October, 1900.-Season commenced with ample reserve of wheat, visible supply of the world being 18,191,000 quarters; but home yield only amounted to 53 million bushels, or 14 million less than in 1899. Area of arable land continued to decrease, acreage of past season having been 19,527,915. Values little affected by fact that world's wheat yield was considerably less than its immediate predecessor. Grain averages for month: Wheat, 28/8; Barley, 26/3; Oats, 17/-. November.-Winter crops generally seeded under favourable conditions, and, atmosphere being humid, seed germinated well. A good crop of roots secured, thus compensating for somewhat poor hay crop, and openness of weather admitted of grazing season being prolonged. In Scotland, potato crop much damaged by constant rains. Prospects of ample supplies of grain kept markets easy. Barley yield; 8,750,000 quarters, against 9,316,000 in previous year; Oats, 20 millions, against 20,767,000. Grain averages for month: Wheat, 27/2; Barley, 25/10; Oats, 17/-.

December.-Season continued very open, and although imported grain showed a firmer tendency little actual change occurred. War Office continued large purchasers of oats, both at Mark Lane and to be forwarded direct from ports of shipment to Cape. Grain averages for month: Wheat, 26/7; Barley, 25/9; Oats, 17/2. Orchard area increased 11 per cent. since 1892, to 232,129 acres. Official estimates: Russian Barley crop, 25,754,000 quarters; United States, 7,365,000. Oats, 82 and 101 million bushels respectively. American Maize, 2,105,000,000 bushels.

January, 1901.-The year opened with autumnsown crops well established, and clover and sainfoin layers never looked better. A large number of ewes came to grief in lambing pens, and paucity of twins was a feature. Tithe valuation made at £66 10s. 94d., lowest yet fixed, and comparing with 112 75. 51d. in 1877, the highest recorded. Animal diseases more prevalent during


Foot-and-mouth disease made its appearance again after lying dormant since 1894, no less than 21 cases being reported, but none in Ireland. Fewer cases, however, of swine fever and sheep scab. Grain averages for month: Wheat, 26/8; Barley, 25/6; Oats, 17/3.

February. A most wintry month; heavy snowfalls, and seeding of Lenten corn delayed till the last week. Grain markets featureless. Averages for month: Wheat, 26/5; Barley, 25/4; Oats, 17/7. Trying times in lambing pens owing to constant freezing and thawing, and expenses heavy. A fresh outbreak of foot-andmouth disease among dairy cows at Ipswich, and nine cases reported before end of month. trade slow, and beef and mutton d. per pound cheaper than year ago.


March.-Considerable falls of rain, and tillage work even more backward than last year, and, although drier towards end, vegetation checked by low temperatures and harsh winds. Grain markets still dull. Averages for month: Wheat, 25/10; Barley, 25/1; Oats, 17/8. Cattle markets still very dull, and beasts further declined td. per pound, but lambs sold well. World's maize crop figured at 2,733,015,000 bushels, of which American production accounts for 80'9 per cent. Imports first half of cereal year larger, except of maize. Ireland again fared better than its sister isles with its crops last year, yields per acre being:-Great Britain: Wheat, 28 53 bushels;

Barley, 3131; Oats, 37'95; Potatoes, 4'87 tons; Mangels, 20'42; and Hops, 6'78 cwts. Ireland: Wheat, 31 26 bushels; Barley, 35'78; Oats, 45 51; Potatoes, 2'8 tons; and Flax, 34'3 stones.

April, instead of being a month of genial showers, was cool and altogether unsuited to spring sowing, with the result that further delay occurred. Rainfall irregular, but mostly rather over the average. Grain markets, though quiet, rather firmer. Averages for month: Wheat, 26/5; Barley, 25/54; Oats, 18/34.

May. Temperatures much under normal, and plant development seriously retarded. Barley sowing completed, and mangel seeding unusually late. Averages: Wheat, 27/34; Barley, 25/21; Oats, 19/8. Grain markets further strengthened by poor outlook. Indian wheat crop estimated at 31 million quarters. Grazing season opened badly.

