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advise their friends that they devote de certain lady who is to be his first partner. The partnerafternoon to tennis every week The invitations ships should be decided purely by chance, either are given verbally or on an at home" card by means of rosettes, button- holes of different or by a visiting card with “Tennis, Saturday," colours, or some other device, which are offered written in one corner. The visitors arrive in to the guests on arrival. Two of each colour their tennis dresses and are shown into the garden, should be provided, and the gentleman who has where sets are quickly arranged by the host and a button-hole of a given colour looks out for a hostess. The host should take care that all the lady with a similar decoration. The couples then guests get a chance of playing if possible, and proceed to the card room, where a number of that one set of players does not monopolise the numbered whist tables are set out. A game of ground. Tea is brought into the garden, and
whist is commenced at each table, and the partners cooling drinks are offered to the men later on. who have won during the first hand move on
Progressive Whist.- Invitations are sent out to the next table, and so on throughout the game. on “at home" cards with “ Progressive Whist” When all the games have been played the scores written in one corner. The hours are usually are added up, and a prize given to the couple with from 8 to 12. An equal number of ladies and the highest score. There is also a booby" gentlemen should be asked. When the guests prize for the lowest. Light refreshments are then arrive they are offered tea and coffee, and the served, every gentleman escorting the lady who host or hostess introduces each gentleman to the was his last partner.
THE ETIQUETTE OF MOURNING AND FUNERALS. The following are the periods of mourning Brother or Sister.--Crape for three months, generally observed, but all of them may be plain black for two, half-mourning for one. slightly shortened if desired.
Grandparents. - Crape for three inonths, Widowers.-A widower should wear mourn- plain black for two, half-mourning for one. The ing for two years.
period used once to be nine months, but now it is
seldom extended beyond six. Widows.-A widow wears mourning for two years; crape for a year and nine months; plain
Uncle or Aunt.-Three months. Plain black black for the remaining period. The entire dress
for two months, half-mourning the rest of the time. is made of crape for the first year, after that the Nephew or Niece.- Plain black for two dress is trimined with bands of
months, half-mourning for one month. Very few now wear the widow's bonnet for
Uncle or Aunt by Marriage.-Six weeks, longer than a year.
plain black. Widows' caps are out of fashion except for old people, and very few wear the white lawn collars
Great Uncle or Great Aunt. - Black for
one month. and cuffs which used once to be de rigueur. If adopted for the first month they are generally First Cousin. — Black for a. month or six cast aside afterwards.
weeks as preferred. Parents.-Their children should wear mourn
Second Cousin.-Three weeks; plain black is ing for a year, and crape should be worn for half
sufficient. the time; after that plain black for four months A Stepmother. - The correct period for and half-mourning for two.
mourning is six
months. Sons and Daughters, – The same as for
Relations by. Marriage.-A woman should parents – viz., crape for six months, black for
wear mourning for her husband's relations for four months, and half-mourning for two.
exactly the same time as though they were her
own, and vice versa. Good feeling and etiquette Mourning for Infants.-The mourning worn
are here entirely at one. is never extreme, though the loss is perhaps Mourning rings are quite out of fashion, and heavier than any. Black is worn for three the same may be said of memorial cards. There months, but some people prefer to retain it for is no occasion to wear black when paying a visit double that time. Crape is not worn for infants of condolence, though it does not look in good or young children.
taste to go brightly clad. WIDTH OF BORDERS ON NOTE PAPERS.
Italian. Narrow. Middle. Broad. Funerals.-Invitations to a funeral should be printed in plain style on white cards, with border of moderate width, the old-fashioned pictorial, lugubrious cards with deep border being quite out of date. The cards are usually sent out by the undertaker, who also, on the day of the funeral, will attend to all details of arrangement. The hearse should be simple in every way,
drawn by two, or at most four, horses, without feathers or other ostentatious trappings. Brown or bay horses should be used for the mourning carriages. The order in which the mourners are to be conveyed to the place of interment should be
Extra Broad. Double Broad. arranged beforehand. One of the first carriages should convey the officiating minister. The custom of returning to the house for a set meal is quite out of date; light refreshments are served either before starting or on the return; nothing more is now necessary.
