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By A. J. MUNDY, Secretary of the Census.
ON a portion of the land which was formerly the site of Millbank Prison, and immediately behind the National Gallery of British Art, familiarly known as the "Tate Gallery," stand some spacious corrugated iron buildings which serve as the "Census Office," most of them having been used for the same purpose ten years ago, when they occupied a position in Charles Street, Whitehall. In these buildings nearly 200 clerks (including 75 lady clerks) are daily engaged in tabulating the Census returns, and in classifying the population by sex, age, conjugal condition, occupation, birth-place, &c.; and the various processes will absorb the time of this considerable body of clerks for many months to come. The work is under the direction of the Registrar-General, assisted by supervisors drawn from the staff of the General Register Office at Somerset House; the Census returns themselves having been collected by enumerators acting under the Registrars of Births and Deaths, and their Supe, intendents, scattered over the whole of England and Wales. The Census in Scotland and in Ireland was in the hands of the respective RegistrarsGeneral of those parts of the United Kingdom.
First Census, 1801. Last Census, 1901, 8,892,536. 32,526,075.
The first Census was taken in 1801, when the population of England and Wales was ascertained to be 8,892,536; and now, after the lapse of 100 years, it stands at 32,526,075, so that the number of inhabitants has been nearly quadrupled in that interval. The rates of increase in the several decennia have not, of course, been uniform; the highest rate was 18'06 per cent. in the period between 1811 and 1821, and the lowest 11'65 per cent. in that between 1881 and 1891; there were fluctuating rates between these two periods, and the rate rose in the decennium preceding 1901 to 12'17 per cent. The higher rate of increase in the last period is remarkable in that the "natural increase," as it is termed-viz., the excess of births over deaths-was lower than in any decennium since 1851. So far as can be gathered from the emigration returns, this result is mainly due to a reduction in the number of emigrants, rather than to an increase in the number of immigrants. Turning to the future, the population of England and Wales in 1911, assuming that it will increase at the same rate as in the last ten years, may be estimated at 36,600,000, and it would reach double the present figure in about 60 years.
THE SEXES.-The 324 millions of inhabitants enumerated on 1st April, 1901, included by no means an equal number of both sexes, as is shown above, the females outnumbering the males by more than a million. The excess of females becomes more apparent every Census, and their proportion to 100 males has steadily increased from 104'2 in 1851 to 106'9 in 1901. One obvious reason of the excess of females is the absence from this country of large numbers of the Army, Navy, and Merchant Service, and this would be especially the case as regards the Army at the time of the recent Census, when so many of its members were in South Africa.
FAMILIES.-The Census tables distinguish the number of separate families, corresponding, in fact, with the number of separate schedules collected. Inasmuch, however, as a family may consist of a single lodger; of a large number of scholars, teachers, and servants in a school; of hundreds of shop assistants in a large commercial establishment; or of other communities in smaller or larger numbers, the statement that there were over seven millions of separate families
does not in the abstract impress the mind with any very distinct significance. Comparing the number of families, however, with that recorded at the Census of 1891; there is an increase of more than 900,000, or nearly 15 per cent.; and, as the entire population increased at little more than 12 per cent., it is evident that some causes have been at work to produce this effect. The average number of persons to a family has fallen from 4'73 in 1891 to 4'61 in 1901, agreeing with the proportion in 1881; and it is suggested in the Preliminary Census Report that this may be partly due to a diminished birth-rate.
HOUSES.-It is noteworthy, too, that the number of inhabited houses has grown faster than the population-viz., at the rate of 15 per cent.; while the house accommodation in reserve, represented by uninhabited houses and houses in course of construction, has largely increased. It is doubtful, however, what proportion of the houses described as uninhabited are in fact dwelling-houses in the ordinary sense of the term. The average number of persons to an inhabited house was 5'19, the proportion in the three preceding Censuses having been 5'33, 5'38, and 5 32. In estimating the significance of this reduced average, it should be borne in mind that a cottage of two or three rooms, a block of industrial dwellings containing hundreds of tenements, and a dwelling of intermediate size rank equally as a house in the Census returns, and thus any variation in the size of new houses or of rebuilt houses would have considerable effect on the proportion of persons to a house; still, it may be hoped that there has been some abatement of overcrowding in dwelling-houses.