June. Rainfall barely over one-third of average, and condition of all grain and pulse crops at end of month inferior to that of a year ago. Hops, however, of better promise. Grain markets again rather firmer. Averages for month: Wheat, 27/6; Barley, 23/4; Oats, 19/11-latter being highest since August last. Weather favourable for haymaking, but yield very light. berries very abundant and prices low; other small fruit plentiful.


July.-Position of all except beans and field peas improved. German crops poor, and abnormal heat caused great deterioration in American maize crop. Straw short, but Northern farmers fared better than Southern. Oats in Ireland not very hopeful, but potatoes of exceptional p:omise, and prospects generally better than in England. Some rye and winter barley in stock on St. Swithin's Day. Grain markets quiet and easier. Averages for month: Wheat, 27/4: Barley, 23/3; Oats, 19/9. Down wool at Southern markets sold at 3d. per pound decline on last year washed, 7d. to gd.; grease, 4d. to 5d. Doubtful prospects of winter keep affect prices at sheep fairs, Salisbury being 25. to 35. lower. Make of cheese exceptionally small.

August saw further improvement in crop pro spects, especially pastures, but hops deteriorated somewhat. American maize crop further reduced, but Continental position improved. Large areas of wheat stacked in South by mid-August. Averages for month: Wheat, 27/4; Barley, 24/3; Oats, 18/9. Times estimates hay crop 17 cwt., against 22 last year. Soft fruit very large crop, plums sometimes 50 per cent. above average. Official preliminary statement of acreage gave: Wheat, 1,700,965; Barley, 1,972,448; Oats, 2,996,902; Potatoes, 577,260; Turnips and Swedes, 1,664,520; Mangel, 398,805; Clover and Rotation Grasses, 4,856,387; Permanent Grass, 16,827,249; Hops, 51,127. Horses numbered 1,511,431 Cattle, 6,763,894; Sheep, 26,377,200; and Pigs, 2,179,925. Improved prospects for keep strengthened prices at sheep fairs. Board of Agriculture issued regulations for sale of milk and cream. Milk with less than 3 per cent. milk fat and 85 per cent. of milk solids other than milk fat presumed, until contrary proved, not genuine. Skim milk not to contain less than 9 per cent. of milk solids.

September.-Ideal farmers' weather. Harvest completed and ploughing well forward. Prospects of winter keep further improved, and as Dorchester sheep fair prices averaged 10s. above last year. Imports of foreign grain last season: Wheat, 24,392,000 quarters; Barley, 5,249,000;

Oats, 7,934,000; Maize, 13,021,353 quarters. Preliminary estimates make world's production: Wheat, 2,708,734,000 bushels, against 2,521,570,000 bushels last year; Barley, 886,719,000, against 891,000,000; Oats, 2,746,700,000, against 3,102,250,000; and Maize, 2,074,213,000, against 2,797,490,000 bushels. Top price flour, 28/-, against 35/- last year. Wheat and flour on passage to United Kingdom and Continent : 4,005,000 quarters, against 3,325,000 a year ago, Grain averages: Wheat, 26/11; Barley, 25/3; Oats, 17/4.



The 133rd summer exhibition of the Royal Academy naturally included many pictures that recalled the loss of an honoured Sovereign. M. Benjamin Constant's "Portrait of Queen Victoria was, as a picture, adversely criticised, though meritorious in many respects. Wyllie's picture," The Passing of a Great Queen," hung near Mr. Stanhope Forbes' "The 22nd of January, 1901," a pathetic conception. The Exhibition contained many good pictures by wellknown painters, but no extraordinary new talent was exposed. Owing to national mourning the banquet was abandoned, but the soirée was held as usual. Mr. J. J. Shannon's "Flower Girl" was bought for the nation from the funds of the Chantrey Bequest, a commendable purchase by the trustees.

A large number of exhibitions were held in London. The thirty-second winter exhibition of the Royal Academy was composed of pictures by British painters deceased since 1850. An exhibition of Spanish art was opened in the Guildhall on the 30th of April. At the New Gallery, in the early spring, some work by Sir W. B. Richmond, R.A., was exhibited, and although many of his best pictures were not hung, on the whole his genius showed not disadvantageously.

