reap with the rest pleasure of the giver: the Talmudical writers, however, in- (Lev. xix. 9. Deut. xxiv. 19.); and they were likewise alform us, that liberal persons were accustomed to give the lowed such ears of corn, or grapes, as were dropped or scatfortieth, and even the thirtieth ; while such as were covetoustered about, and the sheaves that might be accidentally for. or penurious gave only a sixtieth part. The first of these gotten in the field. Field-tithes might be redeemed by those they called an oblation with a good eye, and the second an who desired it, on paying one-fifth in addition : but all conoblation with an evil eye. To this traditional saying our Lord version of the tithes of cattle was prohibited. (Lev. xxvii. is, by some learned men, supposed to have alluded in Matt. 32, 33.) The payment and appreciation of them Moses left xx. 15. Among animals, the males only belong to God; and to the consciences of the people, without subjecting them to the Jews not only had a right, but were even obliged, to re- judicial or sacerdotal visitations, but at the same time he deem them in the case of men and unclean animals, which did not prohibit the Levites from taking care that they duly could not be offered in sacrifice. These first-fruits were received what was their own. The conscientious accuracy offered from the feast of pentecost until that of dedication, be- of the people, with respect to the second tithe, he secured cause after that time the fruits were neither so beautiful nor merely by the declaration which they made every three years so good as before. Further, the Jews were prohibited from before God. From trifling articles he in no case required gathering in the harvest until they had offered to God the tithes; though we learn from the Gospel that the Pharisees omer, that is, the new sheaf, which was presented the day affected to be scrupulously exact in paying tithes of every after the great day of unleavened bread : neither were they the least herb. (Matt. xxiii. 23.) If, however, a person had allowed bake any bread made of new corn until they had committed a trespass ainst the sanctuary, that is,
had not offered the new loaves upon the altar on the day of pentecost; paid the tithes of any particular things, and if, at any time without which all the corn was regarded as unclean and afterwards, his conscience were awakened to a sense of his unholy. To this St. Paul alludes in Rom. xi. 16. ; where guilt, he had it in his power to make an atonement, without he says, If the FIRST-Fruit be holy, the lump also is holy. incurring any civil disgrace, by simply paying an additional The presentation of the first-fruits was a solemn and fes- fifth, with his tithe, and making a trespass-offering. * (Lev. tive ceremony.
At the beginning of harvest, the sanhe- v. 14–16.) drin deputed a number of priests to go into the fields and reap The custom of giving tithes to the Deity existed long a handful of the first ripe corn; and these, attended by great before the time of Moses. Thus Abraham gave to Melchicrowds of people, went out of one of the gates of Jerusalem sedek king of Salem (who was at the same time the priest into the neighbouring corn-fields. The first-fruits thus of the Most High God) the tithe of all that he had taken reaped were carried with great pomp and universal rejoicing from the enemy, when he returned from his expedition through the streets of Jerusalem to the temple. The Jewish against the four kings who were in alliance with Chedorlaowriters say that an ox preceded them with gilded horns and mer. (Gen. xiv. 20.) And Jacob consecrated to God the an olive crown upon his head, and that a pipe played before tenth of all that he should acquire in Mesopotamia. (Gen. them until they approached the city: on entering it they xxviii. 22.) The same custom obtained among various crowned the first-fruits, that is, exposed them to sight with ancient nations, who devoted to their gods the tenth part of as much pomp as they could, and the chief officers of the every thing they obtained. temple went out to meet them. They were then devoutly VI. From the preceding sketch of the Jewish Sacrifices, offered to God in grateful acknowledgment of his providen- we may strongly infer their FITNESS AND Utility. tial goodness in giving them the fruits of the earth. “ These According to the refined ideas of modern times animal first-fruits, or handful of the first ripe grain, gave notice to all sacrifices are a very absurd and savage mode of expressing who beheld them that the general harvest would soon be ga- and promoting devout sentiments and dispositions. But, if thered in. How beautiful and striking is St. Paul's allusion we steadily keep in view the genius and habits of ancient to this religious ceremony in that most consolatory and nations, and the special circumstances of the Hebrews, these closely reasoned chapter, the fifteenth of his first Epistle to objections will vanish; and the propriety as well as expethe Corinthians, in which, from the resurrection of Jesus diency of the Jewish institutions will forcibly appear. Christ, he argues and establishes the certainty of the general “When the practice of sacrificing was first appointed, the resurrection; and represents Christ as the first-fruits of a use of letters was probably unknown: consequently, the glorious and universal harvest of all the sleeping dead! Now mode of instruction by visible emblems or symbols was both is Christ risen, and become the FIRST-FRUITS of them that slept.” indispensable and highly beneficial. In such a state of (1 Cor. xv. 20.) The use which the apostle makes of this things, the offering of animal victims was made to answer image is very extensive. “In the first place, the growing for that more simple and rational devotion, which words are of grain from the earth where it was buried is an exact image now happily fitted to express. When we consider sacrifices, of the resurrection of the body; for, as the one is sown, so is with all their attendant rites, as appointed by God in order the other, and neither is quickened except it first die and be to assist the religious instruction, improvement, and consolaburied. Then the whole harvest, from its relation to the first- tion of man, we must conclude that the Most High would, fruits, explains and ensures the order of our resurrection. In the first instance, clearly explain every part of this instiFor, is the sheaf of the first-fruits reaped ? then is the whole tution; otherwise it could not answer its proposed ends. harvest ready. Is Christ risen from the dead? then shall all Now, if the moral import of sacrifices were thus explained, rise in like manner. Is he accepted of God as a holy offer- the utility of them to mankind in their rude and simple state ing? then shall every sheaf that has grown up with him be is beyond calculation. In untutored man, reason is weak, taken from the earth and sanctified in its proper order :- the mental feelings are heavy and rough, while sense, imagiChrist, the First-Fruits, and afterwards they that are Christ's nation, and passion are the leading avenues both to the unat his coming 2 (1 Cor. xv. 23.)