Memorial and “return thanks "cards are sent out directly after the funeral. The blinds should be kept down till the funeral cortège has left the residence. White is generally used at the funerals of children. The hours for burials in cemeteries, unless otherwise arranged, are-April 1 to September 30, 10 to 6, and for the rest of the year, ro to 3.
HOW TO READ GAS AND ELECTRIC METERS. Every householder will find it advantageous to examine the figures of his Gas or Electric Light Meter at frequent intervals. This is quite an easy matter, and a very few words will suffice to make it clear. The dials of a Gas meter are generally arranged thus :
Dials of Gas Meter. The figures on Dial A represent hundreds up to 1,000 ; on Dial B, thousands up to 10,000; on Dial C, tens of thousands up to 100,000 cubic feet of gas consumed.
The hand on Dial A, therefore, represents a consumption of 100 cubic feet; B, 1,000 cubic feet ; C, 30,000 cubic feet; total Consumption 31,100 cubic feet.
The figures as they stand in the diagram would only for one quarter, even though the meter be recorded thus 311 and two ciphers being added may have been registering wrongly ever since it for the hundreds, the result is 31,100.
was set up. When the next record is taken let us suppose From the accompanying illustration it will be that the reading is 52,700; from this is to be seen that the dials of an electric meter are similar deducted the amount of the previous record (as to those of a gas meter, and are read with equal above), and the difference-21,600—is the number facility. of cubic feet of gas consumed in the interim.
The reading of the accompanying figure is Should the amount registered appear to be 9,248. The lo 000 dial is not taken down, beconsiderably in excess of the amount consumed, cause the i representing 10,000 is not quite there is a leakage somewhere in the pipes or else reached ; and it will be noticed that all the dials the meter is out of order. A search for the are read in a similar way, that is, the figure escape should at once be made, though not that the index has just passed is the one to with a light, as is too often done, with the be read, and not the figure which the index is frequent consequence of disastrous explosions. approaching. The sense of smell
Electric meters register should be called into
either in ampererequisition as a-detec1000 •100 10
hours," "lamp-hours," tive agent. When the
watts.” In the exact dis
case of ampere-hour or covered, the gas must
lamp-hour meters the be turned off and the
reading represents the pipe repaired. At the
total number of amtop of the meter just
boue hours or lampover the indicating
which have been dials there is usually
consumed, and some 5 a smaller dial show
account would have to ing single feet. If 10000
be taken of the pressure all the 'burners in
of the supply to convert the house are turned
this reading into Board off and the pointer in
of Trade units. A this dial watched, any. Electric Meter Register.
directly in Board of cause a forward movement of the pointer. And | Trade units, and has the advantage of giving the it should not be forgotten that an escape of one consumer the benefit of any falling off there foot per hour equals 8,760 feet in a year.
may be in the supply pressure, which is not the But should the meter seem to be the culprit, case in the other two forms of meters. the only thing to do is to send it to the nearest If the accompanying figure were the dial of a testing place of the County Council, where it Watt-meter it would be read as 9248 Board of will be examined for the small charge of one Trade units. In some of the older forms of shilling. The householder has to pay the cost Watt-meters this reading would have to be multiof conveying it to and from the Office of the plied by the constant K = 4 (see figure) to get County Council. On receiving their official the correct total amount of electric power connotice that the meter registers so much per sumed. The constant was introduced to obviate cent. over and above the actual consumption, the necessity for running the meter at high the paper on which this intimation is made speeds, but in the latest type of Watt-meter this must be forwarded to the Gas Company, and multiplication is effected in the gearing, and the they will make a proportionate reduction, but reading off the dial is correct in itself.
THE FAMILY DOCTOR.
By Dr. E. P. PHILPOTS, M.D., F.R.G.S.
USEFUL NOTES FOR EMERGENCIES.
