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NOTE. This glossary is chiefly confined to such terms as are likely to be used by the ordinary medical practitioner in treating common ailments, the meaning of which terms it is thought probable that those interested may desire to know.
ANATOMY OF THE HUMAN BODY.
Sternum and Ribs
Figure 1.-This plate shows the bones of the human body, which, exclusive of the 32 teeth, number 206. The skeleton consists of a central column, or spine; of three great cavities, the skull, thorax, and pelvis; and the superior and inferior extremities.
Figure 2 shows the distribution of some of the principal nerves of the body. The nervous system consists of a series of connected central organs, known as the cerebo-spinal centre, the various ganglia and their offshoots, the nerves. The cerebro-spinal axis consists of the brain, the cerebellum, a little brain, and the spinal cord, which latter is contained within the bones forming the spine. The cerebro-spinal axis consists of two substances, grey and white respectively, each having special
Left Carotid Artery
Fig. 2. THE NERVES.
functions, the latter being split up into fibres. The ganglia are independent nervous
Left Sub-Clavian Artery
Upper Lobe of Left Lung
-Cardiac end of Stomach
centres of small size, and are found distributed in various parts of the body. The nerves are flattened white cords. One set seems to convey impressions to the brain, whilst others convey the stimulus of volition to the organs of
motion. The sympathetic system of nerves is connected with the ganglia above referred to.
Figure 3 represents what would be seen if the front covering of our bodies (including the ribs) was removed. It shows the lobes of the lungs, and the relation that the heart bears to them, the latter organ being only slightly placed to the left side. It shows the largest or right lobe of the liver, behind which is the centre, and inclined to the left is the stomach, behind and below which is the spleen on the left side. The small intestine is seen occupying the greater part of the abdomen, and the large intestine, coming from it at the cæcum in the right groin, ascends towards the gall bladder on the right side, then crosses towards the spleen, and finally descends down the left side, where it forms the sigmoid flexure which ends in the anus. The position of the bladder is also shown, and the course of the ureters is indicated by dotted lines.
Fig. 3.-THE INTERNAL ORGANS.
Figure 4 shows the relation of the Nose and Mouth with the Gullet and Windpipe. The Alimentary Canal commences with the Pharynx-lower down it receives the name of the Esophagus-and through this food is carried into the Stomach. In front of the Æsophagus is the Windpipe, leading from the mouth into the Lungs. The entrance to the Windpipe is closed, when swallowing by the Epiglottis. The Larynx contains the Vocal cords, and is often called the Voice box.