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place in which they have taken refuge. A grain of bromide of potassium given daily, in milk, has been found to produce considerable alleviation.
Worms in Cats.-Cats that are badly fed are liable to the presence of intestinal worms. These caa readily be got rid of by the administration of one to two or three grains of santonine, according to the size of the animal.
Feeding. The greater proportion of the diseases of dogs arise from errors of feeding. Pet dogs are fed at every meal of the owners: they become diseased, over-fat, asthmatic, and readily contract infectious diseases, such as mange, distemper, &c. They should be fed but once, or at the extreme, twice a day, morning and evening, and no more should be given than would be eaten with great avidity. House dogs do well on bread and biscuit with milk, cooked vegetables being given, and an occasional bone or two. Sporting and out-door dogs require fresh flesh, which is superior to such food as gravy or dried meat preparations. Puppies require milk; they should be allowed to take that of the mother until at least six weeks old, soft food being gradually given.
Distemper.-Distemper usually occurs in young dogs, is communicated from one diseased animal to another, but may be carried by the clothes of the attendant, or by sending dogs in infected railway boxes. It is widely spread by dog shows. The symptoms are great disinclination to move, loss of appetite, feverishness, and shivering. As in other contagious febrile diseases, medicine is of no avail, good nursing being the best remedy. The dog should be kept in a well-ventilated, warm place, scrupulous cleanliness should be attended to, no solid food given, only milk and strong beef-tea, which may be thickened with flour, and a little chopped raw meat may be given when the animal is convalescent.
Red Mange.-The disease known as red mange is in reality a form of eczema; it is not contagious or caused by parasites, but is an inflammatory disease of the skin, accompanied by loss of hair. It is generally due to some disorder of the digestive organs, and can be remedied by attending to them.
Fits.-Dogs are subject to epileptic fits, falling down and lying stupefied, or with convulsed limbs. There is no actual cure, but, as fits often arise from over-feeding, the diet of the dog should be reduced. If from irritation of the brain, four grains of bromide of potassium to every twenty pounds the dog weighs may be given twice a day. During the fit the dog shonld be allowed to remain undisturbed. Fits have no relation to rabies, from which they are totally distinct.
Mange. Mange is caused by a minute parasitic insect, which cannot be seen with the naked eye, but can readily be transferred from one animal to another, so that one mangy dog will infect a whole kennel. The mange insect is very much like the itch insect in the human subject, burrowing in the skin, causing the hair to fall off, and reducing the animal to a terrible condition. In treatment the dog should be first scrubbed with strong carbolic soap the best application is ointment of green iodide of mercury, one dram to an ounce of ointment, but the dog must be muzzled to prevent him licking himself, as the remedy is strongly medicinal. Severe cases, of long standing, will require more than a month to cure. The litter of the kennel should be frequently changed, and the interior washed with strong carbolic dog soap.
FEATHER EATING is due to the irritability induced by confinement, and can only be cured by giving room to fly and take active exercise. Parrots that pluck their feathers are generally cured when put in a large aviary and given no flesh to eat.
FITS are due to undue flow of blood to the brain; their recurrence may often be prevented by less stimulating food.
ASTHMA is caused by placing birds accustomed to heated rooms in a draught of cold air: practically there is no cure.
DISEASED FEET are to be prevented by absolute cleanliness of perches and cages, and the keeping the claws cut so as not to catch in the wires.
Rour is a contagious disease which should be stamped out by killing and burning every affected fowl.
ENTERITIS or POULTRY FARM DISEASE, SO termed from being present in many overcrowded poultry runs, is incurable. The disease is propagated by the dung of the infected birds tainting the soil, and the only remedy is the killing of the diseased fowls, and the removal of those that are not attacked to unaffected localities and pure soil.
PHEASANT disease is identical with fowl enteritis, and occurs in localities in which poultry farms have been attempted to be established.
DISEASES in farm-yard or useful poultry are most advantageously treated by being stamped out, and the bodies of the diseased fowls burnt after they are killed.
INFLAMED EYES usually arise from blows, or from small objects which may remain in the outer corner of the eye; the latter should be removed, and the eye bathed with a lotion of Goulard extract, a drachm to a pint of water, followed if the inflammation is severe with mash diet and gentle physic.
LAMPAS is a swelling of the bars of the palate; in severe cases the bars may be cut across with a sharp penknife, but a few mashes with alternative medicine is generally sufficient to effect a cure.
SWELLED LEGS may in ordinary cases be reduced by equable exercise and bandaging.
GREASE, if the cracks are slight, can be cured by astringent lotion of half an ounce of alum to a pint of water.