Brandy for extreme collapse. In severe cases plug the nostril from behind, this
BLEEDING FROM THE BOWELS. Astringent
where the patient's life is in danger from his Apoplexy Symptoms : Pain in head.
inability to breathe. tient suddenly falls down, face flushed, is 1. Strip the body, rub it dry, wrap it in warm insensible, pulse full and rather slow, some- blankets and keep in a fairly warm room in times sickness and vomiting come on, occa- the recumbent posture with the head slightly sionally paralysis. Cold sweats, stertorous
raised. breathing, involuntary micturition. Treatment 2. See the nostrils and mouth are free for -Take to a cool well-ventilated room,
breathing purposes, remove artificial teeth. clothes. Cold to head, stimulating and purga- 3. Apply heat by, bladder or hot-water bottles tive enemata. Blisters to scalp. Mustard foot to the pit of the stomach, armpits, between baths. Emetics if stomach overloaded. If face the thighs, and to the soles of the feet. be very turgid, bleed, but this with caution.
4. Rub the body with the hand to encourage Asthma. During the paroxysm relief may, circulation. be obtained by inhaling the fumes of " Himrod, 5. Raise the patient's arms above the head, or some preparation containing the leaves of pulling upon them to raise the walls of the datura tatula mixed with nitre. Severe cases chest, at the same time rotating the body on are relieved by inhaling a few drops of chloro- to the right side. form. An antispasmodic draught containing 6. At the same time bend both knees, and spirit of æther, sumbul, ammonia, and dilute make pressure on the back and front below hydrocyanic acid will often relieve.
the lungs. Bites and stings - poisonous.-- Dog BITES. 7. Now roll the body on to the back or a little -It is some satisfaction to know that all mad
to the left side, at the same time bringing dogs are not hydrophobically so, and that dis- both arms to the side, and pressing them temper madness makes dogs more frantic than does against the ribs and straightening the knees. rabies pure and simple. If you have reason to 8. Remember that rules Nos. 5,6, and 7 should believe that the dog that has bitten is suffer- take exactly five seconds, not less, and then ing from rabies, tightly bandage or ligature above be repeated. To work quicker than this is and below the bite; the wounded part should then attended with danger, the idea being to be entirely excised, taking care to cut out bring about artificially whai the patient is every part that has come in contact with the unable to accomplish. animal's teeth, expose the wound to a stream of 9. As soon as the patient commences to breathe cold water, and thoroughly cauterize the edges stop the operation. with lunar caustic. It is well after this to be Many recommend the application of a strong inoculated after the method of M. Pasteur; the smelling bottle to the nose, some inflate the lungs earlier this is done the better. (See also Snake through a nostril with a pair of bellows, others Bites.)
inject warm brandy and water into the stomach, STINGS may be treated with a strong solution but the great idea is to restore (a) animal heat, of liquid ammonia in water ; the sting inust be (b) the power to breathe, and (c) the circulation of extracted if the insect has left it in. A good the blood. Above all things do not give up hot poultice will relieve the inflammation. A trying to restore life simply because no good sting on the tongue from a wasp concealed in results appear to be forthcoming, for individuals fruit is a dangerous form of sting, and inedical occasionally take as long as four hours to be advice should at once be obtained.
brought to. Bleeding - To arrest.-- Severe bleeding com- Bruises.--Apply a lotion of spirits and water ing in jerks from a wound shows that it is in or tincture of arnica and water, or use ice. To relatior to a severed artery. Tightly bandage the allay the pain paint the bruised part (if no limb between the wound and the heart, apply broken skin with equal parts of aconite, bellacold, and get a surgeon to ligature the artery as donna and opium liniments. soon as possible. Amongst styptics may be Burns and Scalds.--If patient collapse give mentioned lunar caustic, blue vitriol, tannin, 25 drops of laudanum with some warm brandy alum, and all astringents.
and water internally. Keep air from surface, BLEEDING FROM THE LUNGS.--Lay the patient do not disturb the burnt skin. Apply a lotion to down, Let him suck ice freely a doubtful the part, made of two parts of linseed oil, one part remedy), give two grains of gallic acid, and a of lime water, and about one part in two hundred drachm of liquor of ergot of rye in an ounce of of carbolic acid-on cotton wool covered with water every hour or half-hour. Keep the room gutta-percha tissue or oil-silk. Prick any vesicles cool and free from visitors, keep the patient as containing water. Some prefer dusting the quiet as possible,
affected part with flour, chalk, starch, or
bonate of lead, if this plan is adopted do not glycerine was tried with very good results during interfere with the crust formed by the powder. an epidemic of a virulent form of the disease to
Catalepsy-is suddenly suppressed power of paint the throat with after the pellicles had will and consciousness, and is best exemplified in formed. mesmerism; it is usually met with in hysterical Dislocations—of many of our joints require females. (See Hysteria.)
