4 Gills* 2 Pints.... 3 I2 3 Feet 5 Feet WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Cubic Measure. i Minim (m) = 1 Drop. 1728 Cubic Inches = 1 Cubic Foot. i Dram = 1 Teaspoonful. 27 Cubic Feet =1 Cubic Yard (# of a 2 Drams ........ = 1 Dessertspoonful. Cubic Metre 4 Drams = 1 Tablespoonful. 40 Cubic Feet unhewn timber, or 50 60 Minims (m)... = i Dram, f 3. Feet Squared = 1 Ton or Load. 8 Drams = 1 Ounce, f 3. 108 Feet = 1 Stack. 20 Ounces... ..... = i Pint (nearly 4 litre'. 600 Sq. Feet i in. plank, 400 1# in., or 300 = i Pint (20 fi. oz.). 2 in. = 1 Load. = 1 Quart (170 litre). Measures of Length. 2 Quarts .......... = 1 Pottle. 12 Lines = 1 Inch 25146 Milmtr.) 4 Quarts = 1 Gallon (277'274 cub. in.). 2+ Inches I Nail. 2 Gallons =Peck. 3 Inches I Palm. 4 Pecks (8 gals.) = 1 Bushel (1'2837 cub. ft.). 4 Inches I Hand. 2 Bushels = 1 Strike. 9 Inches i Span. 3 Bushels = 1 Sack. Inches = 1 Foot (io of a metre). 4 Bushels =1 Coomb. 18 Inches ......... = I Cubit. 8 Bushels = 1 Quarter. = 1 Yard (36 inches). 12 Sacks = 1 Chaldron. = 1 Pace.t 5 Quarters = 1 Wey or Load (51'347 cub. 6 Feet = I Fathom. 10 Quarters = I Last. [ft.). st Yards (198 in.) = 1 Rod, pole, or pch. An Imperial Gallon of distilled water weighs 4 Poles (100 ks. = 1 Chain (66 feet). 10 lbs. Avoirdupois. 10 Chns. (220 yds) = 1 Furlong. • In the North of England half a pint is called a gill, 8 Furlongs ......= 1 Mile (1760 yds.).* and the true gill a "noggin.' 3 Miles ..= 1 League. A Sherry wineglass holds about 2 oz. ; a tea- 1'151 Miles .........= 1 Kni. or Nau, mle. cup 3 oz. ; a tumbler + a pint. 69. Miles 6oGeog.)= 1 Degree. † A military pace is 21 feet, an itinerary pace, Wine and Beer Measures. 5 feet. • The old Irish mile was 2,240 yards, and the Scotch 1,977, yards. The Admiralty knot is 9 Gallons = I Firkin. 6,080 feet. I mile 18 Gallons 110 kilometre. = 1 Kilderkin. 36 Gallons Square Measure. ...... = 1 Barrel. 42 Gallons ...... = I Tierce. 144 Sq. Inches =ı Square Foot, 54 Gallons ...... = 1 Hogshead. 9 Sq. Feet... =ı Square Yard. 72 Gallons ...... = 1 Puncheon. 304 Sq. Yards. = 1 Square Perch. Perches ...=1 Rood. 108 Gallons ..... = 1 Butt (Ale. 4. Roods...... = 1 Acre (4,840 sq. yds.). 252 Gallons .... =I Tun. Hogshead of wine = Half a pipe or butt (about 640 Acres ...... = 1 Square Mile. 26 dozen). Land Measure. Quarter cask do. = + pipe or butt (about 13 62-7264 Sq. Inch... = 1 Square Link. dozen). 625 Sq. Links = 1 Rd., Pole, or Pch. Octave do. = $of a pipe or butt. 10,000 Sq. Links. = 1 Chain. Port, pipe of...... = 115 gallons (57 dozen), 25,000 do. = 1 Rood. Sherry, butt of... = 108 gallons (52 dozen). Sq. Chains = 1 Acre. A Hogshead of beer = 54 galls.; brandy = Angular Measure. 60 galls. ; French wine = 43 to 46 galls. ; rum 60 Seconds ("') = 1 Minute. = 45 to 50 galls. ; sugar,=,13 to 16 cwt, 60 Minutes (') = 1 Degree. Avoirdupois Weight. 30 Degrees o = 1 Sign. 90 Degrees.. 16 Drams = 1 Ounce (437*5 grains).* = 1 Qudrnt. 360 Degrees... =1 Circle, 16 Ounces = 1 Pound (16.) (7000 grains,. 14 Pounds ...... = 1 Stone. Commercial Table. 28 Pounds ...... = I Quarter. 12 Articles = 1 dozen, or 13 a baker's 112 Pounds ...... = i Hundredweight (cwt.). dozen. 20 Hundredwts. = I Ton. 20 Articles = I score. • A grain is the same in all weights. | Butcher's stone 144 Articles = 1 gross. is 8 lbs. Troy Weight. Miscellaneous. (Seldom used except by assayers.) Bread, quartern loaf = 4 lbs. 3:17 Grains ...... = 1 Carat. Bricks, load of = 500. Butter, = i Pennyweight (dwt.) of = 56 lbs.; barrel, 224 lbs. 20 Pennyweights= 1 Ounce (480 grains). Coals, Sack, 2 cwts. ; Small do., I cwt, 12 Ounces = 1 Pound (5760 do.). Coke, Sack = 1 cwt. (about 3 bushels). 