MANGE is usually the result of contagion, and is effectually treated with one ounce of flowers of sulphur rubbed up with an ounce of train oil and a quarter of an ounce of paraffin oil, to be well rubbed in with a hard brush; this should be applied every day for a week, and then washed off with soap and water. The application to be renewed till cure is effected, when the curry comb and brushes used should be burnt, and the whole stable, harness, &c., washed with chloride of lime or carbolic acid wash; during the treatment, a purging ball should be given as required.
WOUNDS AND ABRASIONS OF THE MOUTH.These are generally caused by sharp or rusty bits, and may be washed with an ounce of alum in a pint and a half of water.
COLD CATARRH.-Warmth, warm clothing, and warm mashes may be used, but if the disease passes into bronchitis or inflammation of the lungs, professional assistance is indispensable.
British subjects visiting the Continent are recommended to provide themselves with Passports, even although in some countries it is not now obligatory to do so. As a means of identification they are often useful, particularly if letters have to be claimed at a poste restante. They also often secure admission to public buildings when otherwise closed to the general public, and may serve to protect the holder against the ignorance and caprice of local officials, who are sometimes apt to make themselves officiously disagreeable. The following are the
Foreign Office Regulations respecting Passports:
Applications for Foreign Office Passports must be made on a form supplied on application to The Passport Department, Foreign Office, London.
The charge for a Passport, whatever number of persons may be named in it, is 2s., a postal order for which sum (not stamps) must accompany the application if made by post. (If an agent is employed there is usually an additional agency fee of is. 6d.)
In France, Belgium, and practically in all European countries, no merchandise is allowed to enter free of duty. In the case of travellers, the custom-house officials have a certain latitude allowed them, and, in the absence of any suspicious circumstances, the question "Have you anything to declare?" if answered in the negative usually suffices to enable the traveller to pass with quite nominal examination.
The English Customs authorities require declaration of all articles liable to duty on importation, but passengers are usually allowed to bring in, free, small quantities of spirits or tobacco, not exceeding half a pint of spirits or half a pound of tobacco, or if from Channel Islands one-half of these quantities.
The following is given in Bradshaw's Guide as a list of what travellers are allowed to carry free:
Travellers who intend to visit the Russiał Empire, the Turkish Dominions, the Kingdon of Roumania, Persia or Hayti, must not quit England without having had their Passports visés at the Consulate-General of the country to be visited. Travellers about to proceed to any other country need not obtain the visa of the Dipbmatic or Consular Agents of such country, except as an additional precaution, which is recommended in the cases of Passports of old date.
Cut Tobacco. As a rule enough for the railway journey, say an opened packet. The duty on cut tobacco in France is about 9s. and in Italy about 75. 6d. per lb.; in Germany, Switzerland, and
Although British subjects are now permitted to enter most foreign countries without Passports, and the rules about Passports have been generally relaxed, nevertheless, British subjects travelling abroad are recommended to provide themselves with Passports, for even in those countries where they are no longer obligatory, they are found to be convenient, as offering a ready means of identification. For residence in Germany or Switzerland a Passport should be obtained.
The following are the addresses of the various Consuls, &c., in London, and fee for visas. An asterisk indicates that a Passport is more or less necessary:
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.-12, St. Helen's Place, E.C. Visa unnecessary.
BELGIUM.-130, London Wall, E.C. Visa
DENMARK.-I, Muscovy Court, Tower Hill. Visa 4s. 6d.
*EGYPT.-29, Mincing Lane. Visa 4s.
FRANCE.-4, Christopher Street, Finsbury, E.C. Visa 8s.
GERMANY.-49, Finsbury Square. Visa 1s. 6d. *GREECE.-19, Eastcheap, E.C. Visa 2s. 6d. ITALY.-44, Finsbury Square. Visa 4s. *JAPAN.-4, Grosvenor Gardens, S.W. Visa 25. Id.
*MEXICO.-Broad Street House, E.C. Visa 4s. *PERSIA. 122, Victoria Street, S. W. Visa 4s. *PORTUGAL.-6, South Street, Finsbury. Visa
*ROUMANIA.-68, Basinghall Street. Free. *RUSSIA.-17, Great Winchester Street. 4s. 10d.
SPAIN. 20, Mark Lane. Visa 9s. 8d. SWEDEN AND NORWAY.-24, Great Winchester Street. Visa 4s. 6d.
SWITZERLAND.-52, Lexham Gardens. Visa 25. *TURKEY.-29, Mincing Lane. Visa 4s. CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.
ABOUT OUR RAILWAYS.
