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Of these extensive territories the Company is now directly responsible for the administration of the following portions:-(1.) SOUTHERN RHODESIA, or the provinces of Mashonaland and Matabeleland. (2.) NORTHERN RHODESIA, or the whole of the British sphere lying between the Portuguese Settlements, German East Africa, and the Congo Free State, with the exception of the strip of territory forming the British Central Africa Protectorate. Southern Rhodesia is divided into the two provinces of MATABELELAND (area--60,728 sq. miles) AND MASHONALAND (area-114,000 sq. miles). A census of the inhabitants has not yet been taken, but the number of registered voters is, for Mashonaland 1,420, and for Matabeleland 3,784. The native › population in Mashonaland is approximately 269,500, cultivating 410,600 acres, and in Matabeleland 144,300, cultivating 122,000 acres. November 4th, 1897, the railway to Buluwayo was formally opened. On May 1st, 1899, the first train from Beira entered Salisbury. 96 miles have been completed of the line now being built from Salisbury to Buluwayo, which passes within a few miles of the important district of Selukwe. A line from Buluwayo to the Gwanda district, in which are situated several mining properties, was also commenced in 1899, but further progress was stopped by the war. It is intended to extend the line to the Tuli coal-fields near the Transvaal border. A line to the Wankee coal-fields, 190 miles N.W. of Buluwayo, has also been surveyed, and a contract has been concluded for its construction. The gold prospects of Rhodesia have now become assured, and the finances of the Company have been greatly strengthened. The labour question is the chief difficulty in the expansion of the country, and an emigration department is being organised to regulate the importation and employment of labour. The GOVERNMENT is conducted by the Executive of Southern Rhodesia, consisting of the Senior Administrator, assisted by a Council. The Council consists of the Resident Commissioner, of the other Administrators, and of not less than four members appointed by the Company, with the approval of a Secretary of State. There is also a Legislative body styled the Legislative Council, elected for 3 years unless sooner dissolved. Council is composed of the Administrator or Administrators for the time being, of the Resident Commissioner, and of nine other members, of whom five are appointed by the Company, and four are elected by the registered voters. Administrator, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council, may make ordinances for the government of Southern Rhodesia, which, however, do not take effect until the assent of the High Commissioner has been given. The headquarters of the Administrator of Northern Rhodesia are at Fort Johnson. The control of the military forces is in the hands of the Imperial Government. AREA OF RHODESIA-750,000 sq. miles. RESIDENT-COMMISSIONER-Lt.-Col. Sir Marshall J. Clarke, K.C.M.G. (1898). SENIOR ADMINISTRATOR W. H. Milton. ADMINISTRATOR OF N.E. RHODESIA-R. Codrington. ADMINISTRATOR of N.W. RHODESIA-R. T. Coryndon. OFFICES IN LONDON Swithin's Lane, E.C. SECRETARY Jones.

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ST. HELENA.-The island of St. Helena, in the South Atlantic, of volcanic origin, is about 800 miles from Ascension Island. The Dutch took possession of it in 1645, from whom it was taken by England in 1673. Till 1833 it was governed by

the East India Company; it is row a Crown Colony. GOVERNMENT is vested in a Governor and a Council of four. EDUCATION-There are 11 schools, five of which are in receipt of Government grants, The new cable from the Cape through St. Helena has now been completed to St. Vincent. General Cronje and many of the Boer prisoners were sent to the island in 1900. Their presence has nearly doubled the imports and Customs, and the demand for labour has been relieved by the employment of some on important works. The climate, somewhat like that of Madeira, is mild and equable owing to the southeast trade winds. In the interior, the temperature ranges from 74° to 510, the mean temperatureranging from 66° in March to 57° in September. The maximum temperature in Jamestown is 84°; the average annual rainfall 32 inches. CapitalJamestown. Transit, 16 days. AREA-47 sq. miles. POPULATION (1891)--4,116. GOVERNOR -Robert A. Sterndale (1897), £700.