100 Pounds = 1 Hundredweight. Chaldron = 12 sacks (12 cwt.). Corn, i bushel = 8 gals.; 8 bush.=1 quarter. Glass, Seam of = 120 lbs. Hay, Old, load = 36 trusses (18 cwts.). truss = 56 lbs. Do. New, load=36 trses. (19 cwts.32 lbs.). 3 Scruples - 1 Dram, 3 (60 grains). 8 Drams ......... = 1 Ounce, z (480 grains). truss = 60 lbs. Hops,pocket of=it2 cwt.;bale abt. 3tcwt. 12 Ounces......... = 1 Pound, Ib. (5760 grains). Law papers, 90 words (Chancery),; or 80(Ex. Drugs are compounded by this weight. chequer) ; or 72 (Common Law) = 1 folio. Ιο 24 Grains Miscellaneous. Skins, a dicher is 10 skins, a last is 20 dichers Paper, quire = 24 sheets. Straw, load = 3€ trusses (I1 cwts. 46 lbs.). ream = 20 quires. truss of = 36 lbs. Parchment, roll of = 60 skins. Tea, chest of, Congou = 80 to 100 lbs. Potatoes, sack of = 168 lbs. Hyson = 60 to 80 lbs. Raisins, box of = 56 lbs.; barrel, 112 lbs. Timber, a load of unhewn, 40 cubic feet. Wool, a tod is 28 lbs. ...... 1 peck = 12 lbs. Beans 1 Potatoes 1 = 20 (French) 1 = 10 Onions = 16 Cherries 1 = 12 1 =18 رو ... ...14 Apples and Pears are put up in bushels, sieves, MUSHROOMS.-A punnet holds about 1 lb. or half sieves, the sieve being equal to a busiel. PEACHES, NECTARINES, and APRICOTS. ASPARAGUS.-A bundle contains from 50 to Baskets of 6 or 12 or 24. 150 heads. Peas. -A sieve is equal to one bushel, contains BROCCOLI.-A crate, according to size, or by 10+ imperial gallons, and is 174 inches in diameter tally, if loose. at top and 114 inches deep. CABBAGES and LETTUCES.-A tally of five doz. Potatoes, New, are generally put up into 2-lb. CARROTS.-A bunch from 36 to 40. punnet baskets; Old, are sold by the bushel, CELERY.-A bundle, according to size, from sack, or ton. 6 to 10 heads. RADISHES.-A hand from 12 to 30 in number, CHERRIES, CURRANTS and GOOSEBERRIES.- according to the season. Sieve equals about 48 lbs., half 24 lbs., quarter or RHUBARB.—A bundle from 20 to 30 stems, peck about 12 lbs. according to size and season. GRAPES are put in 4-1b. to 12-1b. baskets. STRAWBERRIES are sold in boxes of punnets of Spanish and Colonial in boxes at per box. varying size, generally holding 1 lb.; handled GREENS.-A bunch as many as can be tied baskets, 4 to 6 lbs.; pecks, 10 to 12 lbs. together by the roots. TURNIPS.--A bunch from 20 to 25. Diameter. Depth. Thimbles 2 in. 2 in. Thirty-twos (32's) 6 in. 6 in. Sixes (6's) 13 in, ...12 in. Thuinbs ......... 24 , ... 2+ , Twenty-f'rs (24's) 84 8 Fours (4's) 15 ...13 Sixties (60's) ...... 3 ... 34,, Sixteens (16's)... 9 9 Two's (a's) 18 Fifty-fours (54's) 4 4 Twelves (12's)... 114 ...10 Forty-eights (48's) 44 5 Eights (8's)....... 124 ...11 SEEDS TO SOW AN ACRE. The following is necessarily approximate, the quantity will vary according to the nature of the soil and other conditions: Barley, 3 bushels. Lawn Grass, 35 lbs. Rye Grass and Clover, i peck Beans, 2 bushels. Lucerne, 20 lbs Grass, with 14 lbs. Clover. Beet, 12 lbs. drilled, 15 lbs. Sanfoin, in husk, s bushels. Cabbage in drills, 6 lbs. Lupine, 3 bushels. milled, 56 lbs. Canary, 3 pecks. Mustard, 20 lbs. Sunflower, 8 lbs. Oats, 4 bushels. Swedes, 4 lbs. Tares, Spring, 2 to 24 bushels, Winter, 24 bushels. Trifolium, 24 lbs. Turnips, 3 to 4 lbs. Wheat, 2 bushels in drills, 4 lbs. Rye Grass, 3 bushels. SEEDING POWER OF WEEDS. The following shows the number of seeds in a single plant of the various weeds named. This explains the rapid growth of weeds when allowed to go to seed. Dandelion 2,040 Shepherd's Purse 4,500 Corn Sow-thistle .......... 