derstanding and heart. To man thus situated, the appoint(2.) Besides the first-fruits, the Jews also paid the Tenths ment of sacrifices is peculiarly adapted : for these convey or l'ithes of all they possessed. (Num. xviii. 21.) They a most pathetic and awful address to his very senses, and were in general collected of all the produce of the earth thus rouse him to the most serious and impressive reflections. (Lev. xxvii. 30. Deut. xiv. 22, 23. Neh. xiii. 5. 10.), but The frequent spectacles of bleeding and smoking victims, chiefly of corn, wine, and oil, and were rendered every year suffering and atoning for the guilty offerers, would give them except the sabbatical year. When these tithes were paid, the deepest impressions of the purity, justice, and majesty the owner of the fruits further gave another tenth part, which of God, of the evil of transgressions, of their own ill desert, was carried up to Jerusalem, and eaten in the temple at offer- and of the necessity of some adequate alonement, and of the ing seasts, as a sign of rejoicing and gratitude to God. These readiness of the Deity to pardon the penitent. The nume
rous and diversified offerings of the ancient Jews, with the thens borrowed a similar rite. See Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. xviii. c.2. Horace, not
only to excite and express the most reverential, humble, • From the Jewish custom of offering first-fruits to Jehovah, the hea striking pomp which preceded and attended them, were fitted ; Jones's Works, vol. iii. p. 61. Harwood's Introd, to the New Test. vol and grateful devotion, but also to give the best direction to ii. p. 307. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 146–149. Beausohre's the whole temper and conduct. The many washings and Introd. to the New Test. (vol. iii. p. 200. of Bishop Watson's Collection of Tracts.) Dr. Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. p. 981. vol. ii. pp. 184. 306, 307. folio edit. Lamy's Apparatus, vol. I, p. 204. Ikenii Antiq. Hebr. part i. c. 15. 3 On the application of these second tithes, see Michaelis's Commenta. pp: 210–221. Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 287–292. Lamy's Apparatus ries, vol. iii. pp. 142, 143. Biblicus, vol. i. pp. 203–206.
• Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 141-145.
purifications, enjoined previous to the oblation of sacrifice, , ing, a perfect sacrifice for the sins of the world. In a word, were not only physically beneficial in the eastern countries, the religion of the Jews and that of Christians form one but directly tended to impress a simple, people with a scru- great and harmonious plan. The Jews saw gospel-truth in pulous regard to inward and moral purity, especially in all its early and gradual dawn; we behold in it its meridian their approaches to the Deity. That this was the primary splendour. When Christ appeared, the candid and pious intention of these ceremonies, was a maxim frequently and Jews embraced him; because they saw in him a glorious solemnly enforced. In those early ages, the language of counterpart, a perfect accomplishment of their ancient rites these well-chosen emblems could not fail to be well under- and predictions. The Gentiles, on the other hand, were led stood and strongly felt. Above all, the frequent sacrifices of to venerate and believe in the Hebrew Law; because they the Jewish law were intended to prefigure, and gradually to beheld in it an exact, though imperfect figure and prophecy prepare men for the great atoning sacrifice of the promised of the Gospel. What beauty and glory do these observaMessiah.”. Accordingly, “our Saviour, in allusion to those tions reflect both on the Jewish and Christian dispensations! ancient oblations, is called by way of eminence a sin-offer- | What admirable depth of wisdom do they discover in both !"
SACRED TIMES AND SEASONS OBSERVED BY THE JEWS.
ber of years.
L. THE SABBATH.-1. How observed.—2. Jewish Worship on that Day ; particularly their Manner of worshipping in the
Temple.-II. New Moons.—III. Annual Festivals.- Their important Design.-IV. The Passover; when celebrated, and with what Ceremonies ; its mystical or typical Reference.-V. The Day of Pentecost.— VI. Tae FEAST OF TABERNACLES, -VII. Other annual Festivals.-1. THE FEAST OF TRUMPETS.-2. The Day of Expiation.–VIII. Annual Festivals insti. tuled by the Jews in later Times.-1. THE FEAST OF Purim. 2. THE FEAST OF DEDICATION.-IX. Other Festivals observed at stated Intervals.-1. THE SABBATICAL YEAR.-2. THE YEAR OF JUBILEE.
