Hundredweight (cwt.). 112 Pounds = 20 Hundredwts. = 1 Ton. A grain is the same in all weights. † Butcher's stone is 8 lbs. 4 Poles (100 lks.) Chns. (220 yds): 8 Furlongs 3 Miles 1151 Miles = 1 Inch 25 Milmtr.) = I Nail. = I Hand. = 1 Span. = 1 Foot (of a metre). Cubit. = = = Yard (36 inches). Rod, pole, or pch. 1 Chain (66 feet). 1 Mile (1760 yds.).* .....League. 1 Knt. or Nau. mle. 69 Miles(60Geog.) = 1 Degree. A military pace is 23 feet; an itinerary pace, 5 feet. The old Irish mile was 2,240 yards, and the Scotch 1,977 yards. The Admiralty knot is 6,c80 feet. I mile I kilometre. Square Measure. 144 Sq. Inches Square Foot. 9 Sq. Feet...I Square Yard. 30 Sq. Yards. Square Perch. 40 Perches... = 1 Rood. 4 Roods......=1 Acre (4,840 sq. yds.). 640 Acres......1 Square Mile. Land Measure. 62 7264 Sq. Inch... 625 Sq. Links 10,000 Sq. Links. 25,000 ΙΟ Square Link. 1 Rd., Pole, or Pch. Chain. do. = 1 Rood. Sq. Chains 1 Acre. Angular Measure. = 60 Seconds ("") 60 Minutes (') 30 Degrees (0) 90 Degrees... 360 Degrees..... Minute. = 1 Degree. = 1 Sign. = 1 Qudrnt. = Circle. Commercial Table. 12 Articles 1 dozen, or 13 a baker's dozen. 20 Articles = I score. 144 Articles I gross. Miscellaneous. Bread, quartern loaf 4 lbs. Butter, firkin of 56 lbs. ; barrel, 224 lbs. Corn, I bushel 8 gals.; 8 bush. I quarter. 14 APPLES and PEARS are put up in bushels, sieves, or half sieves, the sieve being equal to a bushel. ASPARAGUS.-A bundle contains from 50 to 150 heads. BROCCOLI.-A crate, according to size, or by tally, if loose. CABBAGES and LETTUCES.-A tally of five doz. CELERY.-A bundle, according to size, from 6 to 1o heads. CHERRIES, CURRANTS and GOOSEBERRIES.— Sieve equals about 48 lbs., half 24 lbs., quarter or peck about 12 lbs. GRAPES are put in 4-lb. to 12-lb. baskets. Spanish and Colonial in boxes at per box. GREENS.-A bunch as many as can be tied together by the roots. Thimbles Thumbs 16 lbs. = 12 1 1 =16 Plums 1 peck 12 lbs. 1 1 = 20 = 16 MUSHROOMS.-A punnet holds about 1 lb. PEACHES, NECTARINES, and APRICOTS.Baskets of 6 or 12 or 24. PEAS. A sieve is equal to one bushel, contains 10 imperial gallons, and is 174 inches in diameter at top and 11 inches deep. POTATOES, New, are generally put up into 2-lb. punnet baskets; Old, are sold by the bushel, sack, or ton. RÁDISHES.-A hand from 12 to 30 in number, according to the season. RHUBARB.-A bundle from 20 to 30 stems, according to size and season. STRAWBERRIES are sold in boxes of punnets of varying size, generally holding 1 lb.; handled baskets, 4 to 6 lbs. ; pecks, 10 to 12 lbs. TURNIPS. A bunch from 20 to 25. SIZES OF GARDEN FLOWER-POTS. Sixties (60's) 3 ... ... Forty-eights (48's) 44,, SEEDS TO SOW AN ACRE. The following is necessarily approximate, the quantity will vary according to the nature of the soil SEEDING POWER OF WEEDS. The following shows the number of seeds in a single plant of the various weeds named. This explains the rapid growth of weeds when allowed to go to seed. ROAD MEASURE OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES. LENGTH OF MILE IN ENGLISH YARDS. ARITHMETICAL ARITHMETICAL. Super Royal 274×201 | AND SCIENTIFIC An Aliquot Part is a number contained in a greater number an exact number of times; thus, is an aliquot part of 12, but not of 13. 4 A Digit is any figure under 10. An Integer is any number of one kind; as 5, or 5 cwt. A Common Measure is a number that will divide two or more numbers without a remainder; the greatest common measure is the greatest number that will do this. A Common Multiple of two or more numbers is any number that contains each of them an exact number of times, and the least common multiple is the least number that does this. The Square of a number is the product of that number multiplied by itself; thus 16 is the square of 4. The Cube of a number is the product of that number multiplied twice by itself; thus 27 is the cube of 3. The Square Root of a number is the number that, multiplied by itself, produces that number; thus 3 is the square root of 9. The Cube Root of a number is the number that, multiplied twice by itself, produces that number; thus 3 is the cube root of 27. SCIENTIFIC. An Angle is the inclination of two lines to each other. A Right Angle is formed by an upright and a perpendicular line thus L Imperial 30 X224 Dbl. Crown 30 X20 Dbl. Foolscap 27 X17 TERMS. An Acute Angle is formed by bringing the two lines closer together, as thus ; whilst in an obtuse angle the lines are extended apart The meeting point of the two lines is the Vertex. A Circle is a figure bounded by a line equidistant everywhere