HERALDRY is the science that deals with the composition and the interpretation, or "blazoning," of armorial bearings. In the twelfth century it became customary to paint devices of various kinds on the armour and shield of warriors as a mark of personal distinction: subsequently they were emblazoned on the surcoat, and hence arose the terms "armorial bearings" and coats of arms."

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Armorial bearings are usually depicted on shields, the colours of which are called the "Tinctures," whilst the devices on them are termed "Charges." There are seven Tinctures in ordinary use, and these, in uncoloured drawings, are indicated by dots and lines in the manner shown below. Furs of different kinds are also used, and illustrations are subjoined of the manner in which "Ermine," "Ermines," and "Vair" are shown.

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The Charges are objects delineated in high relief on the Field or Ground. The simplest Charges are called Ordinaries, and of these the subjoined are illustrations of · the more important or "honourable." Sub-ordinaries are the Gyron, the Bordure, Orle, and several others.

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The Fesse is a band drawn horizontaily across the field; the Pale (plural, Pallets) is a similar band drawn perpendicularly. The Bend is of the width of a Pale, and runs from the dexter point of the chief to the sinister base; Bend sinister runs in the opposite direction. The Bar is similar to the Fesse, running horizontally, but is narrower; there are nearly always two or more bars in a shield. Cotises are narrow rules running parallel with a bend. There are two main forms of Cross-the (Latin) Cross and the Saltire, known familiarly as the St. George's and St. Andrew's. A Chevron

represents two transverse beams joined at their apex. of a javelin (pilum) having its apex in the base. resemblance to an ecclesiastical vestment.

Common Charges are divided into Inanimate, such as Roundels, Guttes, and Billets, and Animate, such as Birds, Beasts, Fishes, etc. Animals may be depicted as



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Passant, walking; Rampant, erect on hind leg, with tail elevated; Courant, running; Couchant, lying down; etc. Birds are Close, Displayed, Volant, etc. Fishes are Haurient, Naiant, Embowed, etc. Of flowers, the Rose, the Fleur de Lys, and the various foils (trefoil, quatrefoil, etc.) are frequently used.

APOLLO (Apollon)..
EOLUS (Eolus)
BACCHUS (Dyonysus) ....
CERES (Demeter)

CUPID (Eros)

DIANA (Artemis)

The Pile represents the point The Pall is so called from its

FLAGS. The terms for describing a flag are the same as those applied in Heraldry to the corresponding parts of a shield. The present ROYAL STANDARD is thus described-Quarterly: first and fourth, gules, three lions passant gardant, in pale, or, for England; second, or, a lion rampant, gules, within a double tressure, flory counter flory of the last, for Scotland; third, azure, a harp or, stringed argent, for Ireland.



In the following list of the principal Gods and Goddesses of the ancient Romans and Greeks the Roman title is given in each case with the Greek title in parentheses.

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Uranus and Terra..
Jupiter and Latona

Saturn and Cybele
.Saturn and Cybele
Jupiter and Juno
Jupiter and Maia
Jupiter and Metis

JUNO (Hera)
MARS (Ares)
MERCURY (Hermes)
MINERVA (Athena)
NEPTUNE (Poseidon)
PLUTO (Hades)
SATURN (Kronos). ............Uranus and Terra.................
VENUS (Aphrodite) .............
...Jupiter and Dione.....
VESTA (Hestia) .................................................... Saturn and Cybele
VULCAN (Hephæstus) ......Jupiter and Juno .........

.Saturn and Cybele
Saturn and Cybele



..Jupiter and Latona .......God of the Sun-known also as Phoebus.
.Hyperion and Theia...............Goddess of the Dawn.
Hippotas and Melanippe.........God of the Winds.
..Jupiter and Semele
..Phorcys and Ceto

....God of Wine.

...Goddess of War.

Saturn and Cybele... Goddess of Harvest and Seed-time.-

.God of Love.

..Goddess of Nature.

.Goddess of the Chase and of the Moon.

•Queen of Heaven and Protectress of Females.

.Principal God of Heaven.

..God of War.

..God of Commerce.

Goddess of Wisdom and Power.

...God of the Sea.

...God of the Lower World.

...God of Agriculture.
...Goddess of Love.

..............Goddess of Purity and Chastity.

....God of Fire.


Introductions. Forma! introductions are usually made by a mutual friend, who should always remember the rule that the inferior (so to speak must be presented to the superior; thus, a single woman should be introduced to a married one, a commoner to a person of rank, and so on. It is a common error, and not an unnatural one, to wish to put the name of the more important person first, but the above rule should always be adhered to. It is incorrect for a lady to rise from her seat when a gentleman is introduced to her, unless he is her host or is very old and distinguished.

Letters of Introduction should always be given unsealed to the person who is to use them. They either be enclosed in another letter and sent may by post or forwarded by a servant with visiting cards. An immediate response should be made when a letter of introduction is presented. A call should be made within three days and an invitation to dinner sent if possible.