It is

SARAWAK.-BRITISH PROTECTORATE, on the north-west coast of the island of Borneo. intersected by many rivers navigable for a considerable distance inland, and commands about 400 miles of coast line. The government of the district from Tanjong Datu to the entrance of the Samarahan River was obtained from the Sultan of Brunei in the year 1842 by Sir James Brooke. In 1861 a second cession was obtained from the Sultan of Brunei of all the rivers and lands from the Samarahan River to Kadurong point; in 1882 a third cession was obtained of one hundred miles of coast line and all the country and rivers that lie between Kadurong point and the Baram River, including about three miles of coast on the north-east side of the latter. In 1885 another cession was obtained of the Trusan River, situated on the north of the mouth of the Brunei River; and the Limbang River was acquired in 1889. The country produces gold, diamonds, antimony, quicksilver, coal, gutta-percha, india-rubber, canes, rattans, camphor, bees'-wax, birds' nests, sago, tapioca, pepper, gambier, tea, coffee, cutch and tobacco. Chief town-Kutching. Transit, about 30 days. AREA (est.) 50,000 sq. miles. POPULATION -- 500,000. RULER Sir C. J. Brooke, G.C.M.G., b. 1829, s. 1868. HEIRRajah Muda Charles Vyner Brooke, b. 1874BRITISH HIGH COMMISSIONER-Sir Frederick Cardew, K.C.M.G.

SEYCHELLES.-See MAURITIUS.

SIERRA LEONE. The peninsula of Sierra Leone, which was ceded to England by the natives. in 1787, includes Sherbro Island and territory on the sea coast as far as the Republic of Liberia. GOVERNMENT is vested in a Governor and Executive and Legislative Councils nominated by the Crown. CHIEF EXPORTS Kola, rubber, benni-seed, ginger, ground nuts, gum copal, hides, palm oil, palm kernels, bees'-wax. CHIEF IMPORTS-Spirits, wine, beer, clothing, cotton and woollen goods, cutlery, beads, earthenware,. hardware, provisions. The past year has been prosperous, though the rubber export is not so large as formerly, mainly owing to the duties and impediments placed in the way of its transit into the Protectorate from adjoining French territory. Much is expected from the railway which is being made into the interior from Freetown, of which 55 miles are now completed, and a third section of 25 miles is being constructed. At present much native produce remains uncollected owing to the difficulty of transporting it to Freetown. The climate is malarial, humid, and prejudicial to

Europeans, especially in the wet season, from May to October. Away from the coast the Country is more healthy. Temperature varies from 89 to 62". During the months of January and March a very high wind prevails. Chief Town Freetown. Transit, about 15 days. AREA (of Sierra Leone proper)-4,000 sq. miles. POPULATION (1901)-Colony 100,000, Protectorate 1,000,000 (est.) GOVERNOR-Sir Charles A. King-Harman, K.C.M.G. (1900), £2,500. COLONIAL SECRETARY-G. B. Haddon-Smith, C.M.G.

SOMALI COAST PROTECTORATE.Great Britain's sphere of interest in this Protectorate, on the coast of Africa opposite Aden, which extends for about 200 miles inland and for some 400 miles along the coast, was definitively fixed by agreements with Italy in 1894 and with Abyssinia in 1897. From 1884 to Oct. 1898, it was dependent on Aden and administered from Bombay. It is now under the administration of the Foreign Office. In the autumn of 1900 hostility was aroused amongst the Ogaden Somalis by the infliction of a fine on the Sultan, and by the detention at Kismayu of a Chief, Hassan Yera, for the supposed complicity in the murder of some friendly natives. Mr. Jenner was murdered, and in November the Ogadens were in revolt. On Jan. 24, 1901, a punitive column reestablished order, and exacted a reparation from the Sultan for Mr. Jenner's murder. dition in two columns was despatched on May 22 against the Mad Mullah. On the 28th his stronghold at Moyo was captured, and on June 4th his main force was routed. His force was subsequently defeated with great loss near Hassan Ughaz on July 17th. Chief town - Berbera. CONSUL GENERAL-Lt. Colonel J. Hayes Sadler. AREA OF PROTECTORATE-68,000 sq. miles.