The summer exhibition, which followed in April, was distinguished by the number of paintings in tempera which were shown. Works in this medium were also on view about the same time at Leighton House. The Exhibition of Rembrandt Etchings, opened in 1899 at the British Museum, was altered in June to one including drawings by old masters, acquired since 1895. The Royal Society of British Artists and the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours held their ordinary exhibitions. The latter society held an important Ruskin exhibition, and their galleries were also used by the Royal Society of Painter-Etchers for their nineteenth exhibition. The spring exhibition of the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours was successful and interesting. The New English Art Club was well supported at the Dudley Gallery. The Board of Education collected at South Kensington specimens of modern illustration, instructively showing both originals and reproductions. Messrs. Agnew's exhibition of commissioned pictures by distinguished living artists was rich in quality. Messrs. Tooth and Messrs. McLean held their usual excellent exhibitions in the Haymarket. Messrs. Lawrie showed an important private collection of old masters of the early Italian school. At the Goupil Gallery a general exhibition in the spring of English and Continental pictures was specially noticeable, and in this gallery an opportunity was afforded to study the work of M. Leon Lhermitte and M. W. Mouncey. The Fine Art Society was indefatigable, at least twenty exhibitions being held, of, among others, the work of Sir J. E. Millais, P.R.A.,Mrs. Allingham, Messrs. Mortimer

Menpes, Arthur Severn, S. J. Hodson, Herbert Dicksee, and Eyre Walker. Messrs. Dowdeswell held several valuable exhibitions: "Such Stuff as Dreams are Made Of!" being pictures by Miss E. Fortescue-Bricklade, "Old World Gardens," by Mr. E. Arthur Rowe, "Picturesque Holland," by Herr N. Jungmann, and a collection of old masters. At the Gutekunst Gallery etchings by Rembrandt and Messrs. W. Strang, F. Laing, and Fantin-Latour were shown to advantage. Messrs. Colnaghi held two important exhibitions of the etchings and mezzotints of Sir F. SeymourHaden, P.R.E. The drawings of Mr. C. H. Shannon were well worth inspection at the Dutch Gallery, and some work by Diaz and Isabey repaid a visit to the Hanover Gallery. Messrs. Forbes and Patterson showed a picture entitled "Christ with Martha and Mary," attributed, with reason, to Vermeer of Delft. At the Modern Gallery the work was shown of Mr. H. F. Finn and of the members of the London Sketch Club. The Burlington Fine Arts Club held a rich exhibition of silversmiths' work of European origin.

A feature of the Glasgow International Exhibition was the large, but not quite representative, collection of pictures brought together in the Art Gallery. Many Scotch artists, especially Raeburn, were better represented in Edinburgh.


We can but briefly mention the principal events of the year coming under this heading. About Easter 1901 the news of the recovery of Gainsborough's "Duchess of Devonshire" caused some commotion. The record price at English auction of £14,752 was paid by Duveen for Hoppner's "Louisa, Lady Manners." Hobbema's "Woody Landscape" fetched £9,870 (Lawrie). A mezzotint by Valentine Green, after Reynolds' "Duchess of Portland," was sold for 1,000 guineas to Messrs. Agnew, and a few weeks later J. R. Smith's "Mrs. Carnac," after Reynolds, was bought by the same firm for 1,160 guineas, which constitutes a record. The Queen Victoria Memorial Committee in London chose Messrs. Thomas Brock, R.A., and Aston Webb, A.R.A., to execute the work. Mr. Luke Fildes, R.A., was commissioned to paint the State portrait of the King, which picture will be copied under the artist's supervision for the Colonies. Mr. Seymour Lucas, R.A., was commissioned to paint the Royal reception of the Moorish Embassy. Mr. E. A. Abbey, R.A., will paint the official picture of the Coronation in 1902. John Tenniel, R.I., retired, after being in office for over fifty years, from the position of cartoonist to Punch. Mr. Sidney Cooper was decorated with the Royal Victorian order. Lord Stanmore in the House of Lords proposed the appointment of a Royal Commission of the Fine Arts; the motion was rejected, but the President of the Royal Academy Times, 30-7-01) thought such State recognition would be encouraging to artists.