In order to perpetuate the memory of the numerous won- Sabbath-day;" and how much its observance was strained by ders God had wrought in favour of his people, Moses, by the traditions of the elders in the time of our Lord, is suffithe Divine command, instituted various festivals, which they ciently manifest. Hence, we find it was deemed unlawful were obliged to observe: these sacred seasons were either to pluck ears of corn (Matt. xii. 2.) to satisfy the cravings weekly, monthly, or annual, or recurred after a certain num- of nature, because that was a species of reaping. We learn
from the Talmudical writers that it was unlawful to use oil I. Every seventh day was appropriated to sacred repose, medicinally, though they allowed it as a luxury; the anointand called the SABBATH ; although this name is in some pas- ing of the body with fragrant oils being then, as it is now, sages given to other festivals, as in Lev. xxv. 4., and soine- in the East, one of their highest enjoyments. It was a tratimes it denotes a week, as in Matt. xxviii. 1. Luke xxiv. 1. ditional rule of the ancient Jewish doctors that “whatever Acts xx. 7. and 1 Cor. xvi. 2. (Gr.) It was originally insti. could possibly be done on the day before, or might be defertuted to preserve the memory of the creation of the world red until the following day, ought not to drive out the Sab(Gen. ii. 3.); whether it continued to be observed by the bath ;" an excellent maxim when rightly understood, but Israelites as a day of rest and holy convocation during their when applied to cases of infirmity or sickness, they mani. residence in Egypt, is a question concerning which learned festly, showed that they did not comprehend the meaning of men are no means agreed. When, however, God gave them the divine declaration I will have mercy and not sacrifice. In rest in the land of Canaan, he gave them his Sabbaths to be chronical diseases, therefore, of which description were those statedly kept (Exod. xx. 10, 11. and xvi. 23.); and its cured by Jesus Christ on the Sabbath-day, they conceived observance was specially enjoined on the Israelites in Deut. that the persons who had so long struggled with them might v. 15., because they were the redeemed people of God, and very well bear them a day longer, rather than prepare medithey were to make the Sabbath a day of peculiar recognition cines or in any way attempt to be cured on that day. The of their deliverance from bondage.3
knowledge of this circumstance will greatly illustrate the 1. In the observance of the Sabbath, the following circum- conduct of our Lord in healing the sick on the Sabbath-day, stances were enjoined by divine command :-(1.) This day and particularly the man who had been born blind. (John was to be held sacred as a day of worship, in memory of the ix.). The rule above stated was made before he began to creation of the world by Jehovah, and also of the deliverance teach, and he gladly availed himself of the first opportunity of the Jews from Egyptian bondage, as well as a day of to refute their erroneous notions, and expose their gross prerepose both for man and beast, that they might be refreshed, varication in interpreting many of the sabbatical laws. and not have their bodily strength exhausted by uninterrupted Further, seeing it was prohibited to put fasting spittle upon labour (Gen. ii. 1–3. Deut. v. 13. Exod. xx. 10, 11. Ezek. or into the eyes of a blind man on the Sabbath-day, our SaIX. 20.); hence the celebration of the Sabbath was the viour effected a cure by using both clay and spittle (John ix. making of a weekly profession that they received and revered 6. 14.), to show his divine authority, in employing means to the Creator of heaven and earth, and was closely connected human reason the most improper, even on that sacred day, with the fundamental principle of the Mosaic law, whose directly in opposition to the above rule; which was good object was to keep the people from idolatry, and to maintain and just in itself, but hypocritical, superstitious, and cruel, the worship of the one true God; and hence, also, the pun- when applied to the case of healing, on the Sabbath. The ishment of death was denounced against the wilful profana- services of the temple, however, might be performed withtion of this solemnity. (2.) On this day they were most out profaning the Sabbath, such as preparing the sacrifices religiously to abstain from all manner of work. (Exod. xx. (Lev. vi. 8–13. Num. xxviii. 3–10. Matt. xii. 5.); and it 10. xxiii. 12. xxxi. 12—17. xxxv. 2. Deut. v. 14, 15. Jer. was also lawful to perform circumcision on that day. (John xvii. 22.). It was, therefore, unlawful to gather manna vii. 23.) (3.) The Sabbath was to be devoted to cheerful (Exod. xvi. 22—30.), to light a fire for culinary purposes rest, that not only the Israelites, but also strangers living (Exod. xxxv. 3. Num. xv. 32–36.), and to sow or reap. with them, as well as their cattle, might be refreshed. (Exod. xxxiv. 21.) To these enactments the Jewish doctors (Exod. xxiii. 12.). Hence, it is not improbable, that they added a variety of other regulations, for which there is not celebrated sacrificial or offering feasts, to which, from the the slightest foundation in the law of Moses. Thus, it was commencement of their polity, the poor were invited. In formerly accounted unlawful to repel force by force on the later times, at least, we know from history, that the Jews
purchased and prepared the best viands they could procure · Tappan's Lectures, pp. 116. 118.
• 1 Macc. ii. 31–38. See other examples in Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. xii. For a minute and able discussion of this and every other question con. nected with the Sabbath, the reader is referred to - The Christian Sab. • Dr. Wotton's Misna, title Shabbath, pp. 101–103. 123. The Sabbath, bath ; or, an Inquiry into the religious
Obligation of keeping holy one Day we may observe, was a type of that eternal res, which all the true ser: in Seven. By the Rev. Geo. Holden, M. A." London, 1825, 8vo.
vants of God will hereafter enjoy in heaven. See Jones's
Lectures on the Stuart's Hebrew Chrestomathy, p. 175.