19,000 Corn Cockle 2,592 Cow Parsnip 5,000 Burdock 24,520 Blackhead 3,000 Groundsel 6,500 Stinking Chamomile...... 40,650 Musk Thistle 3,750 Common Dock 13,000 50,000 Charlock .... 4,000 Oxeye Daisy 13,500 MANURES AND THEIR USE. Name. Suitable for Quantity per Acre. Bone dust Grasslands, turnips, and wurzel.. 14 bushels. Gypsum Clover., potatoes, grass 15 to 18 cwt. Nitrate of Soda (with Salt) 1 cwt. Peruvian Guano Crops of all kinds 11 to 3 cwt. Rape cake....................... 6 cwt. Salt Wurzel, grain, &c. 1 to 2 cwt. Soda Grain, potatoes, turnips 35 bushels. Sulphate of Ammonia (with Salt) ....... 1 to 2 cwt, Superphospbate of Lime Grain crops and turnips 3 to 5 cwt. Grain crops Grain crops Grain crops ROAD MEASURE OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES. LENGTH OF MILE IN ENGLISH YARDS. America (mile) 1760 France (Kilometre) 1094 Norway (mile) Austria (mile, post)...... 8297 Germany (Geogr.) 8101 Portugal mile Belgium Kilometre) 1094 (long 10,126 Russia (Verst) China (Li) 609 mile metric) 1640 Saxony post mile) Denmark (mile) 8238 Holland (legal mile) 1094 Scotland (old) England (Statute mile) 1760 India (Bengal mile). 2000 Spain (mile) Geogr.)... 2025 Ireland (old) 2240 Sweden (mile) France (old .nile 2132 Italy (mile) 2025 Switzerland (mile! 12,182 22:0 1167 7432 1977 1522 11,690 $384 ... 99 ...... a ARITHMETICAL AND ARITHMETICAL. An Aliquot Part is a number contained in a greater number an exact number of times; thus, 4 is an aliquot part of 12, but not of 13. A Digit is any figure under 10. An Integer is any number of one kind; as 5, or 5 cwt. A Common Measure is a number that will divide two or more numbers without a remainder ; the greatest common measure is the g eatest number that will do this. A Common Multiple of two or more numbers is any number that contains each of them an exact number of times, and the least common multiple is the least number that does this. The Square of a number is the product of that number multiplied by itself; thus 16 is the square of 4. The Cube of a number is the product of that number multiplied twice by itself; thus 27 is the cube of 3. The Square Root of a number is the number that, multiplied by itself, produces that number ; thus 3 is the square root of 9. The Cube Root of a number is the number that, multiplied twice by itself, produces that number; thus 3 is the cube root of 27. SCIENTIFIC. An Angle is the inclination of two lines to each other. A Right Angle is formed by an upright and a perpendicular line thus L SCIENTIFIC TERMS. An Acute Angle is formed by bringing the two lines closer together, as thus Z; whilst in an obtuse angle the lines are extended apart The meeting point of the two lines is the Vertex. A Circle is a figure bounded by a line equidistant everywhere from the centre; this line is called the circumference. (See Diameter.) A Cone is a solid figure having a circular base and a pointed top; A Cube is a solid body having six equal sides at right angles to one another. The Diameter of a circle is a line passing through the centre from circumference to circumference. The half of a diameter is a radius. The diameter of a globe is one-third the circumference. An Ellipse is an oval or flattened circle. The orbits of the planets are ellipses, with the sun in one of the foci. The distance from the point of intersection of the two axes to either of the foci is termed the eccentricity of the ellipse. A Parallelogram is a four-sided figure whose opposite sides are parallel and equal; its opposite angles are also equal in magnitude, and a straight line joining any two of them is called a diagona!. A Section or Sector is a part of a circle bounded by an arc and two radi. A Triangle is a figure having three equal sides, A Segment is a portion of a circle cut off by a line which is sometimes called the base of the segment. 