The obituary of the year includes Messrs. Munkacsy, E. W. Wimperis, Thomas Faed, R.A., F. R. Pickersgill, R.A., G. W. Johnstone, R.S.A. Under the head of "Literature" reference is made to recent books on art.


October, 1900.-Bank rate, 4 per cent. Discount in open market also 4 per cent., on adverse foreign exchanges and in spite of abundance of money. Government borrows 8 millions from Bank of England, which it disburses; discount rates consequently weaken on French competition for bills, but after falling to 3 per cent.,

tates for loans rise, and bills harden to 31 per cent. at end of month on renewed fall in American Exchange; strong inquiry for gold, and Bank borrows in open market. Gold goes to Germany and New York. On Indian Government purchases bar silver rises to 30id. per oz., being highest price since December, 1896. Stock markets firm on better Chinese news and cessation.of Berlin selling, and prices further improve on Anglo-German agreement regarding China. Revival in West African mines. American Railways boom on expected re-election of Mr. McKinley. Rise in District Railway stock on American Syndicate acquiring control. Monetary position in Germany reported gloomy. Trade returns (September) excellent; imports up £2,511,000, or 64 per cent., and exports up £2,185,000, or 9.7 per cent.

November.-Bank rate, 4 per cent. Discounts steady at 3 up to 4 per cent. Treasury Bills for £2,500,000 allotted, average rate: three months', £3 18s 4d.; six months', £3 15s. 5d. India Bills for £1,000,000 allotted in twelve months' bills, average rate £3 175. 8d. per cent. Issue of £3,000,000 3 per cent. Exchequer bonds at average price of £98 28. 10d. West Australian 3 per cent. loan for £880,000 issued at par. Amount of Delagoa Bay award disbursed. Gold arrives from India and is bought up for export. Silver falls to 294d. per ounce. Excitement in American Railways on re-election of McKinley, but settlement at end of month shows increased speculative position, and prices fall back. Uneasy political feeling. Pennsylvania and Northern Pacific dividends increased by 1 per cent.


of £2,385,000 share capital by Baker Street and Waterloo Railway. Trade returns (October) fairly satisfactory; imports up £4,365,000, or 9.8 per cent., and exports up 1,044,000, or 4'3 per cent. Trade slackens in north of England.


December.--Bank rate, 4 per cent. Money in good demand. Discounts firm on adverse foreign exchanges, rising at end of year to 4 per cent. Bar silver rises to 294d., and closes at 29 d. per ounce. Treasury Bills for £2,000,000 at nine months' date allotted at average rate £3 16s. 7d., and further issue of £2,500,000 allotted, average rate six months' £3 16s. 5ld. per cent., and twelve months' £3 16s. 7d. Parliament sanctions £16,000,000 of war expenditure, and the creation of an additional £11,000,000 of debt. Failure of mortgage banks in Germany with heavy liabilities. Bank of England reserve falls to 16 millions. Stock markets inactive; rise in West African mines. Markets close flat, sixteen failures being announced, with assistance given to several important firms on collapse of London and Globe Finance Corporation, which goes into liquidation. Trade returns (November) poor, imports up £5,489,000, or 12'4 per cent., exports up £52,709, or o 2 per cent.

January, 1901-Bank rate, 4 per cent.; raised 19 5 per cent. on 3rd, first time in January for eighteen years. Market disorganised, rise due to weak Bank return, proportion being lowest for many years, adverse exchanges, and enormous holding of bills on London on French account. Discount 4 per cent., but owing to abundance of money and French competition for bills, which are in small supply, rate falls to 4 per cent. in spite of vigorous borrowing by Bank. Local Loans 3 per cent. stock for £4,000,000, allotted at average rate of £98 1s. 6d. Liverpool Corporation six months' bills for £500,000 allotted at average rate of £3 195. 9d. per cent. Bar silver falls to 271d. per oz. on American selling. Stock

Exchange business checked by death of Queen Victoria. Further failures in connection with London and Globe, which agrees to reconstruct. Americans buoyant. Mines flat on dealers restricting carrying-over facilities. Issue of Duchy of Baden 4 per cent. loan for 56 million marks at 100; East Indian Railway 3 per cent. Debenture Stock for £1,500,000, and Egyptian Government Irrigation Trust Certificates for £500,000. Trade returns (December) fairly good ; imports up £5,708,000, or 14 per cent.; exports up £1,573,000, or 71 per cent.