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STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.-The Straits Settlements in the Straits of Malacca comprise the islands of Singapore and Penang; Malacca, on the west coast of the Peninsula; Province Wellesley, on the mainland opposite Penang; and the Dindings. Between Malacca and Province Wellesley are the Federated Malay States of Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, and Pahang, at each of which there is a British Resident, under the control of a Resident General, subject to the instructions of the Governor of the Straits Settlements, who is High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States. GOVERNMENT -EXECUTIVE is vested in a Governor and Council. LEGISLATURE in a Legislative Council, consisting of the members of the Executive Council and 7 unofficial nominated members, over which the Governor presides. Singapore is the seat of government. EDUCATION-210 schools with 9,114 pupils were inspected in 1900, and the average attendance was 12, 201. CHIEF EXPORTS --Tin, pepper, sugar, nutmegs, sago, tapioca, rice, india-rubber, gambier, gums. CHIEF IMPORTSCotton goods, opium, tea, coffee, tobacco, hardware. The settlements, formerly under the Indian Government, were created a separate colony in 1867, in which the Cocos Islands were included in 1886. Christmas Island, in the Indian Ocean, annexed in 1888, was attached to the Straits Settlements early in 1889, and annexed to the Colony in 1900. The climate is nearly uniform throughout the year. In Singapore, the average annual rainfall is about 120 inches, and in Penang 100 inches, being evenly distributed throughout the year. Transit, about 24 days. AREA-1,542 sq. miles. POPULATION (1901)-572,249. GOVERNOR-Sir Frederick Cardew, K.C.M.G. (1900), £5,000, including table allowance. COLONIAL SECRETARY-W. T. Taylor, C.M.G.

THE TRANSVAAL was occupied in 1840 by Boers who trekked from Cape Colony. In 1852 its independence was recognised by Great Britain, After the defeat of the Boers in 1877 by Sekukuni, the country was proclaimed British territory. In December, 1880, the Boers revolted; in 1881 their independence was recognised in a convention (modified in 1884). The negotiations between Great Britain and the Transvaal in 1899 to secure an extension of political rights for the Uitlanders ended in an ultimatum to Great Britain and the invasion of British territory. The ill-success of British arms during the first two months of the war led to the appointment of Lord Roberts as Commander-in-Chief. His conduct of the operations led to a rapid change in the aspect of affairs. The Vaal was crossed on May 4, 1900; Johannesburg was entered by Lord Roberts on May 30th and Pretoria on June 5th. On Sept. 1 the Transvaal was formally annexed by proclamation to Great Britain. Since then the Boers under General Botha have engaged in guerilla warfare. In certain limited areas it was found possible in May, 1901, to initiate civil administration. AREA (including Swaziland, 5,560 sq. miles) -119,200 sq. miles. POPULATION (approx.)225,000 whites; 700,000 natives. GOVERNOR AND HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR S. AFRICA-Lord Milner, G.G B. COMMISSIONER FOR NATIVE AFFAIRS-Sir Godfrey Lagden, K.C.M.G. (For history of the war, see p. 357.)

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TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO.-Trinidad, lying between the north coast of South America and the island of Tobago, was discovered by Columbus in 1498, colonised by the Spaniards in 1588, and surrendered to the British in 1797. GOVERNMENT-EXECUTIVE in a Governor and Council. LEGISLATURE in a Legislative Council nominated by the Crown. EDUCATION-There are 240 primary schools, a few secondary ones, and several private schools. COMMERCE steadily increasing. The largest importers next to Great Britain are Venezuela, the United States, Canada, and France. 80 miles of railway are open, and in Port-of-Spain, the capital, 7 miles of tramway and over 500 miles of telephone have been constructed. CHIEF EXPORTS Sugar, cocoa, rum, bitters, molasses, cocoanuts, asphalte. CHIEF IMPORTS-Flour, rice, cotton, meat, hardware, lumber. The colony requires a regular supply of East Indian coolies, more roads, and better inter-communication for its future development. Extensive harbour improvements have been undertaken, and a system of underground sewerage provided. From the 1st January, 1899, Tobago was made a ward of Trinidad. climate of Trinidad is healthy, and the soil fertile. The average annual rainfall is 71°42 inches, and the temperature ranges from 92° to 67°. The Capital-Port-of-Spain (pop. 34,037)—is the finest harbour in the W, Indies. Transit, about 13 days. AREA-1,754 sq. miles. Tobago, 114 sq. miles. POPULATION (est. 1900)-270,000. GOVERNOR-Sir C. Alfred Moloney, K.C.M.G. (1900), £5,000.

