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The Cistercian Abbey of Fountains. This noble monument of antiquity was founded in 1132 on land granted by Archbishop Thurstan on the banks of the river Skell, in Yorkshire, and was occupied by Cistercian monks. The ruins are in the grounds of Studley Hall and are accessible from Ripon or Harrogate. The original building was de

KIRKSTALL ABBEY.

A noble ruin in the Norman style on the banks of the Aire, near Leeds, in Yorkshire, and adjoining Kirkstall Station on the Midland Railway. It was originally called Headingley, and was founded by Henry de Lacy in 1153 for the Cistercian brotherhood. A charter con

The Cistercian Abbey of Kirkstall.

The Cistercian

One of the most magnificent ecclesiastical ruins in Great Britain, covering a space of 500 feet by 300 feet in extent. The site is about two miles from Barrowin-Furness, and there is a station close by on the Barrow and Furness line. The abbey was founded in 1127 by Earl

stroyed by fire in 1146. The architec-
ture of the present abbey is in various
styles from Norman to Perpendicular.
The fine tower is a splendid example of
the latter style.
The establishment was
suppressed in 1540. Open daily from
7 to 5.

firming the gift of the site was granted to Archbishop Cranmer by Henry VIII.: the establishment was surrendered in 1540. The remains are almost as perfect as Fountains Abbey and are chiefly TransNorman.

Abbey of Furness.

Stephen of Blois. The architecture of the original buildings was Norman and early English, passing into other styles as additions and alterations followed. No charge is made for viewing the ruins, which are open daily.

The Premonstratensian Abbey of Dryburgh.

This was the first Scottish monastery of the Premonstratensians or White Monks, and was founded by Hugh de Moreville in 1150. (The first building occupied by this order was erected on a site adjacent in the sixth century.)

The ruins stand on an elevated position on the banks of the Tweed,' about six miles from Melrose. The general style is early English, but portions are Norman, especially the fine arch at the west end of the nave. Admission daily, IS. ; open on moonlight nights till

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DRYBURGH ABBEY.

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The Cistercian Abbey of Melrose. About thirty-seven miles from Edinburgh. The first abbey was a timber - built structure erected in the seventh century and destroyed in 839 : it was then called Mailros, New monastic buildings were commenced in 1136 by David! I., just two years before his death-the church was built ten years later.

The abbey was partly destroyed in 1322, but was restored in magnificent Gothic architecture a few years later and reduced to a state of ruin in 1559. The present remains are in the Decorated day, admission 6d, Open on moonlight style and are very beautiful. Open all nights till in p.m.

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MELROSE ABBEY.

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The Cistercian Abbey of Tintern. The ruins of this well-known abbey about nine miles from Monmouth and are in a beautiful spot on the river Wye five from Chepstow. This was the third

foundation of the Cistercian monks in England, and dates back to the year 1131, the founder being Walter de Clare. Here was imprisoned in 1656 Jeremy Taylor on şuspicion of being concerned in a Royalist plot; whilst the regicide, Henry Marten,

also confined here in 1687. The chief feattire of the abbey is the west front and window.

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cian Monks, and was suppressed by Henry VIII. in 1535.

The architecture is chiefly Gothic, with portions in Norman and early English. Admission 10 the ruins is free. The vicws of the various Abbeys are reproduced from photographs supplied by

Messrs. F. Frith & Co., Ltd., of Reigate.

WHITBY ABBEY.

Tbc Flugustinian Elbbey of Hewstead. This abbey is situate within the way. It affords a fine specimen of early borders of Sherwood Forest, the resort of English architecture, and is open on

Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and Fridays by ticket, to be obtained beforehand at the local hotels. The abbey was founded in 1170 by Henry II. for the black canons of St. Augustine, and at the dissolution became the posse-sion of Sir John (afterwards Lord) Byron, who spent large sums in

storing it. The Robin Hood, and about 14 miles, from abbey is closed at Easter and WbitNewstead Station on the Midland Rail- suntide.