By Victor L, WHITECHURCH, There are 136 Railways in the British Isles, terminus, Marylebone. Until recently known as made up as follows:-England and Wales, 92 ; the “Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Isle of Man, 2; Isle of Wight, 4; Scotland, 9; Ry.” The latest great trunk line into London, Ireland, 29.
Runs to the Midlands via Leicester. HeadOf these the following have over 100 miles of quarters at Manchester, serves parts of Lancarail in their respective systems.
shire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, Yorkshire, Notts,
and Lincoln. ENGLAND AND WALES.
12. The Cambrian, 252 miles. An amalgamation
of several early Welsh Railways, works in con1. Great Western, 2576 miles. London Ter- nection with the L, & N.-W. & G. W. Rys., and minus, Paddington. Serves the
of also the Midland, by which lines through carriages England, South Wales, Oxford district, Birming- run between Aberystwyth and principal ham, and Birkenhead.
English towns on those systems. Serves Aberys2. London and North-Western, 1908 miles. twyth, Towyn, Barmouth, Portmadoc, and the London terminus, Euston. A line of “ Stephen
Welsh Coast. fame, serving the Midlands, North Wales, 13. The North Staffordshire, 193 miles. An North-West and North of England and Lake important little line with its centre at Stoke-onDistrict. One of the two principal routes to Trent, joining the L. & N.-W: & G. C. at Scotland, viâ Carlisle and the Caledonian Rail- Macclesfield, and also the former at Crewe, way. The Royal Mail route to Ireland, via Merton Bridge and Colwich, the G. W. at Market Holyhead and Dublin, also via Holyhead and Drayton, the Midland and Ĝ. N. at Burton and Greenore, Fleetwood and Belfast, Stranraer and Derby. Larne.
14. Midland & Great Northern Joint, 179 3. North-Eastern, 1643 miles. Principal station, miles. Serves the northern district of Norfolk, Newcastle-on-Tyne. With this is amalgamated and caters for the tourist traffic on the Broads. the oldest public railway in the world—the 15. Cheshire Lines, 139 miles. Chief terminus Stockton and Darlington. Serves Yorkshire, Liverpool (central) ; joint property of the G. N., Durham, Northumberland, and parts of West- G. C. and C. Rys., an amalgamation of several moreland, Cumberland, and Roxburgh. In lines in the Lancashire and Cheshire District. conjunction with the Great Northern and North 16. Furness Railway, 134 miles, incorporated British forms part of the “ East Coast Route" 1844. Principal terminus-Barrow-in-Furness. to Scotland. Its locomotives are the largest in System in Lancashire and Cumberland, an imBritain.
portant link to Lake District in connection with 4. The Midland,
miles. London ter- the L. & N.-W. and Midland Rys. minus, St. Pancras. Serves many of the most 17. The Taff Vale, 121 miles, an important important midland towns and the North, with South Wales line, serving the district around running powers over numerous other lines. Cardiff and Merthyr Tydfil. Principal station, Forms a route to Scotland via Carlisle.
Cardiff (Queen Street). 5. The Great Eastern, 1102 miles, formerly the 18. Somerset and Dorset, vor miles, an amal“ Eastern Counties." London terminus, Liverpool gamation of the “ Somerset Central” and “Dorset Street. Serves the Eastern Counties, and has a Central,” leased by the L. & S. W. and Midland, gigantic suburban traffic. The route to the runs across the two counties, and has running Continent via Harwich to Antwerp, Hook of powers to Bournemouth, Holland, and Rotterdam. 6. The London and South Western, 882 miles.
SCOTLAND. London terminus, Waterloo. Serves the SouthWest of England, and has extended beyond 19. The North British, 1,222 miles. HeadExeter to Plymouth and the North Cornish Coast. quarters Edinburgh, one of the three lines in the Route to America via Southampton, and to the “East Coast Route." Only route between Channel Isles from the same port.
Edinburgh and Berwick, Galashiels, Hawick, 7. The Great Northern, 812 miles. London Jedburgh, Dunbar, Burntisland, Kirkcaldy, terminus, King's Cross. An amalgamation of St. Andrews, Helensburgh, Fort William, etc. the “ London and York” and “ Direct Northern.' Fanious for its two great bridges, the “Tay' Serves the Midlands to Shaftholme Junction, and the “Forth." a few miles north of Doncaster, one of the lines 20. The Caledonian, 938 miles, runs from in the “East Coast Route" to Scotland.
Carlisle to Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, etc. 8. The Lancashire and Yorkshire, 553 miles. One of the two lines in the “West Coast” Route Serves the counties giving its name.
