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place in which they have taken refuge. A grain of bromide of potassium given daily, in milk, has been found to produce considerable alleviation.
Worms in Cats.-Cats that are badly fed are liable to the presence of intestinal worms. These caa readily be got rid of by the administration of one to two or three grains of santonine, according to the size of the animal.
Feeding. The greater proportion of the diseases of dogs arise from errors of feeding. Pet dogs are fed at every meal of the owners: they become diseased, over-fat, asthmatic, and readily contract infectious diseases, such as mange, distemper, &c. They should be fed but once, or at the extreme, twice a day, morning and evening, and no more should be given than would be eaten with great avidity. House dogs do well on bread and biscuit with milk, cooked vegetables being given, and an occasional bone or two. Sporting and out-door dogs require fresh flesh, which is superior to such food as gravy or dried meat preparations. Puppies require milk; they should be allowed to take that of the mother until at least six weeks old, soft food being gradually given.
Distemper.-Distemper usually occurs in young dogs, is communicated from one diseased animal to another, but may be carried by the clothes of the attendant, or by sending dogs in infected railway boxes. It is widely spread by dog shows. The symptoms are great disinclination to move, loss of appetite, feverishness, and shivering. As in other contagious febrile diseases, medicine is of no avail, good nursing being the best remedy. The dog should be kept in a well-ventilated, warm place, scrupulous cleanliness should be attended to, no solid food given, only milk and strong beef-tea, which may be thickened with flour, and a little chopped raw meat may be given when the animal is convalescent.
Red Mange.-The disease known as red mange is in reality a form of eczema; it is not contagious or caused by parasites, but is an inflammatory disease of the skin, accompanied by loss of hair. It is generally due to some disorder of the digestive organs, and can be remedied by attending to them.
Fits.-Dogs are subject to epileptic fits, falling down and lying stupefied, or with convulsed limbs. There is no actual cure, but, as fits often arise from over-feeding, the diet of the dog should be reduced. If from irritation of the brain, four grains of bromide of potassium to every twenty pounds the dog weighs may be given twice a day. During the fit the dog shonld be allowed to remain undisturbed. Fits have no relation to rabies, from which they are totally distinct.
Mange. Mange is caused by a minute parasitic insect, which cannot be seen with the naked eye, but can readily be transferred from one animal to another, so that one mangy dog will infect a whole kennel. The mange insect is very much like the itch insect in the human subject, burrowing in the skin, causing the hair to fall off, and reducing the animal to a terrible condition. In treatment the dog should be first scrubbed with strong carbolic soap the best application is ointment of green iodide of mercury, one dram to an ounce of ointment, but the dog must be muzzled to prevent him licking himself, as the remedy is strongly medicinal. Severe cases, of long standing, will require more than a month to cure. The litter of the kennel should be frequently changed, and the interior washed with strong carbolic dog soap.
FEATHER EATING is due to the irritability induced by confinement, and can only be cured by giving room to fly and take active exercise. Parrots that pluck their feathers are generally cured when put in a large aviary and given no flesh to eat.
FITS are due to undue flow of blood to the brain; their recurrence may often be prevented by less stimulating food.
ASTHMA is caused by placing birds accustomed to heated rooms in a draught of cold air: practically there is no cure.
DISEASED FEET are to be prevented by absolute cleanliness of perches and cages, and the keeping the claws cut so as not to catch in the wires.
Rour is a contagious disease which should be stamped out by killing and burning every affected fowl.
ENTERITIS or POULTRY FARM DISEASE, SO termed from being present in many overcrowded poultry runs, is incurable. The disease is propagated by the dung of the infected birds tainting the soil, and the only remedy is the killing of the diseased fowls, and the removal of those that are not attacked to unaffected localities and pure soil.
PHEASANT disease is identical with fowl enteritis, and occurs in localities in which poultry farms have been attempted to be established.
DISEASES in farm-yard or useful poultry are most advantageously treated by being stamped out, and the bodies of the diseased fowls burnt after they are killed.
INFLAMED EYES usually arise from blows, or from small objects which may remain in the outer corner of the eye; the latter should be removed, and the eye bathed with a lotion of Goulard extract, a drachm to a pint of water, followed if the inflammation is severe with mash diet and gentle physic.