surgical skill to reduce, especially those of the Cauterize-how to.-In case of a bite or
thigh, the ankle, the wrist, and the elbow; they poisonous wound chemical or actual cauteries
are usually reduced by firmly pulling the dismay bs used. The former include nitrate of
torted joint in the long axis of the limb, and at silver, chromic acid, and the mineral acids. The
the same time using lateral pressure to force the latter simply means the application of a red-hot
bones into their places. One of the commonest iron (e.g. the poker) to the aftected part.
and one of the easiest dislocations to reduce is Cold--When overcome by the effects of.—The
the shoulder joint. Place the patient on a chair, patient goes giddy, blind, weak and stiff in his
place another chair by his side, and let the limbs, his pulse falls, his respiration grows weak, operator place his foot upon it, raise the arm, let he has an intense desire to sleep, and eventually
the knee go into the armpit, and pull the arm dies from coma (see Coma). Employ friction to the
outwards and downwards forcibly, the operator's body. Do not place him too rapidly under the
knee acting as the fulcrum, and the patient's influence of heat, give him a stimulating enema, elbow as the lever. Remember that all dislocaand try to get him to swallow warm milk, coffee, tions become more difficult to reduce as time or beef tea, with brandy.
lapses, therefore it is necessary to be prompt. Coma--is the result of cold as above, inflammation of the brain, apoplexy, epilepsy, blood
Drowning.-1. Loosen clothing, if any. poisoned by urine diabetes, opium taking, alcohol
Empty lungs of water by laying body on its drinking, or direct injury. It is a state of stupor
stomach, and lifting it by the middle so that the with loss of consciousness. Each form of coma
head hangs down. Jerk the body a few tiines. has symptoms peculiar to the exciting cause of
3. Pull tongue forward, using handkerchief, or
pin with string, if necessary, 4. Imitate motion the attack. Concussion of the Brain-is the result of some
of respiration by alternately compressing and act of violence to the head, and results in collapse,
expanding the lower ribs, about twenty times a
minute. sickness, and loss of all muscular power. Apply
Alternately raising and lowering the cold to the head, give a strong purgative, empty
arms from the sides up above the head will stimu.
late the action of the lungs. Let it be done the bladder, keep the extremities warm, and if no signs of rallying come on, give stimulants.
gently but persistently. 5. Apply warmth and
friction to extremities. 6. By holding tongue Convulsions-are involuntary contractions of the whole muscular system, usually accompanied
forward, closing the nostrils, and pressing the by unconsciousness, are due to some internal
“Adam's apple” back (so as to close entrance
to stomach), direct ipflation may be tried. Take cause aftecting the nervous system. Under this head come Epilepsy, Hysteria, Lock-jaw, &c.,
a deep breath and breathe it forcibly into the which see.
mouth of patient, compress the chest to expel the Cough Mixture.- For an irritating cough (for
air, and repeat the operation. 7. Don't GIVE UP!
People have been saved after HOURS of patient, adults, use oxymel of squills one ounce, tincture of tolu three drachms, white poppy syrup six
vigorous effort. 8. When breathing begins, get
patient into a warm bed, give WARM drinks, or drachms, ipecacuanha wine two drachms, mucilage one ounce, ammoniacum mixture up to eight
spirits in teaspoonfuls, fresh air and quiet.