Epistle to the Hebrews, lect. ii. (Works, vol. iii. pp. 240–242.) VOL. II.
c. 6. & 2. De Bell. Jud. lib. ii. c. 16. $ 4. lib. iv. c. 2. 3. and de vitâ suà, $ 32.
for the Sabbath-day, in order to do it honour; and that they, he might on no account sit down either in the Israelites or actually had Sabbath-feasts, to which they even invited per- priests' court : no person whatever being allowed that privisons with whom they were unacquainted.
lege, except the kings of the house of David.—(6.) Having The Sabbath commenced at sunset, and closed at the same offered their prayers, and performed the services, they were time on the following day. (Matt. viii. 16. Mark i. 32.) to depart in the same order in which they had entered : Whatever was necessary was prepared on the latter part of and as they were prohibited to turn their backs upon the the preceding day, that is, of our Friday: hence, the day altar, they went backward till they were out of the court, preceding the Sabbath (TPC5466476V) is in the New Testament and departed from the temple by a different gate from that termed the preparation (T2029xsun), in Matt. xxvii. 62. Mark by which they had entered. XV. 42. Luke xxiii. 54. and John xix. 14. 31. 42.2
II. The Jewish months being lunar were originally calcu2. We know not with certainty from the Mosaic writings lated from the first appearance of the moon, on which the what constituted the most ancient worship of the Israelites Feast of the New Moon, or the beginning of the month (as on the Sabbath-day. It is however, evident from the New the Hebrews termed it), was celebrated. (Exod. xii. 2. Num. Testament, that the celebration of this day chiefly consisted x. 10. xxviii. 11. Isa. I. 13, 14.) It seems to have been in in the religious exercises which were then performed: though use long before the time of Moses, who by the divine comthere is no injunction recorded, except that a burnt-offering mand prescribed what ceremonies were then to be observed. of two lambs should on that day be added to the morning It was proclaimed by the sound of trumpets (Num. x. 10. and evening sacrifices (Num. xxviii. 9.); and that the shew- Psal. lxxxi. 3.); and several additional sacrifices were bread should be changed. (Lev. xxiv. 8.), In the syna- offered. (Num. xxviii
. 11-15.) gogues3 the Sacred Writings were read and expounded, to III. Besides the Sabbath, Moses instituted three ANNUAL which was sometimes added a discourse or sermon by some Festivals, viz. the passover
, the feast of pentecost, and the doctor or eminent teacher. (Luke iv. 16. Acts xiii. 15.) feast of tabernacles: these, which are usually denominated Prayer also appears to have formed a part of their sacred the Great Festivals, were distinguished from the Sabbath, and worship in the synagogue, and especially in the temple. indeed from all other holy days, hy the circumstance of two (1 Sam. i. 9, 10. 1 kings viii. 29, 30. 33. Psal. xxvii. 2. of them lasting seven, and one for eight, successive days; Luke xviii. 10. Acts ii. 15. and iii, 1.)
during which the Jews were bound to rejoice before the Lord With what reverence the Jews regarded their temple, we for all their deliverances and mercies. (Deut. xvi. 11-15.) have already seen :' and in proportion to the sanctity of the All the males of the twelve tribes were bound to be present place was the solemn and holy behaviour required of all at these grand festivals (Exod. xxxiv. 23. Deut. xvi. 16.); who came to worship there. The law, indeed, had prohi- and for their encouragement to attend they were assured that bited the approach of all uncleanness; but to the enactments no man should desire their land during their absence (Exod. of Moses the great masters of traditions added a variety of xxxiv. 24.): in other words, that they should be secure from other trifling regulations, which the law had not named, hostile invasion during their attendance on religious worship: while they scruple not to make the house of prayer” a den -a manifest proof this of the divine origin of their religion, of thieves. Dr. Lightfoot has collected many of these tra- as well as of the power and particular providence of God ditions respecting the temple worship; an abridgment of in working thrice every year an especial miracle for the prowhich will form a proper supplement to the preceding obser- tection of his people; for it is a well known fact, that the Jews vations.
constantly atiended these ceremonies without any fear of (1.) No man might enter the "mountain of the house,” for danger, and that their most vigilant enemies never invaded so they called the temple, with his staff; weapons of offence or injured them during these sacred seasons. The design being unsuited to the house of peace; and it being reputed of these meetings was partly to unite the Jews among themindecorous to lean, when there, on any other staff than God. selves, and, teaching them to regard each other as brethren On this account it was, that our Lord expelled the buyers and fellow-citizens, to promote mutual love and friendship. and sellers of cattle from the temple, with a whip of cords. To this the Psalmist probably refers in Psal. cxxii. 3, 4.; (John ii. 15.)–(2.) No man was permitted to enter with and it was partly that, as one church, they might make one shoes on his feet, nor dust on his feet, which he was obliged congregation, join in solemn worship together, and renew to wipe or wash (thus intimating the necessity of approaehing their oath of allegiance to the one true God, and to their exthe Most High divested of all worldly cares and affections); cellent constitution and religion. Further, so large a connor with money in his purse, nor with his purse about him. course of people would give the greater solemnity to these