0.62317 Xile. 1 Sq Metre (100 Sq.}={ 19:1960 Sq. Yards. METRIC SYSTEM OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. The metric system is derived from a measurement of the earth, the metre being the ten-millionth part of a meridian line drawn from the pole to the equator, and is equal to 39.370113 inches. The metre-the standard of length-is represented by the distance marked in the Board of Trade Standards by two fine lines on an iridio-platinum standard bar, when at the temperature 0° Centigrade. It is the only unit of metric measure of extension from which all other metric measures of extension, whether linear, superficial, or solid, are ascertained. The kilogram-the standard of weight-is represented by the cylindrical iridio-platinum standard kilogram weight deposited with the Board of Trade. It is the only unit of metric weight from which all other metric weights, and all measures having reference to metric weight, are ascertained. The litre-the standard of capacity-is represented by the capacity at 0° Centigrade of the cylindrical brass measure deposited with the Board of Trade. This litre at 0° Centigrade, when full, contains one kilogram of distilled water at the temperature of 4o Centigrade, under an atmospheric pressure equal to that represented by a column of mercury 760 millimetres high at 0° Centigrade, at sea level, and at latitude 45°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuuin. It is the only unit of metric measure of capacity from which all other metric measures of capacity, as well for liquids as for dry goods, are ascertained. EQUIVALENTS OF IMPERIAL AND METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Metric to Imperial. Imperial to Metric. Linear Measure. 25.400 Millimetres. 1 Millimetre (mm.) 0.03937 Inch. }= 1 Foot 0.30480 Metre. (106 m.) 1 Yard 0.914399 Metre. 1 Centimetre (ido m.) 0.3937 1 Fathom.... 1.8288 Metres. 1 Decimetre (io m.) 3.937 Inches. 5.0292 1 Metre (m.) 39.370113 Inches. 1 Chain 20.1168 1 Decametre (10 in.)... 10.936 Yards. 1 Furlong 201.168 1 Hectometre 100 m.) 109.36 1 Mile 1.6093 Kilometres. 1 Kilometre (1000 m.) Square Measure. 1 Sq. Inch 6.4516 Sq. Centimetres. 1 Sq. Foot 1 Sq. Centimetre 0.15500 Sq. Inch. 9.2903 Sq. Decimetres. 1 Sq. Yard 0.836126 Sq. Metre. 1 Sq. Decimetre (100) 15.500 Sq. Inches. 1 Perch Sq. Centimetres) 25.293 Sq. Metres. 10.117 Ares. 0.40468 Hectare. Decimetres) 1 Sq. Mile = 259.00 Hectares. 1 Are (100 Sq. Metres = 119.60 Cubic Measure. (100 or 1 Cubic Inch 16.387 Cubic Centimetre 1 10,000 Sq. Metres."}= 2.4711 Acres. 1 Cubic Foot ..... 0.028317 Cubic Metre. Cubic Measure. 1 Cubic Yard ...... = 0.764553 Cubic Metre. Measures of Capacity. 1 Cubic Centimetre U'1610 Cubic Inch. 1:42 Decilitres. 1 Cubic Decimetre 1 Pint 0.568 Litre. (c.d.) (1,000 Cubic 61.024 Cubic Inches. i Qu'ırt 1.136 Litres. Centimetres) 1 Gallon 4.5459631 Litres. 1 Cubic Metre (1,000 35.3148 Cubic Feet. 1 Peck 0}={ 9.092 Litres. Cubis Decimetres) 1.307954 Cubic Yds. 1 Bushel 3.637 Dekalitres. Measure of Capacity. 1 Quarter.... 2.909 Hectolitres. Apothecaries Measure. 1 Centilitre (iso Litre) 0.070 Gill. 1 Minim 0.059 Millilitre. i Decilitre (1) Litre)... 0.176 Pint. 1 Fluid Scruple 1.184 Millilitres. 1 Litre 1.75980 Pints. 3.552 1 Dekalitre (10 Litres) 2.200 Gallons. 1 Fluid Ounce 2.84123 Centilitres. 1 Hectolitre (100 Litres) = 2.75 Bushels. 1 Pint ... 