ADMINISTRATIVE AREAS.-The figures quoted above relate to the whole of England and Wales, but the Census authorities have to deal with the multitudinous areas into which the country is divided for various purposes, the boundaries of these areas having been devised from time to time with very little regard for uniformity. Thus there is the County as ordinarily understood and may be designated the Ancient or Geographical County, and the Parliamentary areas are divisions of this kind of County; the Poor Law or Registration County, which in most cases differs more or less from the Ancient County, and is an aggregation of Poor Law Unions or Registration Districts; and the latest description of County-the Administrative County-which frequently differs from both the foregoing. There are Municipal Boroughs which are County Boroughs and those which are not, and Parlia mentary Boroughs which are by no means always
co-extensive with Municipal Boroughs. Besides, there are Petty Sessional Divisions, Urban and Rural Districts (sanitary areas), Civil or Poor Law Parishes, and Ecclesiastical Parishes, which have to be taken account of in the Census Report. Many of these areas having undergone change in the course of the last ten years, there need be little wonder that in a considerable proportion of cases the returns are erroneous in the first instance, and much vigilance is required at the Census Office to detect inaccuracies in the local returns for these.
In eight Counties there was an actual decrease of population in the decennium 1891-1901, the decrease in Montgomeryshire reaching 54 per cent., in Rutlandshire 4'6 per cent., and in Cardiganshire 3'8 per cent. In the other Counties the increase of population varied from less than 1 per cent. in Huntingdonshire, Cornwall, Cumberland, and Cambridgeshire, to 18'3 per cent. in Kent, 19°1 per cent. in Northumberland, 25'1 per cent. in Glamorganshire, and 38'2 in Essex. The Counties showing the highest rates of increase are, as a general rule, those which either include part of London or adjoin it; those in which mining is the principal industry; or those which are distinctly manufacturing Counties; while it is in the mainly agricultural Counties in which the lowest rates of increase or actual rates of decrease are to be found.
COUNTIES.-The Administrative Counties have the same names as the Ancient Counties, except that Lincolnshire is divided into three distinct Counties (Holland, Kesteven, and Lindsey), Suffolk into two (Eastern and Western), and Sussex into two (Eastern and Western); and the Isle of Ely is separate from Cambridgeshire, the Soke of Peterborough from Northamptonshire, and the Isle of Wight from the County of Southampton. The County Boroughs are also for most purposes independent of the Counties in which they are locally situated.
COUNTY BOROUGHS AND OTHER TOWNS. Of the County Boroughs, Liverpool has the largest population (684,947), the increase in the last ten years having been at the rate of 8.8 per cent.; Manchester stands next with a population of 543,969 (increase 7'6); and then follow Birmingham (522,182), Leeds (428,953), Sheffield (380,717), Bristol (328,842), Bradford (279,809), and West Ham (267,308), the rates of increase in these Boroughs being 9'2, 16'7, 17°4,
137, 53, 30'5. The most remarkable instances of high rates of increase in towns are 193'4 per cent. in East Ham, 105'3 in Walthamstow, and 1018 in King's Norton and Northfield; other extremely high rates being 874 in Willesden, 618 in Hornsey, 61'6 in Handsworth (Staffs), 612 in Wallasey, 56'7 in Leyton, and 511 in Smethwick. It will be seen that these exceptional rates of increase are in places adjacent to London or some other large centre from which the population has overflown into these suburban places. In the largest towns, including London, the population increased at an average rate below that in the whole of England and Wales, presumably because, in the circumscribed areas constituting these towns, either there was not sufficient space for the erection of new houses, or because many of the inhabitants migrated into the suburbs in consequence of dwelling-houses being converted into shops or warehouses. Excluding the largest towns, however, the more populous the towns the higher was usually the rate of increase. Thus, in towns having populations between 100,000 and 250,000 the average rate of increase was 17'7 per cent., in those with populations between 50,000 and 100,000 it was 231 per cent., in towns with populations between 20,000 and 50,000 it was 20'4 per cent., and in towns with populations between 10,000 and 20,000 it was 18'4 per cent.