-(3.) Having arrived at the temple, every worshipper was festivals: and as no Israelite was to present himself before prohibited from spitting there, as well as from using any the Lord without some offering (Deut. xvi. 16, 17.), ample irreverent gestures, or making it a thoroughfare to shorten his provision was thus made for the support of the ministers of distance in crossing from one part of the city to another; and the sanctuary. On these occasions, although the men were on entering the court, he musi walk leisurely and gravely to required to attend, it does not appear that women were prehis place, and there demean himself as in the presence of God. vented from going if they chose, at least to the passover. -(4.) Having now entered to pray and attend the service, (See 1 Sam. i. 3. 7. Luke ii. 41.). For greater security, he was to stand with his feet one even with the other; and, however, against the attacks of robbers on the road, they casting his eyes downward, while he raised his heart upward, used to travel in large companies, those who came from the must cross his hands upon his breast, and stand as a servant same city, canton, or district, forming one company. They before his master with all reverence and fear. The practice carried necessaries along with them, and tents for their lodgof looking down in prayer the Jews derived from those pas- ing at night. It was among such a “company" that Joseph sages of Scripture, which speak of being ashamed to look and Mary sought Jesus Christ (Luke ii. 44.); and to their up towards heaven, on account of their sinfulness: to this journeying through a dreary valley on one of these festivals position of looking down and laying his hands upon his the Psalmist probably alludes. (lxxxiv. 6.). Further, as the heart, the demeanour of the devout publican (Luke xviii. 13.) Jewish sanctuary and service contained in them a shadow of seems to be parallel. Even the priests, when they pronounced good things to come, and were typical of the Christian the blessing upon the people, neither looked up towards church, this prescribed concourse from all parts of the counheaven, nor level upon the people, but down upon the ground; try might be intended to typify the gathering of the people and the people were prohibited from looking upon them.-- to Christ and into his church, from all parts of the world (5.) However weary the worshipper might be with standing, under the Christian dispensation. Hence St. Paul, alluding
to these general assemblies of the Israelites on the three 1 Luke xiv. I. and Lightfoot's Horæ Hebraicæ on that passage. (Works, vol. ii. pp. 445, 446.) See also Wetstein's Notes, vol. i. p. 750. Michaelis & Lightfoot's Works, vol. ii. remarks that our Saviour's observation in Luke xiv. 12–14. can only be * Nearly similar to this is the inode of travelling in the East to this hour. fully understood in reference to a seast that formed a part of divine wor. Such companies they now call caravans; and in many places there are ship, and, as such, might look for a recompense from God : for we do not buildings filled up for their reception, called caravanserais. This account in ordinary cases expect that God should reward us in another world for of the Israelites' mode of travelling furnishes a ready answer to the quesevery entertainment we give. Commentaries, vol. iii. p. 158.
tion, how Joseph and Mary could make a day's journey without discorering Schulzii Archæologia Hebraica, pp. 311-314. ; Leusden's Philologus before night, that Jesus was not in the "company."' In the daytime, as Hebræo-Mixtus, pp. 210–252. ; Beausobre's and L'Enfant's Introduction circumstances right lead them, the travellers would probably mingle with (Bp. Watson's Theol. Tracts, vol iii. pp. 227-234.); the Mosaic statutes their friends and acquaintance; but in the evening, when they were about relative to the Sabbath are fully discussed by Michaelis, Commentaries, lo encamp, every one would join the family to which be belonged. vol. iii. pp. 150-181. ; vol. ij. pp. 399, 400.
Jesus then did not appear when it was growing late, his parents first a See pp. 101–106. supra.
* See pp. 100, 101. sought him, where they supposed he would most probably be, among his This prohibition was derived froin the command of God to Moses relations and acquaintance; and not finding him, returned to Jerusalem. (Exod. iii. 5.), and Joshua. (v. 15.) The same usage obtains throughout the Dr. Campbell's Translation of the Gospels, vol.'ii. p. 449. note on Luke East to this day.
grand feasts, says, “ We are come to the general assembly the Jewish festivals, is copiously related in the twelfth chapter and church of the first-born.” (Heb. xii. 23.)
of Exodus, it is unnecessary to detail it again in this place: But besides the benefits to be derived from the religious but as various traditional observances were in after-times celebration of these ordinances, Michaelis, to whom we are added to the Mosaic precepts concerning this sacrifice, to indebted for part of the preceding remarks, has pointed out which there are manifest allusions in the New Testament, several instances in which they produced a salutary effect on we shall trace them, as briefly as the important nature of the the community. Not only would their meeting together in subject will admit, under the following heads:-1. The time one place for the purposes of religion and social intercourse when it was to be kept;—2. The ceremonies with which it tend to prevent a total alienation of rival pes, as well as was to be celebrated ;-3. The mystical signification of these civil war, but it would also afford them an opportunity of be- rites. ing mutually reconciled. Further, it is not improbable that 1. Of the time when the Passover was to be kept.--This festhese annual meetings promoted the internal commerce of the tival commenced on the evening subsequent to the fourteenth Israelites, who were prohibited from carrying on traffic with day of the month Nisan, the first in the Jewish sacred or foreigners; and, lastly, they had an important influence on ecclesiastical year (Exod. xii. 6. 8. 18. Lev. xxiii. 4-8. the Jewish calendar, inasmuch as the year was arranged, so Num. xxviii. 16–27.), with eating what was called the paschal that the various festivals should fall in their respective months lamb; and it was to continue seven whole days, that is, until without interfering with the labours of the field.