from the centre; this line is called the circumference. (See Diameter.) A Cone is a solid figure having a circular base and a pointed top. A Cube is a solid body having six equal sides at right angles to one another. The Diameter of a circle is a line passing through the centre from circumference to circumference. The half of a diameter is a radius. The diameter of a globe is one-third the circumference. An Ellipse is an oval or flattened circle. The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the sun in one of the foci. The distance from the point of intersection of the two axes to either of the foci is termed the eccentricity of the ellipse. A Parallelogram is a four-sided figure whose opposite sides are parallel and equal; its opposite angles are also equal in magnitude, and a straight line joining any two of them is called a diagona!. A Section or Sector is a part of a circle bounded by an arc and two radii. A Triangle is a figure having three equal sides. A Segment is a portion of a circle cut off by a line which is sometimes called the base of the segment, METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. The metric system is derived from a measurement of the earth, the metre being the ten-millionth part of a meridian line drawn from the pole to the equator, and is equal to 39 370113 inches. The metre-the standard of length-is represented by the distance marked in the Board of Trade Standards by two fine lines on an iridio-platinum standard bar, when at the temperature 0° Centigrade. It is the only unit of metric measure of extension from which all other metric measures of extension, whether linear, superficial, or solid, are ascertained. The kilogram-the standard of weight-is represented by the cylindrical iridio-platinum standard kilogram weight deposited with the Board of Trade. It is the only unit of metric weight from which all other metric weights, and all measures having reference to metric weight, are ascertained. The litre-the standard of capacity-is represented by the capacity at 0° Centigrade of the cylindrical brass measure deposited with the Board of Trade. This litre at 0° Centigrade, when full, contains one kilogram of distilled water at the temperature of 4° Centigrade, under an atmospheric pressure equal to that represented by a column of mercury 760 millimetres high at 0° Centigrade, at sea level, and at latitude 45°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum. It is the only unit of metric measure of capacity from which all other metric measures of capacity, as well for liquids as for dry goods, are ascertained. EQUIVALENTS OF IMPERIAL AND METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. WHAT THE LAW SAYS. A FEW USEFUL NOTES ON HOUSEHOLD AND COMMERCIAL LAW. LANDLORD AND TENANT. TAKING A HOUSE.-Houses may be hired by the week, month, quarter, or year; or they may be taken on an agreement for three years, or, if stamped as a lease, for longer periods. Agreements should be in writing, and must be stamped with an ad valorem stamp. Leases must be by deed properly drawn up and stamped. In the absence of any covenant, as is generally the case in tenancies from year to year, the tenant pays all rates and taxes, but is entitled afterwards to deduct from the next payment of rent whatever sum he has paid for land or property tax. In leases for terms of years, a clause dealing with repairs internal and external is usually inserted. A tenant from year to year is not bound to do any substantial repairs unless this is expressly agreed to, but must keep the place wind and weather-tight. A landlord is not, in the absence of an agreement to that effect, bound to do any repairs. If the premises are burned down or so injured by fire as to be uninhabitable, the tenant is still liable for payment of rent unless there is an express stipulation to the contrary in the agreement or lease; but the tenant can insure against such liability. A landlord is entitled to his rent as soon as due, but is not warranted in distraining until he or his agent has demanded it on the premises. The landlord of an unfurnished house is not necessarily responsible for its being in a fit state for habitation. In whatever state it is, if the tenant once takes possession or signs an agreement to do so, he is without redress, unless he has previously obtained a written agreement to put it in repair. The landlord of a furnished house or lodgings is, on the contrary, liable if these prove to be unfit for use or cumbered with any serious nuisance. TENANCY FROM YEAR TO YEAR.