In London the population increased at the rate of 73 per cent., against 17'4 and 10'4 per cent. in the two preceding decennia. While the population within the limits of the Administrative County of London, however, increased at so reduced a rate, it grew at the rate of 45'5 per cent. in the belt of suburbs outside that area but included in the Metropolitan Police District. As the rate of growth in these suburbs had been 508, 505, and 49'5 in the three preceding decennia, it is probable that the overflow of population from "Inner London" is extending to even a wider area. The Metropolis is the only area for which an official Census was taken midway between 1891 and 1901, this being done in accordance with the provisions of the London (Equalisation of Rates) Act, 1894. This intermediate Census enables us to compare the growth of population in London during the five years 1891-6 with that in the following five years, 1896-1901, and the result is very remarkable; for of the total increase per cent. of 7'3 in the decennium 1891-1901, 4'8 per cent. accrued in the first quinquennium, and only 2'5 per cent. in the second. Thus it would appear that the rate of growth in the ten years preceding 1891 (10'4 per cent.) was nearly maintained up to 1896, if indeed it was not exceeded for part of that period. In various parts of "Inner London the rate of increase of population was very considerable, being 42'3 per cent. in Lewisham, 32'0 in Fulham, 312 in Wandsworth, 22'1 in Woolwich, and 20*3 in Hampstead; in none of these, however, except Lewisham, was the rate so high in the last ten years as in the preceding decennial period. In Fulham the growth had been 74'0 per cent. in the ten years 1871-81, falling to 64'5 and 320 in the following decennia. In the most central districts the resident population continued to decline, notably in the City of London Union and in the Strand Union; in the former the rate of decrease in the several decennia since 1861 has been successively 330 per cent., 32'3, 25'5, and 282, the population in 1901 not exceeding 27,639. By the London Government Act of 1899, London
was divided into 28 "Metropolitan Boroughs," besides the City of London, their populations ranging from 51,247 in Stoke Newington to 334,928 in Islington.
PARLIAMENTARY Census shows that the Parliamentary Divisions, settled by the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885, are far from equal in respect of population; for, while an equal apportionment of the population of England and Wales to its 490 members of the House of Commons (excluding the University representatives) would give an average of about 66,000 persons, the actual populations represented by a member varied from 13,000 to 217,000.
UNITED KINGDOM. - The aggregate population in the United Kingdom on 1st April last was 41,454,578, to which it had grown from 20,893,584 in 1821, thus doubling itself in the interval. Of the total population, 74 per cent. were enumerated in England, 4 per cent. in Wales, II per cent. in Scotland, and 11 per cent. in Ireland. The rate of growth in the entire kingdom
in the last ten years was 9'9 per cent ; in England it was 12'1, in Wales 13'3, and in Scotland 111, while in Ireland the population decreased at the rate of 5'3 per cent. In England, Wales, and Scotland the population increased at a faster rate than in the preceding ten years, while in Ireland the rate of decrease was much lower.
Thus far the unrevised figures issued from the Census Office enable us to go. We learn from the Preliminary Report that it is proposed to publish the final Report in County parts, or in parts for groups of Counties, each of which will be complete in itself; the first of the series relating to London. Each of these parts will contain, besides the bare figures for all the principal subdivisions of the country, elaborate details respecting the ages, condition as to marriage, occupations, birth-places, infirmities, &c.; nevertheless, it is hoped that the London part will be issued before the end of 1901, the other parts following at short intervals.
BRITISH ALMANAC TELEGRAM CODE. NOTE.-The meanings of the various Code words are arranged alphabetically, as indicated by an index word set in heavier type.
The illustration shows the various sections of the human head from a phrenological point of view. We insert this for the information of those curious on such matters, but without going into the merits of phrenology, or dealing with the accuracy or inaccuracy of possible deductions, anter examination of the various "bumps" as they are commonly called.
QUESTIONS OF THE DAY.
ARMY REFORM. The war in South Africa having demonstrated clearly that our army as at present organised is incapable of fulfilling the duties which it may reasonably be expected to have to undertake, that our artillery needs strengthening, and that reform is urgently needed in the training of our troops and in the organisation of our medical and transport services, innumerable schemes have from time to time been propounded by would-be reformers, including one by Mr. Brodrick, the Secretary of State for War. His proposals, which are a frank recognition of the justice of much of the adverse criticism so long levelled at the War Office, are briefly as follows:Great Britain and Ireland are to be divided into six army corps districts-Aldershot, Salisbury Plain, Ireland, Scotland, Colchester, York-each containing the necessary troops of all arms, with barracks, stores, and transport. The commanders of these army corps are to be officers who are certified to be fit to hold the commands in time of war, and, with a view to the centralising of responsibility and the decentralising of administration, considerable authority will be delegated to them, and all future appointments will be for three years, with a power of extension. Of the six army corps the first three will be composed entirely of Regulars, the remaining three will consist of 60 battalions of Militia and Volunteers and 21 Militia and Volunteer field artillery batteries.