Remember that you have (a) to restore animal ounces : a teaspoonful or more for a dose. Croup.- Immediately the child is seized with
heat, (b) to restore the circulation, (c) to induce the attack give from two to five drops of anti
breathing. On no account use violence, do not monial wine in water every ten or fifteen minutes,
place the patient with his head down, nor roll the place it in a warm bath near a fire, and keep off
body about, nor rub it with salt, spirits, &c., and all draught with a screen; after faintness comes
do not inject tobacco smoke. Electricity may on remove the child from the bath and place it
often be resorted to with advantage. (See also on a hard bed where steam from a steam kettle
Breathing.”) can be freely admitted, to keep in which it is Ear-foreign bodies in it.--If the substance is advisable to curtain the bed in. Generally solid and not likely to swell by water being used speaking, after faintness and vomiting has been (such as a pea or a bean) forcibly inject lukewarm induced the attack goes of", but bad cases are
water into the ear. If this fails, and no forceps relieved by the judicious inhalation of chloroform. are at hand, the foreign body can often be removed (See also * Emetics.")
by using a very finely pointed pair of scissors, or Death Tests.--Hold mirror to mouth. If living
a loop made of fine wire. moisture will gather. Push pin into flesh. Emetics.-In giving emetics remember that dead the hole will remain, if alive it will close up. antimonial wine is a depressant of the heart's Place fingers in front of a strong light. If alive, action ; the dose of it is one or two drachms in they will appear red ; if dead, black or dark. water followed by plenty of warm water. Ipe
Delirium Tremens.-Sleeplessness, a busy and cacuanha wine (half to one ounce), or sulphate non-violent delirium, trembling of hands, patient of zinc (ten grains in water), followed by plenty sees all kinds of horrid animals, &c., loss of of tepid water taken internally are far better appetite, pale and moist skin, &c. Give ice remedies to use when the object is merely the internally, induce the patient to eat any kind of prompt evacuation of the contents of the stoinach. nutrient and easily digested food. Fifteen grains The readiest form of domestic emetic is mustard. of chloral may be given four times a day, or half flour and warm water, plenty of it, followed by a grain of morphia may be injected occasionally. copious draughts of warm water. As a remedy Do not suddenly stop all stimulants, and keep for the spasms of croup (the idea being to make a patient quiet and well watched.
child feel sick without being so), give it a teaDiphtheria. – No specific known, anti-toxin spoonful every hour or two of a mixture made of reatment recommended by some practitioners. two drachms of ipecacuanha wine, three drachms External applications to the throat are useless, of
of Hemidesmus, half an ounce of glycebut a strong solution of perchloride of iron with rine, and water up to two ounces.
Enemas.-The best purgative enema is made by placing in a small basin of hot water, 14 OZS. of castor oil, then use ordinary soap in the water as though you were washing your hands; this thoroughly incorporates the oil with the water. To allay pain use one syringe full of warm water, with fifteen drops of Battley's sedative of opium extract. But enemas for nutrition and as anodynes are now cast aside for the nutrient and opiate suppositories, which are on sale at all chemists, although it is doubtful if the latter act as rapidly as do fluid enemata.
Epilepsy-or falling sickness.-Treatment of a fit of--Lay patient on a hard bed or on the floor; plenty of air; raise head; warm clothes; keep something between jaws to prevent biting of tongue; remove false teeth; if face blue, cold water to head; give snuff to induce sneezing; there is little to be done during an attack, and epileptics should always be attended by someone, for they fall so suddenly, and are so insensible to what takes place after they have fallen, that they may, if left alone, do themselves severe bodily harm.
Eyes-Foreign bodies in.-Get the patient's head bent well backwards, drop a drop or two of olive oil between the upper eyelid and the eye, then seize the upper eyelashes, and pull the upper eyelid well forward and in front of the lower one, press it against the latter as it returns to its original position, and if the offending substance is beneath the upper eyelid (as it usually is), you will see it deposited on the lower lid. If this plan fails to remove it, pull the upper eyelid forward and look beneath it, where may probably be seen the minute substance causing the pain, which can be removed with a paper 66 spill," or a sharpened wooden match, or a camel hair pencil. If, however, the foreign body is embedded in the front of the eye (the cornea) it must be " dug out with a needle. For lime in the eye, use a weak lotion of vinegar and water to which a few drops of laudanum have been added.
Fainting. A fit of.-Patient is pale, and unconscious, skin clammy, pupils dilated, limbs loose, and he looks deadly. Lay him down, dash cold water on his face; loosen his neck; open window and door and place in a draught, and use a strong smelling bottle.
