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Woods and Forests, 1 & 2, Whitehall Place,

IRELAND. S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. 6:2,014. Commissioners, Irish Secretary's Office, Old Queen Street. E. Stafford Howard, C.B., J. F. F. Horner, each

S.W., and The Castle, Dublin. Hours, 10 to 5, $1,200. This Department administers woods,

£25,676. Lord Lieutenant, Earl Cadogan, K.G., forest, mines, etc. on the Crown lands.

£20,000 ; Chief Sec, to the L. L., Rt. Hon. Works and Public Buildings, Storey's

George Wyndham, M.P., £4,425; Under-Sec., Gate, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £56,450. First

Rt. #on. Sir David Harrel, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., Cominissioner, Rt. Hon. A. Akers-Douglas,

£2,000; Priv. Sec. to L. L., Lord Plunket, M.P., 62,000 ; Sec., Viscount Esher, K.C.V.O.,

C.V.0. The Lord Lieutenant represents the C.B., £1,500 ; Principal Clerks, J. Fitzgerald

Sovereign, and all business connected with Ireland and W. J. Downer, £600 to £800. The Com:

is transacted in this Department. missioners have control of Government Buildings Department of Agriculture and Techniand Royal Parks and Pleasure Gardens,

cal Instruction, 4, Upper Merrion Street,

Dublin. $140,806. Vice-President, Rt. Hon. H. SCOTLAND.

C. Plunkett, £1,350 ; Sec., T. P. Gill, £1,300.

This Department aids and develops agriculture, Secretary for Scotland's Office, Dover rural industries, and sea and inland fisheries ; and House, Whitchall, S.W., and Parliament Square, promotes Technical Instruction. It also adminisEdinburgh. £33,454. Sec., Lord Balfour of ters the Parliamentary grant for Science and Art Burleigh, K.T., £2,000 ; Under-Sec., Sir Colin in Ireland, and is the Central Authority under Scott-Moncrieff, K.C.M.G.,, C.S.I., 61,500. the Acts for the prevention of the spread of conBusiness connected with Scotland is transacted tagious diseases in animals. in this Office.

General Prisons Board. Chairman, J. S. Edącation Department, Dover House,

Gibbons, C.B., £1,200. Vice - Chairman, Whitehall, S.W. £1,363,881. Administration

J. Mulhall, £1,000. (including inspection), 258,871. Sec., Sir Henry

Local Government Board, Custom House, Craik, K.C.B., LL.D., £1,500 : Assist.-Secs.,

Dublin. £66,182. President, Chief Sec. to the J. Struthers, £ 900 to £1,200, and G. Todd, £650

Lord Lieutenant ; Vice-President, Sir Henry A. to £goo. Deals with all educational matters in

Robinson, K.C.B.; Sec., H. M. Swaine, £goo. Scotland in same way as the Board of Education

The Central Department in Ireland for poor law, does in England.

public health, and other local matters ;

local authorities are subject to its control, and Local Government Board, 125, George Street, must obtain its sanction to borrow money, make Edinburgh. Hours, 9.30 to 4.30; Saturday, 9.30 bye-laws, etc. to 1. £13,778. Pres., The Sec. for Scotland, Ntional Education, Tyrone House, Marlex officio ; Chairman, M. McNeill, C.B. ; Sec., borough Street, Dublin. tai, 300,771. Adminis. G. Falconar-Stewart. The central department tration, £ Resident Commr., W. J. M. for public health, poor law, and other local Starkey, Litt.D., £1,500; Senior Sec., Alexr. matters in Scotland ; local authorities are subject Hamilton, £1,000. Deals with all educational to its control, and must obtain its sanction to

matters in Ireland in same way as the Board of borrow money, make bye-laws, etc.

Education does in England. General Register House, Edinburgh. Public Works Board, Custom House,

Dublin. 433,473: Keeper of the Records and Reg:-Gen.,

£35,940. Chairnian, George V. C. Sir Stair Agnew, K.C.B., advocate, 61,200 ; Holmes, £1,500; Sec., H. Williams, £700. Deputy Keeper of the Records, M. Livingstone, Assist.-Sec., Geo. E. Shanahan, £,680. The 1600. The Registrar-General collects and issues Board has control of Government buildings and statistics of births, marriages, and deaths in royal parks in Ireland. Scotland, and arranges the decennial census.