the twenty-first. The day preceding its commencement was IV. The first and most eminent of these festivals was the called the preparation of the passover. (John xix. 14.). DurPassover, instituted the night before the Israelites' departure ing its continuance no leavened bread was allowed to be from Egypt, for a perpetual memorial of their signal deliver- used; hence the fourteenth day of the month Nisan might ance, and of the favour which
God showed them in passing with great propriety be called (as we find it is in Matt. xxvi. over and sparing their first-born, when he slew the first-born 17. Mark xiv. 12.) the first day of unleavened bread, because of the Egyptians. (Exod. xii. 12–14. 29-51.) This fes- the passover began in the evening. The fifteenth day, howtival was also called the feast or the days of unleavened bread ever, might also be called the first day of unleavened bread:9 (Exod. xxiii. 15. Mark xiv. 1. Acts xi. 3.); because it was since, according to the Hebrew computation of time, the unlawful to eat any other bread during the seven days the evening of the fourteenth was the dawn or beginning of the feast lasted. The name was also by a metonymy given to fifteenth, on which day the Jews began to eat unleavened the lamb that was killed on the first day of this feast (Ezra bread. (Exod. xii. 18.) But, if any persons were prevented vi. 20. Matt. xxvi. 17.), whence the expressions to eat the from arriving at Jerusalem in time for the feast, either by any passover (Mark xiv. 12. 14.) and to sacrifice the passover. uncleanness contracted by touching a dead body, or by the (1 Cor. v. 7.) Hence also St. Paul calls Jesus Christ our | length of the journey, he was allowed to defer his celebration passover (ibid.), that is, our true paschal lamb. But the of the passover until the fourteenth day of the following appellation, passover, belongs more particularly to the second month, in the evening: (Num. ix. 10-12.). As it is not day of the feast, viz. the fifteenth day of the month Nisan. improbable that some difference or mistake might arise in deIt was ordained to be celebrated on the anniversary of the termining the new moon, so often as such difference recurred, deliverance of the Israelites. This was an indispensable there would consequently be some discrepancy as to the prerite to be observed by every Israelite, except in particular cise time of commencing the passover. Such a discordance cases enumerated in Num. ix. 1-13., on pain of death ;6 might easily arise between the rival and hostile sects of and no uncircumcised person was allowed to partake of the Pharisees and Sadducees; and such a difference, it has been passover. On this festive occasion, it was the custom at conjectured, did exist at the time Jesus Christ celebrated the Jerusalem for the inhabitants to give the free use of their passover with his disciples, one whole day before the Pharirooms and furniture to strangers at the passover.—This usage sees offered their paschal sacrifice. Sacrifices peculiar to this will explain the circumstance of our Saviour's sending to a festival were to be offered every day during its continuance; man to prepare for his eating the passover, who, by the rela- but the first and last days were to be sanctified above all the tion, appears to have been a stranger to him. Further, in rest, by abstaining from servile labour, and holding a sacred order to render this grand festival the more interesting, a convocation. (Exod. xii. 16. Lev. xxiii. 7, 8.) custom was introduced in the later times of the Jewish polity 2. Of the ceremonies with which the Passover was to be celeof liberating some criminal. By whom or at what time brated.-The paschal lamb was to be a male, without blemish, this practice originated it is now impossible accurately to of the first year, either from the sheep or the goats! (Exod. determine: the most probable opinion is, that it was intro- xii. 5.): it was to be taken from the flocks four days before duced by the Romans themselves, perhaps by Pilate at the it was killed ; and one lamb was to be offered for each family; commencement of his procuratorship of Judæa, with the per- and if its members were too few to eat a whole lamb, two mission of Augustus, in order to gratify the Jews by show- families were to join together. In the time of Josephus a ing them this public mark of respect.8' However this may paschal society consisted at least of ten persons to one lamb, be, it had become an established custom from which Pilate and not more than twenty.12 Our Saviour's society was comcould not deviate (Matt. xxvii. 15. Luke xviii. 17. John xviii. posed of himself and the twelve disciples. (Matt. xxvi. 20. 39.), and therefore he reluctantly liberated the malefactor Luke xxii. 14.) Next followed the killing of the passover: Barabbas.
before the exode of the Israelites from Egypt, this was done As the very interesting history of this most solemn of all in their private dwellings; but after their settlement in Ca
aan, it was ordered to be performed " in the place which · Coininentaries on the Law of Moses, vol
. ii. Pp. 182–189. Jennings's the Lord should choose to place his name there.” (Deut. Jewish Antiquities, book iii. ch. 4. pp. 448, 449. Tappan's Lectures on Jewish Antiquities, pp. 127, 128.
xvi. 2.) This appears to have been at first wherever the ark > On the true meaning of the word passover Archbp. Magee has a learned disquisition in vol. 1, of his Discourses on the Atonement, pp: 309 the temple.13 Every particular person (or rather a delegate
was deposited, and ultimately at Jerusalem in the courts of God and man, Dr. Cudworth has solidly proved in bis "True Notion of the from every paschal society)!' slew his own victim : according Lord's Supper," chap. vi. pp. 2836. at the end of vol. ii. of his “Intellect. to Josephus, between the ninth hour, or three in the afternoon, mal Systein,” 4to. edit.
and the eleventh, that is, about sunset; and within that space Schulzii Archæologia Hebr. p. 318. • That the passover was a proper and real sacrifice, see largely proved by Archbp. Magee, on the Atonement, vol. i. pp. 297–309.
