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Obtained by, and Date.

Annexation, 1815
Treaty cession, 1868
Cession, 1885
Cession, 1889

Treaty cession, 1815...
Cession to Compy., 1886
Treaty cession, 1783..
Conquest, 1663
C'q'st & c'sion, 1810,1814
Annexation, 1843
Conquest, 1900
Cession, 1861

Cession, 1886

Governor and when appointed.

Capt. G. N. Pollard, R.N., 1899.
Lord Milner, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., 1897.
Alfred Sharpe,C.B., 1897.[G.C.M.G.,1901
Hon. Sir W. F. Hely-Hutchinson,
Sir Charles Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., 1900.
Sir George C. Denton, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Major M. Nathan, R.E., C.M.G., 1901.
Sir Charles Bruce, G.C.M.G., 1897.
Sir H. E. McCallum, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Lord Milner, G.C.B., 1900. [1899.
Sir Wm. McGregor, M.D., K.C.M.G., C.B.,
Brig.-Gen. Sir F. J. Lugard, K.C.M.G.,
C.B., D.S.O., 1899.

T'ties with Natives, 1884 Sir R. D. Moor, K.C.M.G., 1896.

Cession, 1888

Conquest, 1673

Lt. Col.Sir M. J.Clarke, K.C.M.G., 1898.
R. A. Sterndale, 1897.

C'sion from Natives, 1787 Sir Chas. A. King-Harman, K.C.M.G.,

Treaty, 1884

Conquest, 1900

Foreign Office.

Lord Milner, G.C.B., 1900.


Transfer from Co., 1894... Sir H. H. Johnston, K.C.B., 1899.
Sir Chas. Ñ. E. Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B.,

Zanzib'r P'tect'rate (inc. Pemba), 985 Treaty, 1890


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Sir Gilbert Carter, K.C.M.G., 1898.
Sir Fred. M. Hodgson, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Gen. Sir George D. Barker, K.C.B.
The Earl of Minto, G.C.M.G., 1898.

Hon. Sir Henri Joly de Lotbinière,
K.C.M.G., 1900.

Hon. J. C. Patterson, 1895.
Hon. A. R. McLelan, 1898.
Sir Cavendish Boyle, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Hon. A. E. Forget, 1898.

Hon. Sir M. B. Daly, K.C.M.G., 1895.
Hon. Sir O. Mowat, G.C.M.G., 1897.
Hon. P. A. MacIntyre, 1899.
Hon. L. A. Jetté, 1898,
W. Grey Wilson, C.M.G., 1897.
Sir J. A. Swettenham, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Col. Sir D. Wilson, K.C.M.G., 1897.
Sir A. W. L. Hemming, G.C.M.G., 1898.
Sir Henry M. Jackson, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Sir Alfred Maloney, K.C.M.G., 1900.

Sir Robt. B. Llewelyn, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Lord Northcote, G.C.I.E., C.B., 1900.
Rt. Hon. Sir W. Ridgeway, G.C.M.G.,
K.C.B., K.C.S.I., 1896.

Sir Henry A. Blake, G.C.M.G., 1897.
Lord Curzon of Kedleston, 1898.
E. W. Birch, C.M.G., 1901.

Sir Frederick Cardew, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Maj.-Gen. Sir A. Dorward, K.C.B.,
D.S.O., 1901.
Earl of Hopetoun, K.T., G.C.M.G., P.C.,
Sir G. T. M. O'Brien, K.C.M.G., 1897.
George R. Le Hunte, C.M.G., 1898.
Sir F. M. Darley, K.C.M.G. (acting).
Earl of Ranfurly, G.C.M.G., 1897.
Sir S. W. Griffith, c.J. (acting).
Lord Tennyson, K.C.M.G., 1899. [1901.
Sir A. E. Havelock, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E.,
Col. Sir Geo. S. Clarke, K.C.M.G., 1901.
Capt. Hon. SirA.Lawley, K.C.M.G.,1901
Sir G. T. M. O'Brien, K.C.M.G., 1897.