The

UGANDA. This territory, formerly within the sphere of the British East Africa Company, lies on the northern and western shores of Lake Victoria Nyanza. Over Uganda proper a Protectorate was proclaimed in 1894, which was extended in 1896 over Unyoro and Usoga. The re-organisation of the country after the recent revolts of 1897 and 1898 was entrusted at the close of 1899 to Sir Harry Johnston. The railway is now practically complete to the shores of the Victoria Nyanza, a distance of nearly 590 miles. Owing to heavy rains in the carly summer the lake rose 2 feet above the recorded watermark,

which will prove a valuable aid to irrigation in Egypt. Capital-Kampala. AREA-150,000 sq. miles. POPULATION (est.)-3,900,000. COMMISSIONER AND CONSUL-GENERAL-Sir H. H. Johnston, K.C.B. (1899). ACTING COMMISSIONERCol. Trevor Ternan, C.M.G. VICE-ConsulGeorge Wilson, C.B.

WEI-HAI-WEI, which was leased by China to Great Britain in July, 1898, consists of the island of Len-Kuang-tan and all the islands in the Bay of Wei-hai-Wei, as well as of a belt of land 10 miles wide along the whole coast-line of the bay, which is about 18 miles in circumference, and affords good anchorage for a large number of ships. The bay is situated in Latitude 37° 30' N., Longitude 122° 10' E., and forms the Inost eastern harbour on the north coast of the Shantung Peninsula. The town stands on the Shantung promontory, nearly opposite Port Arthur. The Island of Liu-Kung-tau, which is on the north side of the bay, is two miles long, varying in width from a quarter to three-quarters of a mile. The whole is under the supervision of the Admiralty. BRITISH COMMISSIONER-Maj.Gen. Sir Arthur R. F. Dorward, K.C.B., D.S.O. (1901).

WINDWARD ISLANDS, consisting of Grenada (and the Grenadines), St. Lucia and St. Vincent, were discovered by Columbus in 1498 and 1502. Until their final cession to England in 1783 and 1802 they were constantly changing owners. GOVERNMENT - EXECUTIVE in a Governor, usually resident in Grenada, the headquarters, with an Executive Council in that island, and in each of the other two islands an Administrator and an Executive Council. LEGISLATURE in a Legislative Council for each island. EDUCATION-There are 105 elementary schools. CHIEF EXPORTS-Cocoa and spices from Grenada; sugar and cocoa from St. Lucia; and arrowroot and sugar from St. Vincent. CHIEF IMPORTS Bread-stuffs, hardware, dry goods. The sugar industry of the islands, which is

CROWN

E. E. Blake, Major M. A. Cameron, C.M.G.,

R.E., W. H. Mercer.

Accountant, J. W. Leonard.

dependent on the markets of the United States, has been in a critical condition of recent years. Climate-During winter months, from December to May, healthy and delightful; during the wet season, August to November, damp and hot. AREA-524 sq. miles. POPULATION (1901). 160,881. Grenada, 63,438; St. Lucia, 49,895; St. Vincent, 47,548. ADMINISTRATOR OF ST. LUCIA Sir Harry L. Thompson, K.C.M.G. ADMINISTRATOR OF ST. VINCENT-E. J. Cameron. GOVERNOR-Sir Robert B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G. (1900), £2,500.

ZANZIBAR.-PROTECTORATE.

SULTAN

Hamoud bin Mahomed bin Said, succeeded August 27, 1896. RELIGION-Mohammedanism. But there are numerous Christian missions in the country, and many pagans. CHIEF EXPORTSCloves, gum, copal, india-rubber, ivory, cocoa-nut oil, semsem, orchella weed, rafters. CHIEF IMPORTS-Cotton goods, beads, mineral oil, wire, brass, and iron. The trading population is chiefly Indian. In 1886 under agreement between England and Germany, with the subsequent adherence of France, the territory behind the coast was divided. Germany was assigned the district between the Rovuma River and the River Umba, and England was assigned the district north of the River Umba. In the summer of 1830 Zanzibar became a British Protectorate. Since the Sultan's decree in 1897, abolishing the legal status of slavery, the liberation of the existing slave population has been steadily carried out, and industrial schools are being established for the freed population. The Climate of Zanzibar is better than that of the mainland. The hot season is from January to March; temperature ranges from 90° to 77°, and the average annual rainfall is 60 inches. Transit, 20 days. AREA-Zanzibar Island, 625 sq. miles; Pemba Island, 360 sq. miles. POPULATIONZanzibar, 150,000; Pemba, 50,000. ARMY-600. BRITISH AGENT AND CONSUL-GENERAL - Sir Charles N. E. Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1900), £2,000. CONSUL-Basil S. Cave, C.B.

AGENTS.