Of the grand total of 680,000 men (including 120,000 recruits and sick soldiers) which Mr. Brodrick proposes to enrol, 260,000 are to form the field army, 196,000 are for garrisons at home, and 100,000 Volunteers, specially trained for the defence of London, with staffs of 4,000. Onehalf of the field army, or 130,000 men, is to be composed entirely of Regulars. To supply this large force 126,500 new troops will be required, and it is proposed to obtain them partly by freeing troops from garrison duties abroad, transferring smaller coaling stations to the navy, and establishing eight garrison battalions of older soldiers; by raising the strength of the Militia from 100,000 to 150,000, and giving to each man the 3d. a day ration money which the Regulars receive, also giving to each man after two trainings a total bounty of £4 10s, at different periods, and allowing all men after army colour and reserve service, or after ten years' militia service, to have 4d. a day for joining the Militia Reserve for home defence.
Intimately connected with army reform is the question of the organisation of the War Office, upon which the report of the Committee was issued in June. The pressing need of placing the work of this department upon a business footing is recognised by the suggestion that a War Office Board should be formed, to consist of the heads of all the great military and_civil divisions, with the Secretary of State as President, and to supersede the present War Office Council and Army Board, and be an integral part of the War Office. One aim of this suggestion is to free the Commander-in-Chief from nominal responsibility for every little detail of organisation, and to give him perfect freedom in his proper sphere. The principal recommendations of the Committee, which amount to a severe condemnation of existing methods, are decentralisation and greater elasticity as regards financial control and audit. With these ends in view the Committee urges a real delegation of authority to general officers, central control of totals as
opposed to petty financial details, and the reduction of the present overwhelming correspondence about trifles; it pleads for the handing to commanding officers absolute control in their districts, subject to inspection and audit of accounts and general regulations, and recommends a local audit carried on by officials interchangeable with those at the War Office. It further recommends the abolition of petty and harassing deductions from soldiers' pay, the simplification of the present chaotic regulations, and the placing of contracts on a proper business basis.
AUTOMOBILISM.-For several years England has lagged behind France, Germany, and America in the adoption of the motor car, but during the last twelve months a sudden and surprising increase has taken place in the number of horseless vehicles of all kinds seen on the roads. At one end of the scale is the motor bicycle, a machine which appears to be recognised for racing purposes by the National Cyclists' Union; at the other is the 'capacious family carriage of 12 h.p., which is said to cost its owner as much as a small yacht for maintenance -as much as 100 per annum being expended on tyres, and at least double this sum on fuel, repairs, &c., if it is utilised to anything like the full extent of its capacity. Between the two are the light, smooth - running, and noiseless locomobiles, driven by steam, and subject to the disadvantage of occasionally emitting a puff of vapour, in contravention of the law, but nevertheless deservedly increasing in popularity. The legal limit of speed is a question that has continued and must continue to be agitated. The drivers of automobiles have been frequently summoned and fined at the instance of the police for exceeding the prescribed pace of 12 miles an hour, and it can hardly be questioned that in some cases the evidence of the guardians of the law on the subject of speed has been anything but convincing. The fact is that even 12 miles an hour is too high a rate for crowded thoroughfares, while it is much too low to satisfy the most careful and unambitious of motorists in the open country. The mere letter of the law is broken by everybody without compunction when the road is clear and no policeman is supposed to be in sight. The compromise that would most readily be accepted by motorists would be an entire removal of the speed limit, coupled with the most severe enforcement of restrictions on driving to the public danger. The mere raising of the limit would be of little use, since it would still be exceeded at times, as it is at present. Of the capabilities and dangers of motor cars valuable lessons have been gathered from the two great road races, both attended by serious accidents, held on the Continent. The first race was from Paris to Bordeaux, under the control of the police, a stipulation being made that through the towns on the way there was to be a limit of eight miles an hour. All sorts of motors were entered, from the huge 50 horse-power machine to the small cyclette. The pace developed by the winners was in excess of that of express trains, and the interest aroused was such that a second race was promoted from Paris to Berlin, the police of both countries making the best possible arrangements for the safety of the public. In this race the competitors were only allowed to ride during the daytime, and many rules were drawn up. On the route both French and Germans showed the greatest enthusiasm, and