0.568 Litre. 1 Gallon 4.5459631 Litres. Avoirdupois Weight. 0.0648 Gramme. 1 Mirigram (1000 Grm.)= 0.015 Grain. 1 Dram 1.772 Grammes. 1 Centigram (Grm.) 0.154 1 Ounce 28.350 1 Decigram (i Grm.) 1.543 Grains, 1 Pound 0:45359243 Kilograin. 1 Gramme (1 Grın.) 15.432 1 Stone.. 6.350 Kilograms. 1 Dekagram (10 Grm.) 5.644 Drams. 1 Quarter 12.70 1 Hectogram (100 Grm.)= 3.527 Oz. 50.80 1 Kilogram (1,000) 2. 2046223 Lb. 1 Hundred weight 0}={ ={ Grm.) 0·5080 Quintal. 15432.3564 Grains. 1.0160 Tonnes 1 Myriagram (10 Kilog.)= 22.046 Lb. 1 Ton 1016 Kilograms. Troy Weight. 0.0648 Gramme. 1.5552 Grammes. 1 Gramme (1 Grm.) 1 0.03215 Oz. Troy. 1 Troy Ounce...... = 31.1035 Apothecaries Weight. 0.0648 Gramme. 1.296 Grammes. 1 Gramme (1 Grm.) 0.7716 Scruple. 1 Drachm 3.888 10.432 Grains. 1 Ounce 31.1035 or Or . WHAT THE LAW SAYS. or some LANDLORD AND TENANT. TAKING A HOUSE.--Houses may be hired by at his house, when its nature and contents the week, month, quarter, or year; or they may should be explained to his servant be taken on an agreement for three years, or, if member of his fainily. A yearly tenancy genestamped as a lease, for longer periods. Agree- rally expires on the same day of the year as ments should be in writing, and must be stamped it commenced, but if the tenancy begins between with an ad valorem stamp: Leases must be by the usual quarter days, and the rent is paid for deed properly drawn up and stamped. part of the quarter and thenceforward on the In the absence of any covenant, as is generally usual arter days, the tenancy may, as regards the case in tenancies from year to year, the the notice to quit, if so stated expressly in writing, tenant pays all rates and taxes, but is entitled be considered to have commenced on the quarter afterwards to deduct from the next payment of day next succeeding the day of entry. rent whatever sum he has paid for land or pro- ÍENANT QUITTING WITHOUT Notice.-If a perty tax. weekly, monthly, or other tenant leave premises In leases for terms of years, a clause dealing rented by him without giving notice, a week's, with repairs internal and external is usually month's or other period of rent is recoverable inserted. A tenant from year to year is not beyond the time the tenant actually occupied bound to do any substantial repairs unless this the premises ; the rent is to be calculated from is expressly agreed to, but must keep the place the day of payment which first occurs after the wind and weather-tight. A landlord is not, in tenant has thus quitted his holding, but if the the absence of an agreement to that effect, bound landlord let the premises to another tenant before to do any repairs. the expiration of such time he cannot recover If the premises are burned down or so injured rent for any subsequent part of the time included by fire as to be uninhabitable, the tenant is still in the original tenancy during which they reliable for payment of rent unless there is an mained unoccupied. express stipulation to the contrary in the agree. LIABILITIES OF LODGING-HOUSE Keepers.-ment or lease; but the tenant can insure against These persons impliedly let apartments with such liability: all their proper accompaniments, and warrant to A landlord is entitled to his rent as soon as the tenant the use of all such accessional things due, but is not warranted in distraining until as are necessary to cause the apartments to be he or his agent has demanded it on the premises. engaged in the manner intended. The former The landlord of an unfurnished house is not impliedly grants the use of the door bell, the necessarily responsible