-This exists when both landlord and tenant are entitled to notice before the tenancy can be ended by either of them: this notice must be given at least half a year previous to the expiration of the current year of the holding, so that the tenancy may expire at that part of the year at which it commenced. A tenancy of this kind may arise out of a mere letting as an agreement to pay rent by the quarter or other aliquot part of a year. In the case of a tenancy in which the Agricultural Holdings Act, 1883, applies, twelve months' notice, expiring with the year of tenancy, is necessary if there is no other agreement, to the contrary. Under this statute a landlord may give a tenant from year to year notice to quit a part only of his premises if the notice is given with a view to use the land for any of the improvement purposes mentioned in the Act. In cases when a six months' notice is enough, the half year should consist of one hundred and eighty-three days, though it is doubtful whether one hundred and eighty-two days would not be sufficient notice, except where the tenancy begins on either of the usual days, Michaelmas or Lady-day. If a tenancy begins at the latter period, notice on the 29th of September to quit at Lady-day is good, but if the holding was entered on at Michaelmas, notice given on the 26th of March is not a legal notice. The notice should be given by the landlord or his agent either to the tenant in person or left at his house, when its nature and contents should be explained to his servant or some member of his family. A yearly tenancy generally expires on the same day of the year as it commenced, but if the tenancy begins between the usual quarter days, and the rent is paid for part of the quarter and thenceforward on the usual quarter days, the tenancy may, as regards the notice to quit, if so stated expressly in writing, be considered to have commenced on the quarter day next succeeding the day of entry. TENANT QUITTING WITHOUT NOTICE.-If a weekly, monthly, or other tenant leave premises rented by him without giving notice, a week's, month's or other period of rent is recoverable beyond the time the tenant actually occupied the premises; the rent is to be calculated from the day of payment which first occurs after the tenant has thus quitted his holding, but if the landlord let the premises to another tenant before the expiration of such time he cannot recover rent for any subsequent part of the time included in the original tenancy during which they remained unoccupied. LIABILITIES OF LODGING-HOUSE KEEPERS.These persons impliedly let apartments with all their proper accompaniments, and warrant to the tenant the use of all such accessional things as are necessary to cause the apartments to be engaged in the manner intended. The former impliedly grants the use of the door bell, the knocker, the skylights, or windows of the staircase, and the use of the water-closet, unless it be otherwise arranged at the time of the letting of the lodgings. If, in the absence of such an arrangement, the lodging-house keeper deprives his tenant of any of these conveniences he subjects himself to an action for a breach of contract. The lodging-house keeper who remains in possession of the house is bound to exercise all ordinary and reasonable care for the protection of the persons and property of his tenants and lodgers. He is not responsible for the safe keeping of the property of his lodgers, unless it has been delivered into his hand for safe keeping. If, after having taken ordinary care in appointing his servants, a lodger is robbed on account of the front door being incautiously left open by one of the servants sent out on an errand by the guest, the lodging-house keeper is not liable for the loss, nor is he answerable for the loss of articles stolen from the lodgers by his own servants or other lodgers. HOUSE AGENTS.-When several agents are instructed to sell or let a house, only the successful one is entitled to commission on the purchasemoney or rent, unless instructions have been given to the others to advertise the property or render some particular service in the manner entitling them by the custom of the trade to some remuneration for their work. MASTER AND SERVANT. The engagement of servants is often done in a very loose manner, and disputes not infrequently arise in consequence. At the time of engagement a clear understanding should be come to as to the method of terminating the contract. Wages, though reckoned by the year, are usually paid quarterly, monthly, or weekly; in all three cases a month's notice is commonly given when it is |