Calls and Calling.— -In the provinces, when a new-comer comes to live in any district, the older residents make the first call. They also call when anyone of importance arrives on a visit to one of their friends. In either case the calls should be returned within a week. In London no one calls on new-comers unless they have brought letters of introduction, and new-comers can only make acquaintances through the medium of mutual friends.

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First Calls.-A first call should be returned within a week, whether the acquaintance is desired or not. Under the latter circumstances the second call need not be acknowledged. If there should be some very decided reason for declining the acquaintance, the first call might be acknowledged by simply leaving cards, without asking if the lady of the house were at home; but this would be an extreme course only to be adopted in case of necessity.

Calls after Entertainments.-These should be paid within a week. It is sufficient to leave cards after a reception, but it is necessary to ask if the lady of the house is at home after a dinner party. and it is desirable to do so after a ball. At weddings and afternoon parties people sometimes leave cards on their way out, to save the trouble of calling later on. The same fashion obtains at garden parties, but in any case there is no occasion to call after a garden party. It makes the exception to the rule.

Calls of Condolence are paid after a death has occurred in a family; there is no actual necessity to wear mourning, but good taste would induce one to go quietly dressed. Calls are made on a convalescent as soon as "return thanks" cards have been received.

Card Leaving,-A card is never sent up in advance of a visitor, unless the call is of a purely business nature. Cards should be left on a first visit and also at the commencement of the season, or after a change of address. A lady leaves two of her husband's cards and one of her own on a married couple; one of each on a widow; but only her own on a young unmarried girl. It is not correct for a gentleman to leave his card on an unmarried lady.

Cards should be left on the hall table on the way out, but some people prefer to pop them down before going into the drawing room, for fear of forgetting later on.

P. p. c. cards should be left from a week to ten days before departure. Of late years it has become allowable to send p. p. c. cards by post, an innovation which is much to be commended, but the usual course is to drive round and leave them personally.

Turning down the corner of a card has two meanings, first, that the caller has left it in person (for no one but the owner would have the right to bend a visiting card), and secondly, that the whole of the family is included in the call; supposing that the lady of the house had grownup daughters, for example, the visitor could either leave two cards (one for the mother and one for the daughters) or else one with the corner turned down.

Cards may be sent by post more frequently than they used to be now that they have the "At Home" day printed on them. They may be thus sent when they contain an invitation, or to "return thanks" after illness or. bereavement. P. p. c. cards and "change of address" cards are also often sent by post. Cards cannot be sent by post after an entertainment, a call must be paid in person. Cards "to enquire" after an invalid must either be left in person or sent by a servant, but never sent by post.

The Etiquette of Visiting.-When a lady has an "At Home" day it is not considered correct to call on any other day. Afternoon calls in the world of fashion get shorter and shorter. From three to six o'clock are the usual hours for calling, and the stay should not, as a rule, exceed half-an-hour.

When music is given on "At Home" days, the visitors stop much longer than would otherwise be the case. Tea is given in a separate room in this case, with servants standing behind the buffet to pour out. On an ordinary "At Home" day, the tea is served in the drawing room, and the hostess pours it out herself.

Dinner Parties.-There are two forms of dinner invitations, the friendly note and the printed "At Home" card. The name of both host and hostess should be mentioned in either case. The friendly note should be answered in the first person, the "At Home" card in the third.

On entering the dining room the host leads the way with the lady of highest rank, and the hostess brings up the rear with the gentleman of highest rank. The hostess sits at the head of the table, with the gentleman who has escorted her on her left hand, which is the place of honour, because a gentleman naturally offers his right arm to take a lady into dinner, and they are able to take their places at table without changing sides. The lady first in rank sits at the right hand of the host, the lady second in rank at his left. At the conclusion of dinner the hostess makes a sign to the most distinguished lady guest, and rises from the table; the lady in question leads the way to the door, the other ladies following her, the hostess walking last.

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guest is acquainted with both parties the present should be sent to the house of the bride; if only acquainted with the bridegroom the present can be sent to him. On the wedding day the various articles should be arranged in one of the reception rooms, with the card of the giver' on each.

At the Church.-The bridegroom arrives early at the church, accompanied by his best man, and proceeds to the east end of the church, where he should wait the arrival of the bride; the bridesmaids wait for the bride near the entrance door. It is the fashion to have gentlemen ushers to show guests to their places, and these generally wear a white flower as a buttonhole. The bride's relations and friends sit on the right hand of the church, the bridegroom's on the left. The bride drives to the church with her father and walks up the aisle with him, taking his right arm. The bridesmaids follow.



The bride stands at the left hand of the bridegroom with her father at her left hand, ready to give her away. The best man stands near the bridegroom, slightly to the rear, the chief bridesmaid stands behind the bride, ready to hold her gloves and bouquet. At the conclusion of the service the bridal party adjourn to the vestry to sign the register, the newly-married couple leading the way, the bride taking the bridegroom's left arm. After leaving the vestry, the bridal pair pass down the church followed by the bridesmaids, then the bride's mother, escorted by her son or some other near relative, and the rest of the guests follow without regard to precedence.