Registrar- General's Office, Charlemont Office of Works, 3, Parliament Square, House, Dublin. £30,278. Regis.-Gen., Robert Edinburgh. Surveyor for Scotland, W. W. E. Matheson, B.L., £1,000; Sec. and Assist., Robertson; Clerk, G. W. Jupp. This depart.

Robert J. Brew, £600 to £800. Records of ment has control of government buildings and

births, marriages, and deaths are preserved and royal parks.

indexed here. The Reg.-Gen. issues statistics of

births, etc., and collects and compiles the emigraLaw Officials. Lord Justice Gen., Rt. tion Statistics of Ireland. He also reports on Hon. J. B. Balfour; Lord Justice Clerk, Rt.

the judicial statistics, and superintends the taking Hon. J. H. A. Macdonald, C.B.; Lord Advocate, of the decennial census. Rt. Bon. A. Graham Murray, K.C., M.P.,

Law Officials. Lord Chancellor, Rt. Hon. £5,000; Solicitor-Gen., C. S. Dickson, K.C., £22,000 ; Advocates Depute, C. K. Mackenzie,

Lord Ashbourne ; Master of the Rols, Rt. Hon.

Andrew M. Porter ; Vice-Chanc., Rt. Hon. H. E. J. A. Fleming, and A. L. M'Clure, £700 each; Crown Agent, W. J. Dundas, W.S., £1,300.

Chatterton; Lord Chief Justice, Rt. Hon. Lord

O'Brien; Lord Chief Baron, Rt. Hon. Chris. Other Scottish Officials. Hered. Grand Palles ; Attorney-Gen., Rt. Hon. J. Atkinson, Constable, Earl of Erroll; Lord Keeper of the K.C., M.P.; Solicitor - General, James Privy Seal, Earl of Leven and Melville ; H. M. Campbell, K.C. Lord Clerk Register, Duke of Montrose, Other I ish Officials. Assist.-Under-Sec. K.T.; Hered. Master of the Household, Duke and Clerk of Privy Council, James B. Dougherty, of Argyll. K.T., Hered. Standard Bearer, C.B.; State Steward, The Lord Lurgan; Earl of Lauderdale ; Herrlitary Keeper of Comptroller, The Lord Langford, K.C.V.o.; Holyrood Palace, Duke of Hamilton and Bran. Gentleman Usher, John Olphert; Chamber. don; Lord High Commis., The Earl of Leven lain, Lt.-Col. Sir Gerald R. Dease, C.V.O. ; and Melville;

Reg.-Gen. and Dep. Keeper of Ulster King of Arms, Sir A. Vicars, C.V.O., Great Seal, Sir Stair Agnew, K.C.B.; Dean F.S.A.; Dean of the Chapel, Very Rev. H. of the Thistle, J. Cameron Lees, D.D.; Com. H. Dickinson, D.D.; Com of the Forces, of the

Forces, Lt. - Gen. Archibald General H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught and Hunter, K.C.B.

Strathearn, K.G., K.T., K.P.

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HOW OUR LAW COURTS ARE ARRANGED.

* For Scotch and Irish Law Officials see page 105. House of Lords.-Lord High Chancellor, Earl made during the preliminary stages of an action of Halsbury, £6,000. Lords of Appeal in Ord., before trial) may be heard by two judges only. Lord Macnaghten, Lord Davęy, Lord Robertson, One day in each week is set apart by each Court Lord Lindley, each £6,000, and such Peers as for ex parte applications and interlocutory busihold or i have held high judicial office. This is ness generally. No appeal lies from any Court the highest and final appellate Court in the whatever simply on a question of costs. United Kingdom, and all appeals to the House High Court of Justice.-Chancery Division must be brought from the Courts of Appeal in Fudges.-The Lord Chancellor ; Sir A. KekeEngland and Ireland and the Court of Session in wich, Sir E. W. Byrne, Sir H. H. CozensScotland. Not less than 3 Lords of Appeal must Hardy, Sir Geo. Farwell, Sir H. Burton Buckley, be present at the hearing of any appeal. The and Sir M. I. Joyce, £5,000 each. decisions of the House are not technically judg- King's Bench Division Judges.-Lord Chief ments; each law Lord, in order of seniority, de- Justice, 68,000 (Lord Alverstone): Sir Alfred livers a speech expressing his opinion on the Wills, Sir W. Grantham, Sir J. C. Lawrance, particular case, and in the end the vote of the Sir R. S. Wright, Sir Gainsford Bruce, Sir majority decides whether an appeal is allowed or William R. Kennedy, Sir Edward Ridley, Sir whether the judgment of the Court below is to J. C. Bigham, Sir C. J. Darling, Sir A. M. stand. Should a decision of the House of Lords Channell, Sir W. G. F. Phillimore, Sir T. T. be generally considered to defeat the intention of Bucknill, and Sir Joseph Walton, £5,000 each. the Legislature, the only way to remedy it is by Bankruptcy. - Fudge, Hon. Mr. Justice fresh legislation on the point in question.