Manches- to Scotland. ter is the centre of its
system. Has an immense 21. The Highland Railway, 473 miles. Origintraffic in this thickly-populated district, not the ally an amalgamation of the Inverness and Aberleast being with tourists.
deen Junction, and Inverness and Perth Junction 9. The London, Brighton and South Coast, Railways. Runs from Perth to the north of 438 miles. London termini, Victoria and London Scotland. Bridge. Serves Sussex, parts of Surrey, and 22. The Glasgow and South-Western, 394 Kent, and the south coast between Portsmouth miles. The main line is between St. Enoch's and Hastings. Has a route to France via (Glasgow) Station and Gretna; from here to Newhaven and Dieppe.
Carlisle it has running powers over the Cale10. The South-Eastern and Chatham and donian. Route from Glasgow to Greenock, Dover, 601 miles. London termini, Charing Cross, Kilmarnock, Dumfries, Ayr, Stranraer, anu Cannon St., Victoria and Holborn. Has Ardrossan. Continental services via Dover and Calais, Dover 23. The Great North of Scotland, 331 miles, and Ostend, and Queenborough and Flushing. Main line from Aberdeen to Elgin. Runs through
st. The Great Central, 383 miles. London coaches to Inverness.
Longest RAILWAY TUNNELS.--continued. 34. Great Southern and Western, 604 miles,
Miles. Yds. he most important line in Ireland, connecting
2 80 Dublin' with the south and west. The main line
Rhondda Rhondda & Swansea Bay 1 1683 is 1771 miles long.
Morley London & North-Western 1 1590 25. The Midland Great Western of Ireland,
1 1467 538 miles, originally incorporated as a railway
Catesby ...... Great Central ............... 1 1240 from Dublin to Mullingar in 1845. The main
Dove Holes... Midland...
1227 line extends from Dublin to Galway and Clifden. 26. Great Northern (Ireland), 528 miles, the
Littleborough Lancashire & Yorkshire... 1 1177 route from Dublin to Belfast, Londonderry and the North of Ireland.
RECORD RUNS. 27. Waterford, Limerick and Western, 342 1844. An engine on the Yarmouth and Norwich milés, from Waterford in the south to Limerick Railway ran a mile in
44 seconds. and the west of Ireland.
1853." Bristol and Exeter" broad-gauge 9 feet 28. Belfast and Northern Counties, 249, miles, single-wheel engines began to be built, and attained originally the “Belfast and Ballymena Railway.' a speed of 81 miles per hour. Serves the district covered by its title.
1888. The first “race" to Scotland between the 29. Dublin, Wicklow and Wexford, 144 miles, “ West Coast” (L. and N.-W. and Caledonian) Dublin and the East Coast.
and “East Coast” (G.N., N.E. and North
British). LONGEST RAILWAY TUNNELS
1895 (August). The great race to Aberdeen
between the above companies. Length.
Best time. London to Aberdeen :-
“East Coast,” 5234 miles in 518 minutes. Severn Great Western
“West Coast,” 540 miles in 512 minutes. Totley Midland
was made Standedge London & North-Western 3 62 from Euston to Carlisle without a stop, in which Woodhead ... Great Central
3 17 the 90 miles between Preston and Carlisle were Bramhope North Eastern ......... 2
accomplished in 79 minutes. Medway South Eastern ....
2 220 The same year the Great Western Railway ran Festiniog London & North-Western 2 206 a train from Exeter to Paddington, 194 miles, in Cowburn Midland.....
194 minutes. FIFTY YEARS' ADVANCE IN BRITISH RAILWAYS.
The following shows: (A) The length of line open for traffic. (B) The number of passengers carried (exclusive of season-ticket holders). (C) The weight of goods and minerals conveyed. (D) The amount of paid-up capital invested. (E) The gross receipts for each year of the railways in the United Kingdom as shown in the latest Parliamentary return. PROPORTION OF Mileage.
PROPORTION OF PASSENGER TRAFFIC. 1850
LONGEST RAILWAY RUNS. There are upwards of 100 runs of over 100 miles without a stop performed daily on British Railways ; in the summer months this number is often increased. All the year round the average may be taken at 108, made up as follows :34 on the L. & N. W.
7 on the N. E. R.
5 on the Midland.
G. E. R.
L. & S. W. The runs of 120 miles and upwards are here tabulated-several of them are performed three or four times each day
FASTEST RAILWAY RUNS FROM START TO FINISH ON THE UNDERMENTIONED RAILWAY SYSTEMS.
15 and a fraction miles.
It must be borne in mind that the above are only the timings from start to finish. Very many of our long distance trains, timed on an average less than the above, attain 60 to 70 miles per hour on certain parts of their journeys, but this speed is not maintained.