LAMPAS is a swelling of the bars of the palate; in severe cases the bars may be cut across with a sharp penknife, but a few mashes with alternative medicine is generally sufficient to effect a cure.
SWELLED LEGS may in ordinary cases be reduced by equable exercise and bandaging.
GREASE, if the cracks are slight, can be cured by astringent lotion of half an ounce of alum to a pint of water.
MANGE is usually the result of contagion, and is effectually treated with one ounce of flowers of sulphur rubbed up with an ounce of train oil and a quarter of an ounce of paraffin oil, to be well rubbed in with a hard brush; this should be applied every day for a week, and then washed off with soap and water. The application to be renewed till cure is effected, when the curry comb and brushes used should be burnt, and the whole stable, harness, &c., washed with chloride of lime or carbolic acid wash; during the treatment, a purging ball should be given as required.
WOUNDS AND ABRASIONS OF THE MOUTH.These are generally caused by sharp or rusty bits, and may be washed with an ounce of alum in a pint and a half of water.
COLD CATARRH.-Warmth, warm clothing, and warm mashes may be used, but if the disease passes into bronchitis or inflammation of the lungs, professional assistance is indispensable.
British subjects visiting the Continent are recommended to provide themselves with Passports, even although in some countries it is not now obligatory to do so. As a means of identification they are often useful, particularly if letters have to be claimed at a poste restante. They also often secure admission to public buildings when otherwise closed to the general public, and may serve to protect the holder against the ignorance and caprice of local officials, who are sometimes apt to make themselves officiously disagreeable. The following are the
Foreign Office Regulations respecting Passports:
Applications for Foreign Office Passports must be made on a form supplied on application to The Passport Department, Foreign Office, London.
The charge for a Passport, whatever number of persons may be named in it, is 2s., a postal order for which sum (not stamps) must accompany the application if made by post. (If an agent is employed there is usually an additional agency fee of is. 6d.)
In France, Belgium, and practically in all European countries, no merchandise is allowed to enter free of duty. In the case of travellers, the custom-house officials have a certain latitude allowed them, and, in the absence of any suspicious circumstances, the question "Have you anything to declare?" if answered in the negative usually suffices to enable the traveller to pass with quite nominal examination.
The English Customs authorities require declaration of all articles liable to duty on importation, but passengers are usually allowed to bring in, free, small quantities of spirits or tobacco, not exceeding half a pint of spirits or half a pound of tobacco, or if from Channel Islands one-half of these quantities.
The following is given in Bradshaw's Guide as a list of what travellers are allowed to carry free:
Travellers who intend to visit the Russiał Empire, the Turkish Dominions, the Kingdon of Roumania, Persia or Hayti, must not quit England without having had their Passports visés at the Consulate-General of the country to be visited. Travellers about to proceed to any other country need not obtain the visa of the Dipbmatic or Consular Agents of such country, except as an additional precaution, which is recommended in the cases of Passports of old date.
Cut Tobacco. As a rule enough for the railway journey, say an opened packet. The duty on cut tobacco in France is about 9s. and in Italy about 75. 6d. per lb.; in Germany, Switzerland, and
Although British subjects are now permitted to enter most foreign countries without Passports, and the rules about Passports have been generally relaxed, nevertheless, British subjects travelling abroad are recommended to provide themselves with Passports, for even in those countries where they are no longer obligatory, they are found to be convenient, as offering a ready means of identification. For residence in Germany or Switzerland a Passport should be obtained.
The following are the addresses of the various Consuls, &c., in London, and fee for visas. An asterisk indicates that a Passport is more or less necessary:
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.-12, St. Helen's Place, E.C. Visa unnecessary.
BELGIUM.-130, London Wall, E.C. Visa
DENMARK.-I, Muscovy Court, Tower Hill. Visa 4s. 6d.
*EGYPT.-29, Mincing Lane. Visa 4s.
FRANCE.-4, Christopher Street, Finsbury, E.C. Visa 8s.
GERMANY.-49, Finsbury Square. Visa 1s. 6d. *GREECE.-19, Eastcheap, E.C. Visa 2s. 6d. ITALY.-44, Finsbury Square. Visa 4s. *JAPAN.-4, Grosvenor Gardens, S.W. Visa 25. Id.