Registrar, T. Dunn.

Engineering Clerk and Head of Contract Branch, T. R. Marsh.

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FOREIGN COUNTRIES.

ABYSSINIA.-MONARCHY. King, Menelek or Degiaac Mangascia, G.C.M.G., nephew of the late Johannes II., s. 1889. The country is divided into three great divisions-TIGRÉ in the north, SHOA in the south, and AMHARA in the centre, each subdivided into many semi-independent states into which the country was broken up after the death of King Theodore, April 13, 1868. The inhabitants, who are chiefly Shemitic, resemble the Arabs in many characteristics. Pasturage is their chief pursuit. Trade in civet, coffee, gum, wax, gold and ivory, is carried on principally in the dry season from September to June. Cotton, woollen goods, and cutlery are the chief imports. Italy declared a protectorate over the country in 1889. After her defeat at Adowa on March 1, 1896, Italy gave up this protectorate, and by subsequent treaty confined her claims to a strip along the coast, about 180 miles wide, with access to the settlement of Lugh on the Juba river. A railway is being built under French auspices from Djibuti to Adis Abbaba, with a branch to Harrar; some 60 miles are now open for traffic. By treaty in 1898 Great Britain ceded to Abyssinia some 8,000 miles of British Somaliland. In the spring of 1901 an expedition was undertaken successfully against the Mad Mullah and his Somali following by Ras Mangascia. Capital-Adis Abbaba. AREA -160,000 sq. ms. POPULATION 3,000,000. BRITISH AGENT AND CONSUL GENERAL Lt.-Col. John L. Harrington.

AFGHANISTAN.-AMEER, Abdur-Rahman Khan, G.C.B., G.C.S.I., s. 1880. Receives from the Indian Government a subsidy of 1,200,000 Rs. GOVERNMENT-A sort of military dictatorship. The people, who claim descent from King Saul, seem to have occupied their present country in the 13th century. For a century and a half they were subject to Mongol rule, for a long period under Persian rule. They did not gain their independence till the middle of the 18th century. The eastern portion of the country is rich in minerals. There are two harvests in the year-the Autumn sown reaped in Summer, and the Spring sown reaped in Autumn. Fruits are grown in great abundance, and assafoetida is largely exported to India. Recently the Ameer has set up a small arm factory capable of turning out several thousand modern rifles in the year. Canals and irrigation works are in progress near Kabul and an important road is being built in the direction of the Oxus, where some modern forts are being erected. The dominions are politically divided into the four provinces of Cabul, Turkistan, Herat, and Candahar. AREA-215,400 sq.

ms.

POPULATION-4,000,000. BRITISH AGENT AT CABUL-Ressaldar Major Nawaz Khan.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.-PRESIDENTGen. J. A. Roca, elected 1898. EXECUTIVE vested by constitution of May, 1853, modified in 1860, in a President ($36,000, paper) elected for six years by representatives of the provinces and the capital. LEGISLATURE is vested in a NATIONAL CONGRESS, Consisting of two Chambers. The SENATE consists of 30 members, elected for 9 years, two from the capital and two from each province, one-third of the Senate being renewed every three years. The CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES consists of 120 members elected by the people, one member for every 20,000 inhabitants, elected for four years, one half of the deputies retiring every two years. Qualifications for election are: Senators must be 30 years of age, have an annual income of at least $2,000, and

have been citizens for six years; deputies must be 25 years old, and have been citizens for four years. Members of both Chambers receive $12,000 paper a year each for their services. Each of the 14 provinces (as in the United States) elects its own Governor and legislature for domestic affairs. The chief agricultural products of the Argentine are wheat, flax and maize, but the production of sugar is rapidly increasing. Cattle are exported in large numbers to Brazil. A state of siege for six months was decreed on July 4The best time to reach the country is from Oct. to Dec. AREA-1,212,000 sq. ms. POPULATION (1899) 4,093,000. Capital Buenos Ayres. Transit, 22 days. MINISTER IN ENGLAND— Florencio Dominguez (1899). CONSUL-GENERAL -Doctor S. G. Uriburu, 3, Budge Row, Cannon Street, E.C. BRITISH MINISTER Hon. Sir W. A C. Barrington, K.C.M.G. (1896), £3,000.