Sir W.F.Haynes Smith, K.C.M.G.,1893.
Lt.-Gl.Sir G.S. White, G.C.B.,V.C.,1899
Gen. Sir Francis Grenfell, G.C.B., 1899



Though the area of the United Kingdom consists of only 120,979 sq. ms., that of the British Empire, exclusive of protectorates and spheres of influence, is 9,093,865 sq. ms., and with all its colonies and dependencies falls little short of 11,300,000 sq. ms., or nearly three times as large as Europe, and covers more than a fifth part of the land-surface of the globe. Of this huge territorial surface a perfectly insignificant fraction is in Europe; while, in round numbers, the square miles contributed by Asia are one and three-quarter millions, by Africa two and a quarter millions, by America three and a half millions, and by Australasia three and a quarter mullions. So far as can be ascertained, the aggregate inhabitants of the Empire in 1901 numbered 395,152,105. Of this number 36,230,000 were inhabitants of protectorates or spheres of influence; 318,012,180 were in our colonies or dependencies; the remaining 40,903,925 being the actual population of the United Kingdom. Of the 318,012,180 inhabitants of our colonies and dependencies, 231,085,132 were in British India, making, with 63,181,569 inhabitants of the Indian Protected States, a total population of 294,266,701 persons in the Indian Empire; 2,596, 170 Ceylon; 912,660 in other Asian possessions; making a total in Asia of 298,775,531 persons. The population of the British colonies and dependencies in Africa was 6,773,360, while that of the African protectorates, or spheres of influence very imperfectly known, was 35,000,000; making a

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total of 41,773,560 in Africa. The population off those parts of the Empire that are in America was. 7.420,640. Of these, 5,054,449 were in Canada.

ADEN AND PERIM. Two important British coaling stations. The peninsula of Aden on the Arabian Coast was captured in 1839, and is now strongly fortified; both it and the neighbouring island of Perim at the entrance to the Red Sea are under the Bombay Government, which is represented by a Resident who is both civil and military Governor. An expedition was. sent in July, 1901, against a Turkish force which had erected and occupied a fort 70 miles inland on territory claimed by Great Britain, and the fort was destroyed. AREA of Aden, 75 sq. miles = of Perim, about 5 sq. miles. PoPULATION (1891,


ASCENSION ISLAND.-CROWN COLONY, in the South Atlantic, of volcanic origin, discovered by the Portuguese, May 20, 1501. First. occupied as a naval station by Great Britain in 1815. It is under the charge of the Admiralty. and is used as a coaling-station for the W. African squadron. The only station, GEORGETOWN, situated in a small bay on the north-west coast, is fortified. From January to May the island is visited by the sea-turtle. AREA, 35 sqmiles. POPULATION-400. OFFICER IN CHARGE -Captain G. N. Pollard, R. N.


AUSTRALASIA consists of the island-con*inent of Australia (formerly known as New Holland), with an area of 2,946,691 square miles, and the islands of Tasmania (26,215 square miles) and New Zealand (104,471 square miles). Australia is divided into five Colonies: New South Wales (310,700 square miles), Victoria (87,884 square miles), Queensland (668,497 square miles), South Australia (903,690 square miles), and Western Australia (975,920 square miles). The total area of Australasia is therefore 3,077,377 square miles, or more than onethird of the area of the whole British Empire. Although some obscurity hangs over the history of the early discoveries of Australia, there can be no doubt that the merit of having practically made it known to the world belongs to Captain James Cook, who in 1770 sailed along the whole of the eastern coast, from Cape Howe to Cape York. In consequence of the reports made by that navigator to the Government, a settlement was formed in 1788 at Sydney, in Port Jackson, by a party consisting of little more than a thousand souls, who landed with them head of horned cattle, 7 head of horse stock, 23 sheep, 12 pigs, and a few goats. At the beginning of 1901 the population of Australasia had increased to 4,550,651 persons, with plenty of room for further expansion, as shown by the fact that the number stated only represents 146 persons to the square mile. The greatest density of population is found in Victoria, where it reaches 13 24 to the square mile, while in New Zealand it is 7'24, in Tasmania 6'95, New South Wales 4'37, Queensland '72, South Australia 0'41, and

Western Australia o'18.