*MEXICO.-Broad Street House, E.C. Visa 4s. *PERSIA. 122, Victoria Street, S. W. Visa 4s. *PORTUGAL.-6, South Street, Finsbury. Visa
*ROUMANIA.-68, Basinghall Street. Free. *RUSSIA.-17, Great Winchester Street. 4s. 10d.
SPAIN. 20, Mark Lane. Visa 9s. 8d. SWEDEN AND NORWAY.-24, Great Winchester Street. Visa 4s. 6d.
SWITZERLAND.-52, Lexham Gardens. Visa 25. *TURKEY.-29, Mincing Lane. Visa 4s. CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.
ABOUT OUR RAILWAYS.
By VICTOR L.
There are 136 Railways in the British Isles, made up as follows:-England and Wales, 92; Isle of Man, 2; Isle of Wight, 4; Scotland, 9; Ireland, 29.
Of these the following have over 100 miles of rail in their respective systems.
ENGLAND AND WALES,
1. Great Western, 2576 miles. London Terminus, Paddington. Serves the West of England, South Wales, Oxford district, Birmingham, and Birkenhead.
2. London and North-Western, 1908 miles. London terminus, Euston. A line of "Stephenson" fame, serving the Midlands, North Wales, North-West and North of England and Lake District. One of the two principal routes to Scotland, via Carlisle and the Caledonian Railway. The Royal Mail route to Ireland, via Holyhead and Dublin, also via Holyhead and Greenore, Fleetwood and Belfast, Stranraer and Larne.
3. North-Eastern, 1643 miles. Principal station, Newcastle-on-Tyne. With this is amalgamated the oldest public railway in the world-the Stockton and Darlington. Serves Yorkshire, Durham, Northumberland, and parts of Westmoreland, Cumberland, and Roxburgh. conjunction with the Great Northern and North British forms part of the "East Coast Route" to Scotland. Its locomotives are the largest in Britain.
4. The Midland, 1431 miles. London terminus, St. Pancras. Serves many of the most important midland towns and the North, with running powers over numerous other lines. Forms a route to Scotland via Carlisle.
5. The Great Eastern, 1102 miles, formerly the "Eastern Counties." London terminus, Liverpool Street. Serves the Eastern Counties, and has a gigantic suburban traffic. The route to the Continent via Harwich to Antwerp, Hook of Holland, and Rotterdam.
6. The London and South Western, 882 miles. London terminus, Waterloo. Serves the SouthWest of England, and has extended beyond Exeter to Plymouth and the North Cornish Coast. Route to America via Southampton, and to the Channel Isles from the same port.
7. The Great Northern, 812 miles. London terminus, King's Cross. An amalgamation of the "London and York " and " Direct Northern.' Serves the Midlands to Shaftholme Junction, a few miles north of Doncaster, one of the lines in the "East Coast Route" to Scotland.
8. The Lancashire and Yorkshire, 553 miles. Serves the counties giving its name. Manchester is the centre of its system. Has an immense traffic in this thickly-populated district, not the least being with tourists.
9. The London, Brighton and South Coast, 438 miles. London termini, Victoria and London Bridge. Serves Sussex, parts of Surrey, and Kent, and the south coast between Portsmouth and Hastings. Has a route to France via Newhaven and Dieppe.
10. The South-Eastern and Chatham and Dover, 601 miles. London termini, Charing Cross, Cannon St., Victoria and Holborn. Has Continental services via Dover and Calais, Dover and Ostend, and Queenborough and Flushing.
11. The Great Central, 383 miles. London
terminus, Marylebone. Until recently known as the "Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Ry." The latest great trunk line into London. Runs to the Midlands via Leicester. Headquarters at Manchester, serves parts of Lancashire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Notts, and Lincoln.
12. The Cambrian, 252 miles. An amalgamation of several early Welsh Railways, works in connection with the L. & N.-W. & G. W. Rys., and also the Midland, by which lines through carriages are run between Aberystwyth and principal English towns on those systems. Serves Aberystwyth, Towyn, Barmouth, Portmadoc, and the Welsh Coast.
13. The North Staffordshire, 193 miles. An important little line with its centre at Stoke-onTrent, joining the L. & N.-W. & G. C. at Macclesfield, and also the former at Crewe, Merton Bridge and Colwich,the G. W. at Market Drayton, the Midland and G. N. at Burton and Derby.