February.-Bank rate, 5 per cent., reduced on 7th to 4 per cent., and on 21st to 4 per cent. Sharp fall in discount rates owing to scarcity of bills and keen foreign competition, also on large arrivals of gold. Three months' bills, after being 34 per cent., close at 3 per cent.; money scarce. Applications for £11,000,000 3 per cent. Exchequer bonds reach £25,390,700; applicants at £97 25. receive pro rata allotment, average price £97 58. 4d. Twelve months' Treasury Bills for £1,000,000 allotted at average rate of £3 138. 5d. per cent., and £3,000,000 at £3 128. Silver rises from 273d. to 284d. per ounce, closing 28 d. Bank of Belgium rate reduced (8th) from 4 to 3 per cent, German (26th) from 5 to 4 per cent., and Austro-Hungarian (28th) from 4 to 4 per cent. Issue of million New South Wales Treasury Bills. Stock markets inactive; Americans rise on amalgamation rumours; Kaffirs bought on rumours which prove unfounded. Coats stock dealt in at 1005. Formation of United States Steel Corporation, with a capital of 220 millions sterling. Trade returns (January) satisfactory; imports up £1,432,000, or 3.2 per cent.; exports up £1,700,000, or 4'9 per cent.

March.-Bank rate, 4 per cent. Discounts steady, about 3 per cent. Market experiences considerable difficulty in repaying loans to Bank India Bills for £1,000,000 placed at average of £3 115. 11d. for twelve months'; Treasury Bills for £2,720,000 placed at average of £3 13s. for twelve months'. Issue of Victorian Government 3 per cent. Inscribed Stock for three millions at 93 per cent., and Sheffield Corporation 3 per cent. stock for £500,000 at 94 per cent. Bar silver declines from 28 d. to 27d. per ounce on complete absence of buyers. Stock markets depressed by failure of peace negotiations in South Africa, and by news from Tientsin. Consols touch 95, lowest for ten years, but markets recover towards end of month. Trade returns (February) unsatisfactory; imports up £2,696,000, or 5 per cent.; exports down £2,182,000, or 9'4 per cent.

April.-Bank rate, 4 per cent. Discounts easier at 3 per cent., and money supplies increase owing to Government disbursements. German Bank rate reduced (22nd) from 4 to 4 per cent. Issue of £60,000,000 Consols at 944 per cent. great success, but causes temporary lock up of cash. Bar silver falls to 261d., recovers to 27 d., and closes 27 d. per ounce. Treasury Bills for £1,000,000 allotted at average rate of £3 8s. 11d. for six months' bills; also £1,000,000 at average of £310s. 2d. per cent. for nine months' bills. Stock markets firm cn renewed peace rumours. Budget has favourable effect. American Railways excited and strong, also Canadian. Revival in mine shares. Trade returns (March) fairly good; imports up £1,424,000, or 3 per cent., and exports up £295,coo, or 1 per


May.-Bank rate, 4 per cent. Discounts steady between 3 and 34 per cent., but money scarce. About six millions borrowed from Bank

(15th), and Clearing House return shows turnover exceeded all previous records, being 109 millions, owing to heavy Stock Exchange settlement. Russian loans for 20 millions sterling arranged in Paris. Treasury Bills for £2,500,000 placed at average of £3 138. 27. per cent. for six months' bills. Subscriptions invited for £1,555,000 Natal 3 per cent. stock at 924 per cent., and for £2,000,000 London County 3 per cent. stock at 98 per cent. Continued boom in American Railways, but early in month they collapse in New York. Upward movement promptly resamed, Northern Pacific shares on 6th rising 22 dollars. Panic in New York on 9th, Northern Pacific rises to $1,000 owing to a corner." On 13th Stock Exchange Committee suspended "buying in" of these shares. Markets close harder, including the American and Canadian. Stock Exchange centenary celebrated. Messrs. Morgan buy up the Leyland Steamship line. Trade returns (April) unsatisfactory, imports up £3,700,000, or 8.7 per cent.; exports up £658,000, or 2'9 per cent."