The bride's mother should be the first to leave the church after the bridal pair and bridesmaids, so that she may reach the house in time to receive her guests. On arrival there she stands near the door of the reception room and receives the guests as they enter, the host standing near her. The bride and bridegroom stand a little further back and the guests make their way to them, as soon as they have spoken to the host and hostess, and offer their congratulations. When breakfast or tea is announced the bridal pair lead the way into the other room, followed by the bride's father with the bridegroom's mother, and the bridegroom's father with the mother of the bride; the bridesmaids and ushers and the rest of the company follow as they please.

Wedding Teas.-The wedding tea has almost entirely superseded the wedding breakfast, and it possesses a great advantage over its predecessor, inasmuch as one is able to ask a much larger number of guests. The refreshments are placed on long tables, the servants pouring out the tea and coffee. The refreshments should consist chiefly of sandwiches of every description, aspic jellies, cold entrées, sweets, rolled bread and butter, fancy confectionery, ices and fruit, champagne, and tea and coffee. The wedding cake is placed on the centre of the table and there should be plenty of white flowers around it. Towards the conclusion of the meal the bride cuts the cake; she is supposed to cut the first slice, but need only make the first incision; the butler then takes the cake to a side table and cuts up some slices into pieces about two inches square, handing them round on a plate to the guests.

The best man pays all the fees at the church, and sees to the newspaper advertisements.

with the date and hours in one corner, and if there is to be any especial attraction, such as music or palmistry, this is generally mentioned on the card. Refreshments are then served in another room, servants standing behind the buffet to pour out the tea or coffee. Tea is the correct thing to offer afternoon callers, wine being given only at large parties, when there is a separate refreshment room. The lady of the house generally pours out the tea, or she may entrust this to one of her daughters.

At Home Days.-The hours for an "at home" day are from 3 to 6.30 or 4 to 7. People come and go as they like. On special occasions the invitations are sent out on "at home" cards,


Garden Parties., Invitations to a gardenparty are sent out on large "at home" cards; in the country the words "and party are generally added after the name of the guest, but this is not done in London. The host and hostess generally receive the guests on the lawn; light refreshments -tea, coffee, champagne or claret-cup, strawberries, ices, sandwiches, &c.-are served. Gentlemen should wear frock-coats and tall hats (unless tennis is to be played). Morning tweed suits are now often adopted. It is proper to shake hands with the hostess on leaving. There is no occasion to pay a call after a garden-party.


Musical Parties. Invitations to musical parties are sent out on large "at home" cards, with "Music" printed or written in the lower If any special professional artist is engaged his name is sometimes printed on the card. Ten o'clock is the hour usually named for arrival. The hostess stands near the door or at the head of the staircase to receive her guests. Printed programmes are sometimes given at musical parties, with address and date at the top and the names of the pieces and of the performers below. It is in the worst taste to talk while music is being performed. It is the duty of the hostess with the aid of the host or other person to ensure silence for the artists, as well as to ask anyone to play or sing; no one else should take this office on themselves in another person's house. It is allowable to express a wish to hear a certain performer, but it is proper to ask the hostess to give the invitation. Full evening dress is worn at musical parties.



Juvenile Parties.- Invitations to juvenile parties are generally sent out on "at home cards, with some fanciful design printed at the top. The invitations are often sent out in the Christian names of the children. "Mary and Jackie" invite "Aunt Mary," or "The Little Blanks" invite Harry and Johnnie." hours for a juvenile party are generally from 4 to 8 or 5 to 9, and it is correct for the invited guests to arrive pretty punctually. The children should be in full dress or fancy dress as the case may be, but parents or elder sisters who may bring them simply wear smart walking dress and do not take off their bonnets or hats. The juvenile hosts or hostesses should stand at the drawing room door and shake hands with their guests as they enter; the lady of the house should be found close by and should also offer greetings. The children should have a "sit-down tea (ordinary afternoon tea being served for their elders in another apartment), the refreshments being placed on a buffet and the servants waiting to serve as at an ordinary afternoon party. After tea the children adjourn for games and dancing, and the evening concludes with a conjurer or Punch and Judy or some entertainment of the kind. Light refreshments, such as sandwiches, sweets, and lemonade, are usually served afterwards.

Tennis Parties.-Tennis parties are very popular during the summer months, and many peopl

For Fashionable Mourning:

Ladies should remember that



and therefore is not damaged by a shower.

is Waterproof,

Won the only "Grand Prix" at Paris Exhibition, 1900,
awarded to English Silk Manufacturers.

The High-Class Washing Material Marked





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For Day and Night Shirts, Pyjamas, Tennis, Cricket and Boating Suits, &c.

In White, natural and fancy patterns.

In Light, medium and heavy weights.



THE QUEEN says: "Viyella has borne the test of years. You can wear it for night-gowns all the year round."

To be obtained from the leading Drapers, or name of nearest sent on application to "Viyella" (B.A.), 55a, Friday Street, London, E.C.


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