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NEWSTEAD ABBEY.

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The Cistercian Abbey of Aetley. The site of these ruins---described by firmed by Royal Charter in 1251. It Horace Walpole as “ so beautifully tran- was in the carly English style of Gothic quil and yet so lovely”—is on the banks architecture, of which the present remains cf Southampton water, about three miles give fine examples. Neiley Abbey, is from that town. The abbey was founded open daily, except Thursday, admission by Peter Roche, Bishop of Winchester, 2d. ; Sundays Cd. in 1238, the grant of the site being con

The Cistercian Abbey of Waverley. This abbey, one of the earliest Cister- chester, but little of it now remains. It cian abbeys in England, is near Farn- is supposed that Sir Walter Scott's novel ham, in Surrey. It was founded in 1128 is named after this abbey. The early by William Gifford, Bishop of Win- | English crypt is shown in the engraving.

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This Church is Presbyterian in government, recognising the equal rights of all Presbyters. The supreme court, known as “The General Assembly,” meets annually in May, and is presided over by a

Moderator," who is elected at the first ineeting. Next to this Court in importance are the 16 Synods. These are composed of the members of the 84 Presbyteries. There are at the present time 1363 parish churches and about 100 mission churches. In each parish there is at least one minister, and in 18 parishes there are two. There are 10,172 elders and 656,112 communicants. The following are the principal officials of the General Assembly :

Moderator, Rt. Rev. James Mitchell, D.D. Procurator and Cashier, Sir John Cheyne,
Principal Clerk, Very Rev. Principal R. Q.C.
Herbert Story, D.D.

Agent, Wm. John Menzies, W.S.
Clerk Depute, Rev. James Mitchell, D.D.

Assistant Agent, Alan L. Menzies, W.S.

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EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF SCOTLAND.
The Episcopal Church of Scotland consists of seven Dioceses, and is in doctrine, worship and
discipline identical with the Church of England. The Representative Church Council, of which The
Primus is President, is recognised as the organ of the Church in matters of finance, and consists of the
Bishops, all instituted and licensed Presbyters, Diocesan Officials, and a Lay representative from each
Congregation. It meets annually in one of the principal towns. The following is a list of principal

DIOCESES OF THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH.
Aberdeen and Orkney.

Glasgow and Galloway.

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DIOCESE.

Founded :
Aberdeen, 1100.
Orkney, 1120.

Founded Glasgow, 1114. Galloway, 450.

Benefices 36.

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County

of Aberdeen, parts of Banff and Kincardine, and County of Orkney and Shetland.

Benefices 32.

DIOCESE

Counties of
Ayr, Dumbarton,

Dumfries,
Kirkcudbright,

Lanark,
Renfrew, and

Wigtown.

Clergy 48.

Clergy 76.

Income of Sec,

£600.

Income of See,

£58;.

BISHOP,
Hon. and Right Rev. ARTHUR G.
DUUGLAS, D.D., LL.D.

1883
[Bishop's Court, Aberdeen.)
Dean, Very Rev. William Walker, M.A., LL.D.
Chancellor, James Bruce, W.S.
Registreer, J. P. Cumine, M.A.
Sec. of Dioc. Council, James Taylor, S.S.L.
Inspector of Schools, Rev. James Petrie, Alford.
Synod Clerk, Rev. James Wiseman, M.Á.

BISHOP,
Right Rev. WILLIAM THOMAS
HARRISON, D.D.

1888
(25, Burnbank Gardens, Glasgow.]
Dean, Very Rev. James Watson Reid.

Chancellor, John A. Spens, 169, West George
Street.

Registrar, Fred. G. Mackillop, 128, St.
Vincent Street.
Sec. of Dioc. Council, Fred. G. Mackillop.
Inspector of Schools, Rev. W. Rollo.
Synod Clerk, Rev. Canon W. L. Low, M.A.,
D.D.

Argyll and the #sles.

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