Wright. - Clerk to the Court, G. Falkner. Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is Senior Registrar, J. R. Brougham. Regiscomposed of the Lord Chancellor, Lord Presi- trars, H. S. Giffard, J. E. Linklater, H. J. Hope, dent, Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, and members H. J. Hood.---Chief Clerk, S. R. Stockton.of the Privy Council who hold or have held high Senior Official Receiver, E. L. Hough. judicial office, including Lord Hobhouse, Lord Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division.Ashbourne, Lord Field, Lord Shand, Lord James President, Rt. Hon. Sir F. Jeune, £5,000 ; Judge, of Hereford, Lord Kinnear, Lord Brampton, Lord Sir J. Gorell Barnes, £5,000.-Admiralty AdvoLindley, Sir R. Couch, Sir Ford North, Sir S. J. cate, Rt. Hon. Sir J. P. Deane, K.C., D.C.L. Way (S. Australia), Sir J. H. De Villiers (Cape of Admiralty Registrar, J. G. Smith,- Probate Good Hope), and Sir Hy. Strong (Canada). Registrars, D. H. Owen, R. A. Pritchard, the Registrar, E. S. Hope, C.B., 61,500, Chief Hon. J. C. Hannen, A. Musgrave. Clerk, Judicial Department, 'G. P. Wheeler, Masters of the Supreme Court. - Geo. Fred. £600. All appeals from the higher Courts of Pollock (King's Remembrancer), Marcus H. record of the Colonies and Dependencies and from Johnson, Joseph Kaye, Charles H. Walton, Lord India lie to the King in Council, who hears and Dunboyne, Jas. R. Mellor, John Macdonell, determines them through the Judicial Committee LL.D., Edw. Wilberforce, Wm. F. A. Archibald. of the Privy Council. Technically this Com- T. Willes Chitty, Hon. G. J. D. Coleridge, inittee has no executive authority, but is merely a Egerton C. B. Lawford, and W. H. Macnamara. deliberative body advising his Majesty in all cases Masters of the Supreme Court, Chancery which are brought before the Judicial Committee, Division.-J. W. Hawkins, E. W. Walker, W. whereupon an Order in Council is made carrying Binns Smith, C. Burney, E. L. A, Clarke, J. A out the recommendations of the Committee. Romer, W. O. Hewlett, J. C. Fox, R. J. Villiers, Appeals from the Ecclesiastical Courts also go Spencer Whitehead, S. A. M. Satoy, and R. to this Court, which is usually assisted by eccle- White. Official Referees.-H. M. Verey, G, W. siastical assessors.

The two Archbishops are Hemming, K.C., E. J, Pollock, £1,500 each. ex officio assessors, the other assessors being the The High Court of Justice is divided into three Bishops, who attend according to a rota.

main divisions-(I) Chancery, (2) King's Bench, Supreme Court of Judicature.-Court of Appeal. and (3) Probate, Divorce,and Admiralty Divisions. -Ex-officio Judges.--The Lord Chancellor, ex- Each Division tries causes specially assigned to Lord Chancellors, the Lord Chief Justice, the it, but all the divisions have co-ordinate jurisdiction. President of the Probate Division.-Ordinary The Chancery Division. The judges are Judges-Master of the Rolls, Sir Richard Henn grouped in three pairs for the more convenient Collins, £6,000. Lords Justices, Sir John Rigby, and expeditious disposal of the business, one of Sir R. Vaughan Williams, Sir Robert Romer, each pair sitting continuously for the trial of G.C.B., Sir James Stirling, and Sir J. C. Mathew, witness actions on which final judgments are proeach £5.000.