The fifteenth day is so called in Lev. xxiii. 6. and by Josephus, who • Lev. xxiii. 6. Mark xiv. 1. Josephus, Ant. Jud. lib. iji. c. 10. $ 5.
expressly terms the second day of unleavened bread the sixteenth day of • In like manner, Dr. Waterland has observed, a contempt and rejection the month. of at least the thing signified by the sacrament of the Lord's supper,
10 Schulzii Archæol. Hebr. pp. 313, 319. That a difference did exist as to must pecessarily exclude every man from the benefits of Christ's passion the time of beginning the passover is intimated in John xiii
. 1, 2. xviii. 28.
and xix. 14. 31. The conjecture above noticed was made by Schulze; and • So, in the early ages of Christianity, no person was permitted to come
if it could be substantiated, it would reconcile the seeming differences to the Lord's supper until he had been baptized. As soon, however, as the occurring in the evangelists, respecting the time when Christ actually celepessorer was celebrated, every one was at liberty to go home the very
brated the passover. Dr. A. Clarke has collected the principal opinions on next morning if he pleased (Deut. xvi. 7.), of course while the festival this much contested point, in his discourse on the Eucharist, pp. 5-2. lasted, in order that those Jews, who came from a distance, might return
See also Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iii. c. 4. pp. 453—458. in time for getting in the harvest. Michaelis's Commentaries, vol. iii. pp. 11 The Hebrew word nO (seh) means either a lamb or a kid : either was 183, 184,
equally proper. The Ilebrews, however, in general preferred a lamb. • Hottinger has discussed the various opinions on the origin of this usage 12 De Bell. Jud. lib. vi. c. 9. $3. in a dissertation De rità dimittendi reum in festo Paschalis, Teinpe Hel. 13 The area of the three courts of the temple, besides the rooms and other vetievol. iv. p. 264. From the Jews the custom proceeded to the Chris. places in it, where the paschal victim mighi be offered, contained upwards tians; Valentinian and several other emperors having issued their edict, of 435,600 square cubits; so that there was arpple room for more than that some prisoners should be liberated from their honds at the annual 500,000 men to be in the temple
at the same time." Lamy, De Tabernacule. commemoration of our Saviour's resurrection. This custom obtained lib. vii. c. 9. $$ 4, 5. atnong the Venetians till the close of the eighteenth century, (Schulzii 1. See Lightroot's Temple Service, ch. xii. $ 5. (Works, vol. i. pp. Archäol. Hebr. p. 321.)
Ant. Jud. lib. iij. c. 10. 85.
of time it was, that Jesus Christ, our true paschal lamb, was was probably Moses's rod which he had in his hand, when crucified. (Matt. xxvii. 46.), The victim being killed, one God sent him with a message to Pharaoh (Exod. iv. 2.), and of the priests received the blood into a vessel, which was which was afterwards used as an instrument in working so handed from one priest to another, until it came to him who many miracles. So necessary in these countries was a staff stood next the altar, and by whom it was sprinkled at the or walking-stick on a journey, that it was a usual thing for bottom of the altar. After the blood was sprinkled, the lamb persons when they undertook long journeys to take a spare was hung up and flayed : this being done, the victim was staff with them, "for fear one should fail. When Christ, opened, the fat was taken out and consumed on the altar, therefore, sent his apostles on the embassy above mentioned, after which the owner took it to his own house. The paschal he ordered them not to take staves (Luke ix. 3. Mark vi. 8.), lamb was to be roasted whole, which might be commanded that is, only one staff or walking-stick, without making proas a matter of convenience at the first passover, in order that vision of a spare one, as was common in long journeys. their culinary utensils might be packed up ready for their “ The paschal lamb was to be eaten with unleavened bread, departure while the lamb was roasting; no part of it was to on pain of being cut off from Israel, or excommunicated
; be eaten either in a raw state, or boiled. (Exod. xii. 9.) though some critics understand this of being put to death
The propriety of the prohibition of eating any portion of The reason of this injunction was, partly to remind them of the paschal lamb in a row state will readily appear, when it the hardships they had sustained in Egypt, unleavened being is known that raw flesh and palpitating limbs were used in more heavy and less palatable than leavened bread; on which some of the old heathen sacrifices and festivals, particularly account it is called the bread of affliction (Deut. xvi. 3.); in honour of the Egyptian deity Osiris, and the Grecian and partly to commemorate the speed of their deliverance Bacchus, who were the same idol under different names. or departure from thence, which was such, that they had not That no resemblance or memorial of so barbarous a supersti- sufficient time to leaven their bread; it is expressly said, that tion might ever debase the worship of Jehovah, He made their “dough was not leavened, because they were thrust out this early and express provision against it. On the same of Egypt and could not tarry (Exod. xii. 39.); and on this ground, probably, He required the paschal lamb to be eaten account it was enacted into a standing law, Thou shalt eat privately and entire, in opposition to the bacchanalian feasts, unleavened bread, even the bread of affliction; for thou camest in which the victim was publicly torn in pieces, carried forth out of Egypt in haste.' (Deut. xvi. 3.) This rite, about in pomp, and then devoured. Further, the prohibition therefore, was not only observed at the first passover, but in of boiling the paschal lamb was levelled against a supersti- all succeeding ages.'