14. Midland & Great Northern Joint, 179 miles. Serves the northern district of Norfolk, and caters for the tourist traffic on the Broads.
15. Cheshire Lines, 139 miles. Chief terminus Liverpool (central); joint property of the G. N., G. C. and C. Rys., an amalgamation of several lines in the Lancashire and Cheshire District.
16. Furness Railway, 134 miles, incorporated 1844. Principal terminus-Barrow-in-Furness. System in Lancashire and Cumberland, an important link to Lake District in connection with the L. & N.-W. and Midland Rys.
17. The Taff Vale, 121 miles, an important South Wales line, serving the district around Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil. Principal station, Cardiff (Queen Street).
18. Somerset and Dorset, ror miles, an amalgamation of the "Somerset Central" and "Dorset Central," leased by the L. & S. W. and Midland, runs across the two counties, and has running powers to Bournemouth,
19. The North British, 1,222 miles. Headquarters Edinburgh, one of the three lines in the "East Coast Route." Only route between Edinburgh and Berwick, Galashiels, Hawick, Jedburgh, Dunbar, Burntisland, Kirkcaldy, St. Andrews, Helensburgh, Fort William, etc. Famous for its two great bridges, the "Tay and the "Forth."
20. The Caledonian, 938 miles, runs from Carlisle to Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, etc. One of the two lines in the "West Coast" Route to Scotland.
21. The Highland Railway, 473 miles. Originally an amalgamation of the Inverness and Aberdeen Junction, and Inverness and Perth Junction Railways. Runs from Perth to the north of Scotland.
22. The Glasgow and South-Western, 394 miles. The main line is between St. Enoch's (Glasgow) Station and Gretna; from here to Carlisle it has running powers over the Caledonian. Route from Glasgow to Greenock, Kilmarnock, Dumfries, Ayr, Stranraer, and Ardrossan.
23. The Great North of Scotland, 331 miles, Main line from Aberdeen to Elgin. Runs through coaches to Inverness.
FIFTY YEARS' ADVANCE IN BRITISH RAILWAYS.
The following shows: (A) The length of line open for traffic. (B) The number of passengers carried (exclusive of season-ticket holders). (C) The weight of goods and minerals conveyed. (D) The amount of paid-up capital invested. (E) The gross receipts for each year of the railways in the United Kingdom as shown in the latest Parliamentary return.
PROPORTION OF MILEAGE.
PROPORTION OF PASSENGER TRAFFIC.
LONGEST RAILWAY TUNNELS.-continued.
72,854,422 163,435,678 336,545,397
Catesby...... Great Central ............... 1 1240
1844. An engine on the Yarmouth and Norwich Railway ran a mile in 44 seconds.
1853. "Bristol and Exeter" broad-gauge 9 feet single-wheel engines began to be built, and attained a speed of 81 miles per hour.
1888. The first "race" to Scotland between the "West Coast" (L. and N.-W. and Caledonian) and "East Coast" (G.N., N.E. and North British).
1895 (August). The great race to Aberdeen between the above companies.
Best time. London to Aberdeen:
"East Coast," 5234 miles in 518 minutes.
In the same year a "record run was made
The same year the Great Western Railway ran a train from Exeter to Paddington, 194 miles, in 194 minutes.
Ft. in. Ft. in. Ft. in.
LENGTH OF LINE AT EACH GAUGE OPEN IN 1900.
£ 240,270,745 348,130,127 529,908,673
897,472,026 1,001,110,221 1,152,317,501 1,176,001,890
£ 13,204,669 27,766,622
Miles. 21 18,541
LONGEST RAILWAY RUNS.
There are upwards of 100 runs of over 100 miles without a stop performed daily on British Railways; in the summer months this number is often increased. All the year round the average may be taken at 108, made up as follows:
The runs of 120 miles and upwards are here tabulated-several of them are performed three or four times each day
FASTEST RAILWAY RUNS FROM START TO FINISH ON THE UNDERMENTIONED RAILWAY SYSTEMS.
It must be borne in mind that the above are only the timings from start to finish. Very many of our long distance trains, timed on an average less than the above, attain 60 to 70 miles per hour on certain parts of their journeys, but this speed is not maintained.