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June. Bank rate, 4 per cent., reduced to 34 per cent. on 6th, and to 3 per cent. on 13th. German bank rate lowered (18th) from 4 to 3 per cent. Strong competition for bills, and rate falls from 3 to 24 per cent.; money plentiful. Bar silver droops to 274d. per ounce. Treasury Bills for £1,588,000 allotted at average rate of £3 2. 10d. per cent. for twelve months' bills. Stock markets very quiet, but firm until end of month, when failure of Leipziger bank and small bank in New York causes depression. Northern Pacific "buying in" order rescinded, difficulty being settled. Vickers, Sons, & Maxim issue 1,100,000 new ordinary shares. Crushing returns by Rand mines resumed. Trade returns (May) poor, imports being down £1,449,000, or 33 per cent., and exports down 1,159,000, or 3.3 per



July.-Bank rate, 3 per cent. Money plentiful; discounts steady at 24 to 28 per cent. Indian loan for £3,000,000, offered at 98 per cent., withdrawn, only £709,500 allotted; failure attributed to fall in price of Consols, which on July_15 touched 91, being lowest for thirty years. silver declines from 274d. to 2613d. per ounce. Stock markets stagnant and depressed. Seven failures. Closing firmer. Abandonment of Argentine Unification Scheme. Home Railway dividends lowest for many years. Fall in London Omnibus and Road Car shares on serious reductions in dividend. Bryant & May bought up by Diamond Match Company. Mr. Hutchins retires from managership of National Discount Company. Trade returns (June) poor; imports down £305,000, or o'7 per cent; exports down £2,451,000, or 917 per cent.

August.-Bank rate, 3 per cent. Money plentiful; large arrivals of gold; discount falls to 2 per cent. Bar silver declines to 26 d., and recovers to 27d. per ounce. Treasury Bills for £1,000,000 allotted in twelve months' bills at average rate of £2 198. per cent. Stock Exchange business quiet, but tone firmer, especially for gilt-edged stocks. Rise in Grand Trunk issues. Ginsberg mine resumes work. Whitaker Wright party defeated at Le Roi Mine meeting. inittee of Allsopps recommend severe cutting down of capital to meet losses. Petition presented for compulsory winding-up of London and Globe Finance Corporation. Textile combinations issue very unfavourable reports. Trade returns (July) not encouraging; imports up £2,765,000, or 6·8 per icent.; exports down £165,000, or 0.7 per



September.-Bank rate, 3 per cent. German: bank rate raised (22nd) from 3 to 4 per cent. Money cheap; discount hardens to 2 per cent. Small amount gold secured in Paris for New York; half million withdrawn from Bank of: England for Germany; India Sterling Bills for £1,000,000 placed at average rate of £3 1S. 11d. per cent. for twelve months; and Treasury Bills for £2,000,000 placed at average rate of £2 19s. 7d. for twelve months. Issue of New South Wales 3 per cent. Inscribed Stock for £4,000,000 at 94. per cent.; Western Australia 3 per cent. Inscribed Stock for £1,500,000 at 91 per cent. ; Queensland 3 per cent. Inscribed Stock for 1,374,213 at 91 per cent.; and Newfoundland 3 per cent. Sterling Bonds for £465,000 at 93 per cent. Zanzibar 3 per cent. Guaranteed Loan. for £100,000 offered for tender at minimum of par.. Stock markets quiet and weak, especially Consols on fears that Government will need more money, and American Securities on death of President McKinley. Armstrong Whitworth shares fall on reduction of dividend to 12 per cent. Copper shares flat on American selling, and reduced dividends. Sharp recovery in South Eastern Railway Deferred Stock on "bear covering. Trade returns (August) poor; imports down 1,160,000, or 2'7 per cent.; exports down £779,000, or over 3 per cent.