for its being in a fit state knocker, the skylights, or windows of the stairfor habitation. In whatever state it is, if the case, and the use of the water-closet, unless it tenant once takes possession or signs an agree- be otherwise arranged at the time of the letting ment to do so, he is without redress, unless he of the lodgings. If, in the absence of such an has previously obtained a written agreement to arrangement, the lodging-house keeper deprives put house or lodgings is, on the contrary, liable if his tenant of any of these conveniences he sub jects himself to an action for a breach of conthese prove to be unfit for use or cumbered with tract. The lodging-house keeper who remains in any serious nuisance. possession of the house is bound to exercise all TENANCY FROM YEAR TO Year.---This exists ordinary and reasonable care for the protection when both landlord and tenant are entitled to of the persons and property of his tenants and notice before the tenancy can be ended by lodgers. He is not responsible for the safe keeping either of them: this notice must be given at of the property, of his lodgers, unless it has least half a year previous to the expiration of been delivered into his hand for safe keeping. the current year of the holding, so that the If, after having taken ordinary care in appointtenancy may expire at that part of the year at ing his servants, a lodger is robbed on account which it commenced. A tenancy of this kind of the front door being incautiously left open may arise out of a mere letting as an agreement by one of the servants sent out on an errand by to pay rent by the quarter or other aliquot part the guest, the lodging-house keeper is not liable of a year. In the case of a tenancy in which for the loss, nor is he answerable for the loss of the Agricultural Holdings Act, 1883, applies, articles stolen from the lodgers by his own twelve months' notice, expiring with the year servants or other lodgers. of tenancy, is necessary if there is no other HOUSE AGENTS. - When several agents are agreement, to the contrary. Under this statute instructed to sell or let a house, only the successa landlord may give a tenant from year to year ful one is entitled to commission on the purchasenotice to quit a part only of his premises if the money or rent, unless instructions have been notice is given with a view to use the land for given to the others to advertise the property or any of the improvement purposes mentioned in render some particular service in the manner the Act. In cases when a six months' notice entitling them by the custom of the trade to is enough, the half year should consist of one some remuneration for their work. hundred and eighty-three days, though it is doubtful whether one hundred and eighty-two MASTER AND SERVANT. days would not be sufficient notice, except where the tenancy begins on either of the usual days, The engagement of servants is often done in a Michaelmas or Lady-day. If a tenancy begins very loose manner, and disputes not infrequently at the latter period, notice on the 29th of Sep- arise in consequence. At the time of engagement tember to quit at Lady-day is good, but if the a clear understanding should be come to as to the holding was entered on at Michaelmas, notice method of terminating the contract. given on the 26th of March is not a legal notice. though reckoned by the year, are usually paid The notice should be given by the landlord or quarterly, monthly, or weekly; in all three cases his agent either to the tenant in person or ļeft a month's notice is commonly given when it is Wages, |