AUSTRIA HUNGARY.-The Empire of Austria and the kingdom of Hungary are united under one hereditary sovereign, a common army and navy, and diplomacy controlled by the DELEGATIONS, a body of 120 members, half representing the legislature of Austria, half that of Hungary, the upper house of each returning 20, and the lower house 40 delegates. Ordinarily the delegates sit and vote in two chambers, their jurisdiction being limited to The foreign affairs, common finances, and war. LEGISLATURE of AUSTRIA consists of the PROVINCIAL DIETS, representing the various provinces which are competent to regulate local administration; and the REICHSRATH, consisting of an UPPER HOUSE (Herrenhaus), composed of princes of the Imperial Family of age (21), of a number of nobles in whose family the dignity is hereditary (varying in number from 50 to 70), 10 archbishops, 7 bishops, and life members nominated by the Emperor (120); and a LOWER HOUSE (Abgeordnetenhaus) of 353 members, elected partly directly, partly indirectly, by citizens who are 24 years of age, and pay direct taxes amounting to 5 florins or more. The duration of this house is for six years. It elects its own president and vice-president. Members receive 16s. 8d. a day during session, and travelling expenses. In case of dissolution a new election must take place within six months, and the REICHSRATH must be summoned annually. The Emperor nominates the president and vicepresident of the UPPER HOUSE. EXECUTIVE vested in a ministry of nine. The LEGISLATURE of HUNGARY rests conjointly in the King and the Diet, or Reichstag, which consists of an UPPER HOUSE or house of magnates, and a LOWER HOUSE, or house of representatives. The former includes all hereditary peers who pay 3,000 fl. a year land tax; 41 archbishops and bishops of the Roman Catholic and Greek churches; 11 representatives of Protestant confessions; 84 life peers appointed by the Crown; 17 members exofficio; 3 delegates of Croatia-Slavonia; and the archdukes who are of age. Members of the LOWER HOUSE are elected by all male citizens of 20 years of age who pay a small direct tax. Number of members, 453. Members are paid 2,400 fl. a year, and 800 fl. for house rent, pay reduced price for season tickets on State lines, and can travel one class higher than their tickets on all other lines. EXECUTIVE Vested in a ministry of nine, including a president. Owing to the non-renewal of the Ausgleich entered into between Austria and Hungary, the only tie which now holds together the dual monarchy is the

personal one of the Emperor. The elect ons in Jan., 1901, resulted in the defeat of the clerical party. The fierce animosity which had so long existed between the Czechs and Germans showed, during the session of the Reichsrath which closed on June 11, some signs of ceasing. The tact of the Premier, Dr. Von Koerber, led to a temporary if not permanent reconciliation, which enabled the legislature to carry out an extensive proThe Arch-duke gramme of social legislation. Franz Ferdinand declared the morganatic character of his marriage in May, and acknowledged the exclusion of his children from succession to the throne. AREA -261,649 sq. ms. POPULATION (1901) 47,000,000. Capital Vienna. AMBASSADOR IN ENGLAND - Count Franz de Paula Deym (1888). BRITISH AMBASSADOR Right Hon. Sir Francis Plunkett, G.C.M.G. (1900). CONSUL-GENERAL Stockinger.

F.

to the

BELGIUM.-GOVERNMENT-Limited constitutional monarchy; females and their descendants excluded. In default of male heirs, King may, with the consent of the chambers, nominate his successor. EXECUTIVE in the King and a responsible ministry. LEGISLATURE in the King and two chambers-the CHAMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES and the SENATE; both prorogued and dissolved by the King; in case of dissolution the new chambers must meet within two months. They meet annually, and must sit for at least 40 days. Members of the CHAMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES must be Belgians, born or naturalised, of the age of 25, and are elected by universal suffrage. Each Deputy is paid 4,000 fr., and has a free passage over government railways between his home and the House of Session. The SENATE consists of members elected for 8 years by universal suffrage. Those who are elected directly are proportioned in number population of each province, those elected indirectly are chosen by the provincial councils; two for each province with less than 50,000 inhabitants; three for each with a population up to 100,000. During the past year the Labour party in Belgium has shown increased activity in spreading its propaganda. In April a Bill for extending the Workmen's Compensation for Accidents was introduced into the House of Representatives. M. Baernaert's Bill, proposing to hand over the Congo to Belgium under the mere provisional administration of the King, led to the personal interference of the King, who declined to accept the part of a provisional ruler. The Bill was then withdrawn. The Senate passed on June 13 the Anti-Gambling Bill, but prolonged for three years the existence of the Ostend and Spa tables; this special privilege was rejected by the Chamber of Representatives POPULAby 53 votes. AREA-11,373 sq. ms. TION-6,800,000. Capital-Brussels. MINISTER IN ENGLAND-Baron Whettnall (1894). BRITISH CONMINISTER-E. C. Phipps, C.B. (1903). SULATE-GENERAL, 29, Gt. St. Helens, E.C.