A retrospective glance at the books published during the year-October, 1900, to October, 1901 -leads to the conclusion that a great change in the form of literary production has not only proceeded, but will still further proceed. At first sight it seems as though the six-shilling novel is doomed to make way for its less elegant usurper, which, bound in nothing more dignified than paper, and betraying other signs of cheapness, has demanded the attention of readers. It is probable, however, that the abundance of cheap editions will cause the sickness of excess, and there will be a reaction in favour of the more elaborate volume.

Several causes have disturbed the issue of more serious literature. The continuance of the war in South Africa, the unsettled state of China, and the death of Queen Victoria, have each contributed to the staying of the publishers' hands. Yet, naturally, these deterrents have influenced the output of books dealing with these events. The abridged edition of "The Life of Queen Victoria," by Mr. R. R. Holmes, of Windsor Castle, is undoubtedly the most authentic, from the special facilities granted to the author.


Books innumerable have been published on the Boer War, and many premature judgments expressed. The Times and the Illustrated London News issued volumes in parts from information principally gleaned by their correspondents. Mr. Mortimer Menpes published his "Impressions," with characteristic illustrations reproduced in colour from originals, many f which were exhibited at the Fine Art Society's Gallery in the spring. Major Norris wrote a military retrospect, as did Lieut.-Colonel E. S. May; Major-General Mackinnon published the journal of the C.I.V.'s; Dr. Conan Doyle wrote an account; and many records in parts were published.

Numerous "series" and "editions" have been laid piecemeal seductively before the public. Of these may be mentioned "The Great Mastars in Painting and Sculpture" series, the Handbooks to the Great Public Schools," the

"Medieval Town" series, the "Cathedral" series,

The Chiswick Shakespeare," edited by John Dennis and illustrated by Byam Shaw, "The Temple Classics" and "The Temple Cyclopædic Primers.' "The Complete Library," a series of reprints of standard works in English and foreign literature, started with the works of Keats.

Several important works on Art have been published. A new departure of a popular character was an excellent reproduction, in shilling parts, of "The Hundred Best Pictures" (Charles Letts & Co.); the publication was universally commended and the sale was phenomenal. Sir Walter Armstrong's "Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A.," is one of an important series of monographs on artists. The same author has in preparation one on J. M. W. Turner, R.A. Mr. Lionel Cust, who has recently been appointed H.M. Surveyor of Royal Palaces, has written a book on "Anthony van Dyck and the following are important studies:Mrs. Cartwright's "Painters of Florence," Lady Dilke's "French Architects and Sculptors of the 18th Century," Mr. Walter Crane's Line and Form," Dr. Bode's "Rembrandt," M. Gonse's "Les Chefs d'Euvres des Musées de France, and "One Hundred Photogravures of the Kann Collection, Paris," a magnificent production. A facsimile reprint of The Germ, the literary organ of the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, originally published in 1850, was an interesting reminder of this short-lived magazine.


Among architectural publications the completion of Messrs. John Belcher and Mervyn Macartney's "Late Renaissance in England" must be mentioned. Messrs. Inigo Triggs and Henry Tanner, junr., compiled an admirable work, with reproductions from their own measured drawings, on "Some Architectural Works of Inigo Jones."

The following are some recently-issued books of general interest:-" Oliver Cromwell," a scholarly work, by the Right Hon. John Morley; "The Englishman in China during the Victorian Era, as illustrated in the career of Sir Rutherford Alcock, K.C.B., D.C.L.," by Mr. A. Mitchie ; "The Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Huxley," by his son, Leonard Huxley; "Napoleon the Last Phase," by Lord Rosebery; "The Life and Letters of Zachary Macaulay," by his grand-daughter, the Viscountess Knutsford; "Milton," by Prof. Walter Raleigh; "A History of Criticism and Literary Taste in Europe from the earliest times to the present day," by Prof. Geo. Saintsbury; "The Man in the Iron Mask," a history of the Legend of the Bastille, by Mr. Tighe Hopkins; Mr. Gladstone as Chancellor of the Exchequer," by Mr. Sydney Buxton, M.P.; "Charles II.," by Mr. Osmund Airy, one of the sumptuous monographs (of which the next will be "Henry VIII.") from the house of Goupil; "Secret Chambers and Hiding Places," and "King Monmouth," by Mr. Allan Fea; "The Love Letters of Prince Bismarck," edited by Prince Herbert Bismarck; "Sport and Travel, East and West," by Mr. Frederick C. Se'ous; "The Alfred Jewel," by Dr. Earle; "Don Quixote," by Judge Parry, illustrated by Mr. Walter Crane; "Hans Andersen's Fairy Tales," illustrated by Hans Tegner; "A Reading of Life, and other Poems," by Mr. George Meredith: "The Cinque Ports,' by Mr. J. Madox Hueffer; "The Life of Hodson of Hodson's Horse," by Captain Lionel J. Trotter. A great many books on gardens and gardening have been published.