.95 But froin the metaphorical sense in tious practice of the Egyptians and Syrians, who were which the term leaven is used, this prohibition is supposed accustomed to boil their victims, and especially to seethe a to have had a moral view; and that the divine legislator's kid or lamb in the milk of its dam; as the command to roast intention was, that the Israelites should cleanse their minds and eat the whole of the lamb—not excepting its inwards from malice, envy, and hypocrisy; in a word, from the leaven without leaving any portion until the following morning, was of Egypt. In consequence of this injunction, the Hebrews, directed against another superstition of the antient heathens, as well as the modern Jews, have always taken particular whose priests carefully preserved and religiously searched care to search for all the leaven that might be in their houses, the entrails of their victims, whence they gathered their and to burn it.? pretended knowledge of futurity. Those, likewise, who The passover was likewise to be eaten with bitter herbs :" frequented pagan temples, were eager to carry away and de- this was doubtless prescribed as “a memorial of their severe vote to superstitious uses some sacred relics or fragments of bondage in Egypt, which made their lives bitter unto them; the sacrifices. In short, the whole ceremonial of the pass- and possibly also to denote that the haste, in which they de over appears to have been so adjusted as to wage an open parted, compelled them to gather such wild herbs as most and destructive war against the gods and idolatrous ceremo- readily presented themselves. To this sauce the Jews afternies of Egypt, and thus to form an early and powerful wards added another, made of dates, raisins, and several inbarrier around the true worship and servants of Jehovah.' gredients beaten together to the consistence of mustard, which
After the lamb was thus dressed, it was eaten by each is called charoseth, and is designed to represent the clay in family or paschal society. “ The First passover was to be which their forefathers wrought while they were in bondage eaten standing, in the posture of travellers, who had no time to the Egyptians. to lose; and with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, and no “It was further prescribed, that they should eat the flesh bone of it was to be broken. (Exod. xii. 8. 11. 46.) The of the lamb, without breaking any of his bones. (Exod. xii. posture of travellers was enjoined them, both to enliven 46.) This the latter Jews understand, not of the smaller their faith in the promise of their then speedy deliverance bones, but only of the greater which had marrow in them. from Egypt; and also, that they might be ready to begin Thus was this rite also intended to denote their being in their march presently after supper. They were ordered, there haste, not having time to break the bones and suck out the fore, to eat it with their loins girded; for as they were accus- marrow.' tomed to wear long and loose garments, such as are generally Lastly, “ it was ordered that nothing of the paschal lamb used by the eastern nations to this day, it was necessary to should remain till the morning; but, if it were not all eaten, tie them up with a girdle about their loins, when they either it was to be consumed by fire. (Exod. xii. 10.) The same travelled or engaged in any laborious employment."; Fur-law was extended to all eucharistical sacrifices (Lev. xxii. ther, " they were to eat the passover with shoes on their feet, 30.); no part of which was to be left, or set by, lest it should for in those hot countries they ordinarily wore sandals, which be corrupted, or converted to any profane or common use,were a sort of clogs, or went barefoot; but in travelling they an injunction which was designed, no doubt, to maintain the used shoes, which were a kind of short boots, reaching a honour of sacrifices, and to teach the Jews to treat with little way up, the legs. Hence, when our Saviour sent his reverence whatever was consecrated more especially to the twelve disciples to preach in the neighbouring towns, design- service of God.”g ing to convince them by their own experience of the extra- Such were the circumstances under which the first passover ordinary care of Divine Providence over them, that they was celebrated by the Israelites ; for, after they were settled might not be discouraged by the length and danger of the in the land of Canaan, they no longer ate it standing, but the journeys they would be called to undertake;-on this account guests reclined on their left arms upon couches placed round he ordered them to make no provision for their present jour. ney, particularly, not to take shoes on their feet, but to be exclaims, Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, i shod with sandals. (Matt. x. 10. compared with
Mark vi. 9.) mil fear no evil: for thou art with me, thy rod and thy staff they comfort Again, they were to eat the passover with staves in their • Jennings's Jewish Antiquitios, book iii. ch. iv. pp. 468_470. (London, hands, such as were always used by travellers in those rocky
o Lightfoot's Works, vol. i. pp. 953, 954. Allen's Modern Judaism, p. 381. countries, both to support them in slippery places, and de- See Matt. xvi. 6. St. Paul, writing to the Corinthians a short time befend them against assaults. (Gen. xxxii. 10.)* Of this sort sore the passover, exhorts them to cleanse out the old leaven of lewuness
by casting the incesiuous person out of the church; and to keep the feast 1 Tappan's Lectures on Jewish Antiquities, pp. 123, 124.
(of the Lord's supper) nol with the old leaven of sensuality and unclean. 9 Beausobre says that thesc sodalities were called brotherhoods, and the ness, with which they were formerly corrupted, neither with the leaven guests companions or friends, and that our Saviour's reproof of Judas by of malice and wickedness, bul with the unleavened bread (or qualities) of calling him friend or companion (Matt. xxvi. 50.) was both just and cutting, sincerity and truth. Macknight on 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. ; who observcs, that it is because he betrayed him after having eaten the passover with him. probable froin this passage that the disciples of Christ began very early to
3 Thus when Elisha sent his servant Gehazi on a message in haste, he celebrate the Lord's supper with peculiar solemnity, annually, on the day bade him “gird up his loins," 2 Kings iv. 29.; and when our Saviour set on which the Redeemer suffered, which was the day of the Jewish passabout washing bis disciples' feet, "he took a towel and girded himself," over, called in modern language Easter. It is with beautiful propriety, John xiii. 4.
therefore, that this passage of Saint Paul is introduced by the Anglican * David beautifully alludes to this custom in the twenty-third Psalm: Church anong the occasional versicles for Easter Sunday. where (ver. 4.), expressing his trust in the goodness of the Almighty, he • Jennings's Jewish Antiquities, book iii. ch. iv. pp. 470, 471.