Fevers. To produce perspiration take ten grains of Dover's powder on going to bed, and an aperient on the following morning, as the opium contained in the powder may produce constipation.
Fits. These are of four kinds, Epileptic, Apoplectic, Hysterical, and Fainting; all treated of under their respective heads, and all differing from each other in a way that makes diagnosis comparatively easy.
Fractures. That a bone is fractured may be seen by the distortion of the limb, and the sound caused by the broken bones. Prior to the arrival of a surgeon place the limb on pillows in as restful position, and as much as possible in its natural state. An ordinary chip band-box with the bottom out is useful to put over a limb to prevent the pressure of bedclothes, &c.
Gargle. The best form of gargle for an ordinary sore throat is made thus:-Mulberry juice two ounces, chlorate of potash, alum, and nitrate of potash of each ninety grains, syrup of tolu two ounces, acid infusion of roses up to eight ounces, add more alum if not astringent enough.
as the lungs. Patient suffers from shock." A bone may be splintered. Extract the bullet or foreign body with bullet forceps, and without enlarging the aperture of the wound, if possible. At first apply cold to the wound; but circumstances may afterwards suggest poultices. When the sloughs have separated, and suppuration has commenced to cease, it is well to apply stimulating lotion, and a bandage to support the parts. Constitutionally, it is necessary to allay the fever which is the outcome of the suppuration, and support the strength of the patient.
Gunshot Wounds-are contused and lacerated. There is little bleeding unless a large vessel is divided or a vascular part injured such
Hanging. The patient should be treated for suspended respiration or for apoplexy, the result of pressure on the jugular veins. (See 'Breathing.") Galvanism may be used.
Hysteria. Be firm and do not sympathise with the patient, throw cold water on her face, apply ammonia to the nose, and give the following anti-spasmodic draught: - Aromatic spirits of ammonia, tincture of sumbul, tincture of valerian, and spirits of sulphuric æther, of each fifteen drops. Infusion of quassia an ounce and a half.
Lockjaw or Tetanus.- Crampy pain about the neck, the jaw, and the throat, twitching of the muscles of the face, cramp ultimately seizes the whole body which is stiff (especially the muscles of the back). Treatment in pronounced and acute cases is of but little use. Ice may be applied to the spine, and opium and Indian hemp given as a medicine, but the inhalation of chloroform is the only form of relief known. The symptoms are identical with those of poisoning by strychnia.
Mother's Milk.-Infants should not be fed on Cow's milk, which is far too strong in some respects for them to digest and too weak in others. A very good substitute for Mother's milk is made thus: Fresh milk, pint; hot water, pint; sugar of milk, 1 oz. ; carbonate of potash, 4 grs. Obstruction of the Bowels-causes sickness sudden and violent pains, constipation, collapse, and discharges of blood and mucus posteriorly. Give opium freely, and large injections of warm water.
Pills.-The best form of dinner pill is made by mixing together a grain of powdered capsicum, a grain of Barbadoes aloes extract, a quarter of a drop each of oil of cloves and pure carbolic acid, and two grains of maltopepsin. The best form of liver pill is made of half a grain of podophyllin resin, two grains of compound scamony powder, one grain of powdered capsicum, and two grains. of extract of taraxacum, one or two for a dose.
Poultices and Plasters.-The best and cleanest method of making a mustard plaster is to spread mustard such as is used for the table on rough brown paper with a knife, like butter on bread, let it remain for a minute, and then wipe it all off and apply the damp paper.
Poultices are now manufactured, and it saves trouble to buy them in the dry state and make them ready for use by placing them in boiling water. The best way to make them is to sew in a muslin bag the oatmeal or linseed meal to be used, and place the bag in boiling water, or boil it. It can be used over and over again. But spongiopiline and hot water make an excellent moist hot application for all practical purposes.
Prolapsus ani-and protruding piles.-Carefully sponge the protruding part quite clean, let the patient sit over some hot water, then anoint the part with ointment of galls, opium and Hamamelis, and, with a warm soft towel, make continuous pressure, which if persevered in will result in returning the part,