There have been many additions to periodical

literature: The Candid Friend, The Kensington, The Smart Set, The Tatler, The Thrush, The Empire Review, The Onlooker, The New Liberal Review, and The Connoisseur.

Anonymity has been the sensation in the year's fiction. In spite of prophesies of a timely acknowledgment, the authorship of "An Englishwoman's Love Letters" still remains obscure. Of whatever name or reputation, the writer is a cunning craftsman. This book was cleverly parodied anonymously in "An Englishman's Love Letters.' "Another Englishwoman's Love Letters," by Barry Pain, followed in the same vein. "The Visits of Elizabeth," an ingenious production, was parodied in "The Visits of Henry VIII." by the author of "An Englishman's Love Letters." Other fiction included Mr. Anthony Hope's "Tristram of Blent," reprinted from the Monthly Review, Mrs. Humphry Ward's "Eleanor," Mr. Hall Caine's "The Eternal City," Mr. Winston Churchill's "The Crisis," "The Aristocrats" (anon.), and Mr. Charles Marriott's "The Column." Conan Doyle resumed "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes."


An International Congress of Publishers was held at Leipzig in June, and several delegates attended from London. Mr. Norman Maccoll, for over thirty years editor of The Athenæum, retired with the beginning of the new century. Mr. J. Knowles, editor of The Nineteenth Century, solved the difficulty of title in the 20th century by happily adding and After. A first edition of "The Pilgrim's Progress" was sold in May for £1,475, and in July "The Roya Book" from the Caxton Press fetched £1,550.

Death has removed several men of letters from their labours: Dr. Mandell Creighton (Bishop of London), Miss Charlotte M. Yonge, Sir Walter Besant, Mr. R. W. Buchanan, Dr. Fitz-Edward Hall, Mr. J. Hamblin Smith, Mr. Cosmo Monkhouse, and Mr. W. J. Stillman. Mr. George M. Smith, of Messrs. Smith, Elder and Co., just lived to see the completion of his "Dictionary of National Biography," to which a supplement has been issued, including all names up to the 22nd January, 1901, among which will be that of Queen Victoria.


October, 1900.-2nd to 5th-The Birmingham Musical Festival: Elgar's "Dream of Gerontius" was the novelty; the entire net balance was paid by the committee to the General Hospital. A Russian symphony, entitled "Antar," by RimskyKorsakoff, was performed at the Queen's Hall Promenade Concerts. 13th-- The annual meeting of the London section of the Incorporated Society of Musicians took place.

November.-7th-The revival of "Patience" at the Savoy. Sir John Stainer was elected Master of the Musicians Company, one of the City Livery Companies. The Hallé Concerts, Manchester, under Dr. Richter, entered upon their forty-third season. roth-A comic opera, "The Gay Pretenders," by Grossmith (junr.), Nugent and Rubens, produced at the Globe Theatre. 16th-Adolf Pollitzer, a celebrated violinist, died. 22nd-A great loss to the musical world was sustained by the death of Sir Arthur Sullivan. 27th-The newly-built Colston Hall, Bristol, opened; the organ, costing some £5,000, was presented by Sir W. H. Wills. Goldmark's "Cricket on the Hearth was given for the first time in England by the Carl Resa Opera Company with great success. "A Basso Porto," by

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