BOLIVIA. REPUBLIC. PRESIDENT-General José M. Pando, 1899. A scientific expedition is exploring the region between the crest of the Andes and the Amazonian plain and between the rivers Kaká and Beni and the river Pando. AREA-472,000 sq. ins. POPULATION 1,303,000 (estd.). MINISTER IN ENGLAND-Señor Don Felix A. Aramayo (1898). CONSUL-GENERAL IN LONDON-Col. Don Pedro Suarez, 12, Fenchurch Street.

BRAZIL. REPUBLIC. PRESIDENT - Dr Campos Salles, 1898. The present Constitution,

which was submitted to Congress in November, 180, is similar to that of the United States. In its main features, it provides for a President and Vice President, elected by popular suffrage; two legislative chambers, viz., a SENATE elected by popular suffrage for nine years (one third of the senators being pensioned off every three years), and a CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES (consisting of 212 members, who must have been Brazilian citizens for four years), elected by popular vote for three years. In Brazil, which is an agri

cultural country, the principal products cultivated are coffee, sugar, tobacco, and cotton; the production of rum and alcohol is increasing. Little has been done to utilize the valuable forests, and owing to the want of fuel the vast quantities of iron known to exist cannot be worked. The British Consul describes the economic condition of the country as unsatisfactory, the system of taxation being burdensome and irksome. The warm months in Rio are from Nov. to April, and during this period most rain falls. Capital -Rio de Janeiro. Transit, about 20 days. AREA sq. ms. POPULATION 17,000,000 (estd.). BRITISH MINISTER Sir Henry N. Dering, Bart, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1900), £4,000. MINISTER IN ENGLAND-Señor J. A. Nabuco de Aranjo (1900). CONSUL-E. L. Chermont, 6, Gt. Winchester Street, E.C..

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3,219,000

BULGARIA.-Created by the treaty of Berlin in 1878, and constituted an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of the Sultan. Prince to be elected by the population, whose choice must be confirmed by the Porte, with the consent of the Powers. LEGISLATURE Vested in the SOBRANYE, elected by manhood suffrage for five years. The Constitution can only be altered with the consent of a Special, or Grand Sobranye, the members of which are elected in the proportion of one for every 10,000 souls. In June, 1900, a serious revolt of peasants broke out, but peace was restored by the repeal of the Tithe and the passing of an Amnesty Bill. EXECUTIVE in the Prince and a Council of 8 ministers. AREA-37,860 sq. mis. BRITISH DIPLOMATIC AGENT-F. E. H. Elliot (1895).

CHILE. - REPUBLIC. PRESIDENT German Riesco, elec. July 1901. EXECUTIVE vested in a President (£6,000) elected for five years, and a Council of 11 members. LEGISLATURE in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies. The SENATE is composed of members elected by the provinces in the proportion of one Senator for every three Deputies for six years, and Senators must have $2,000 a year. The CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES of 94 members (with an income of at least $1,000), or one for every 30,000 inhabitants, is elected by the departments for three years. Wheat and cereals are the chief products of Chile, more than half the population being engaged in agriculture. The trade in nitrates shows a steady growth. Capital-Santiago. Transit, about 30 days by sea, 23 by overland route. AREA-233,970 sq. ms. POPULATION 2,983,259. MINISTER IN ENGLAND-Domingo Gana (1898). CONSULAlfredo Torres, 10, Lime Street, E.C. BRITISH MINISTER G. A. Lowther (1901), £2,000. BRITISH CONSUL-GENERAL-Sir T. B. CusackSmith, K. C.M.G., Valparaiso.

CHINA.-EMPEROR KWANG HSÜ, born Aug. 15, 1871, succeeded Jan. 12, 1875; married Feb. 26, 1889. The reins of power are practically in the hands of the Empress Dowager, widow of the late and aunt of the present Emperor.

Each ruler has power to appoint his successor, who must be of the ruler's family, but of a younger

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