AUSTRALIA. -The Commonwealth of Australia, constituted by Act of Parliament July, 1900, was formally proclaimed at Sydney on Jan. 1, 1901. It consists of six "Original States," New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. The Executive is vested in the Crown, exercised through the Governor-General, who is assisted by a Council of seven Ministers. The Legislative power is vested in the Crown (represented by the Governor-General) and the Federal Parliament, which consists of a Senate and House of Representatives. The Senate consists of 36 members, or 6 for each original State, chosen for 6 years by the electors voting in each State (except Queensland) as one electorate. Every 3 years in the ordinary course the Senate is to be renewed to the extent of one-half; in case of prolonged disagreement with the House of Representatives it can be dissolved, and a new Senate elected. The House of Representatives consists, as near as may be, of twice as many Members as there are Senators, provided that not less than 5 are chosen in any one State. The House, which was opened on May 9, 1901, by H.R.H. Duke of Cornwall and York, at present contains 75 members, 26 from N.S. Wales, 23 from Victoria, 9 from Queensland, 7 from S. Australia, and 5 each from W. Australia and Tasmania. Unless sooner dissolved, it is elected for 3 years. Every Senator or Member must be a naturalised subject of the Crown, or have been for 5 years a naturalised subject under a law of the United Kingdom or of a State, be of full age, and must possess electoral qualification in his own State, and have resided 3 years within the Commonwealth. The several State Parliaments retain their legislative authority in all matters not transferred to the Federal Parliament. A Federal Judicature has been provided for under the constitution. The defence forces of the Commonwealth consist of 61,223 men and 15,0.0

cadets. There are 6,658 State Schools, supported at a cost of £1,710,485. Climate-Though the varieties of climate are necessarily great, the climate of Australasia is milder than that of corresponding lands in the Northern Hemisphere. In July, the coldest month in southern latitudes, one half of Australasia has a mean temperature ranging from 40° to 64', the other half from 64° to 80°. In December the temperature ranges from 50° to over 95, the mean temperature of half Australasia being about 83°. Admirable pamphlets dealing with the resources of the Colonies are issued at intervals by Mr. T. A. Coghlan, Government Statistician. AREA OF THE COMMONWEALTH2,972,906 sq. miles. GOVERNOR-GENERAL-The Earl of Hopetoun, K.T., G.C.M.G., P.C.


New South Wales. - The oldest of the Australasian colonies. GOVERNMENT-A Governor appointed by the Crown. EXECUTIVEThe Governor and a Cabinet of 10 ministers. LEGISLATURE-A Parliament of two Houses, the LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL and the Legislative ASSEMBLY. The former consists of not less than 21 members nominated by the Crown, the latter of 125 paid members, representing 125 electorates. This number is to be reduced. Amongst the measures now under consideration are a Bill for compulsory industrial arbitration; a Bill to amend the land laws, by which lands suitable for settlement will be immediately thrown open; a Bill to consolidate and amend the mining laws; one to provide holdings for working men in the populous centres; and a woman's suffrage Bill. In spite of the long-continued drought there is evidence of a revival of prosperity. The country is rich in its agricultural capacities, and produces gold, silver, coal, iron, copper, tin, kerosene shale, antimony, and other minerals; the gold fields were discovered in 1851. Land in the colony may be acquired (1) by conditional purchase with residence; (2) by conditional purchase without residence; (3) by the preferent right of purchase attached to conditional leases; (4) by improvement purchases on gold fields; (5) by auction sales; (6) by after auction sales; (7) by special sales without competition; (8) by homestead selection. In 1899 an Act was passed to assist settlers who were in need or financially embarrassed by drought. applications under this Act have been dealt with, 2,687 of which have been approved. Fully 25 per cent. of the land is under forest or bush; the cultivated land is chiefly in small holdings, and on the Western plains there are vast flocks of sheep. EDUCATION is under control of the State; there are 2,693 primary schools, and 5 State High Schools. CHIEF EXPORTS-Wool, coal, silver, tin, copper, gold, leather, skins and hides, tallow, live stock, meat, butter, fruit, flour, wheat, kerosene shale, timber, wines. CHIEF IMPORTS-Clothing, linens, boots and shoes, iron and steel, oils, paper, books, &c., stationery, tea, hardware, sugar, machinery. The climate is temperate and uniform. The mean temperature of Sydney is 63°; that of the coastal region 64°; and that of the higher lands 58°. The climatic conditions of the plains in the western districts are healthy, in spite of the summer heat, which is dry. The average rainfall of the coastal district is 49'50 inches; in the tablelands 33 inches; in the western district 20 42 inches. The rainfall is chiefly from February to June. The rainfall decreases as the distance from the coast increases. The prevalent winds in summer are north-east and light westerly. In winter wet south-easterly and dry, cold westerly winds. December, January and February are hot months. Capital-Sydney. POPULATION


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