nounced, the other dealing with all interlocutory This Court usually sits in two divisions, the one matters preliminary, to the final trial and with the Chancery Court of Appeal and the other the all non-witness actions, and with all applicaKing's Bench Court of Appeal. The former tions which are made privately in the Judge's deals, with all appeals from the Chancery Courts Chambers and not in open Court. Each term Probate and Divorce Courts, the Palatine Courts the judges in each pair change about, the one of Lancaster and Durham, and appeals in bank- who had last taken non-witness work taking ruptcy. The latter hears all appeals from the the witness actions for the next term, and was King's Bench or common law Courts, Admiralty versâ. Specially assigned to this division are the Court, County, Courts, election appeals. All administration of the estates of deceased persons : final appeals-i.l., appeals in cases where a final the dissolution of partnerships or taking of par:judgment or order has been made by the Court nership or other accounts; redemption or for below-must be heard by at least three judges, closure of mortgages ; raising of portions or other unless the parties consent to the hearing of an charges on land : sale and distribution of procceco appeal by two judges only (62 & 63 Vict. c. 6). of property subject to any lien or charge; execoAlthough this statute has been in force for nearly tion of trusts; rectification or cancellation of three years, very few litigants have availed them. deeds; specific performance of contracts of sale selves of its provisions. Interlocutory appeals of real estates, including contracts for lease: (on questions of procedure,&c., and interim orders partition or sale of real estates; wardship of

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infanis and care of their estátes. Although there The judges of this division constitute yet is jurisdiction for a judge of this division to sit another Court, the Court for Crown Cases Rewith a jury, such a proceeding is practically un served. This is presided over by the Lord Chief known. If the services of a jury are required Justice, and is composed of at least five judges, the case is usually transferred, for trial only, to including the Lord Chief Justice. This Court the King s Bench Division. In all ordinary cases usually sits on a Saturday morning, and disposes the judge is judge both of fact and of law. When of any points of law which have been raised in a writ is issued in the Chancery Division the the prosecution or defence of any prisoner in any cause is at once assigned for all purposes to one criminal court in the land. These points are of the judges of that division.

reserved by the presiding judge for the consideraThe King's Bench Division.-The President tion of the Court for Crown Cases Reserved. of the Division is the Lord Chief Justice. Ordi- Space does not admit of an account of the narily in civil cases the judges of this division many other commissions and enquiries over which (when sitting as judges of first instance) sit either His Majesty's judges are periodically called upon alone or with a special or common jury. In to preside, and other duties to perform in all parts former days trial by jury was the more popular,

of the empire. but now every year the proportion of non-jury Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division,

increases. All actions arising out of Two judges are assigned to this division, the contract, other than those specially assigned senior of them being the President. Although to the Chancery Division, or tort are tried there are only two judges for this division, for all here, and a general rule (the exception practical purposes it constitutes three separate being, when many of the judges are away on and independent divisions of the High Court. circuit), six or eight courts, sit daily for the The Probate Division grants probate of all wills, disposal of this class of business. In addition and administration to the estates of deceased to the above one judge sits daily in Chambers for in testates, and decides as to the validity of disthe disposal of interlocutory matters before trial. puted wills. On the Divorce side all matrimonial He disposes of summonses taken out in an action causes are tried, including petitions for divorce, for the delivery of, and for further and better nullity of marriage, judicial separation, and resanswers to, interrogatories; for directions as to titution of conjugal rights, The Admiralty Diviprocedure; for delivery of particulars as to any sion deals with all questions relating to collisions part of the claim or defence, and other matters. of ships, salvage services and the like, but actions He also has jurisdiction to grant interim injunc- on charter-parties and for freight are usually tried tions, To this division has been transferred the in the Commercial Court of the King's Bench jurisdiction in bankruptcy, one judge being Division. The judge, when trying Admiralty appointed to deal with all the work in that cases, frequently sits with nautical assessors, who department.

are Elder Brethren of the Trinity House. Some few years ago it was thought advisable to County Courts.-England and Wales are divided appoint one judge to devote the whole of his time into 54 circuits, each presided over by a judge, to the trial of commercial cases, and for this who must be a barrister of at least 7 years' standpurpose the Commercial Court was established. ing. Each circuit contains a district, at speThis Court has been a great success, as all purely cified towns or places in which a court must be commercial cases are tried here, and a speedy held generally at least once a month (except Septrial is ensured after the pleadings are closed, tember), but at some places a court need only be unless indeed the judge orders the case to be set held once every two months. Outside the medown for trial without pleadings on the hearing tropolis at least one court on each circuit has of the summons for directions. A day for trial is jurisdiction in bankruptcy, and some few have always fixed, so that all parties concerned know also jurisdiction in Admiralty. exactly when their attendance at the Law Courts The general jurisdiction extends to all personal will be necessary.

actions, where the debt, demand, or damage Divisional Courts (constituted of two or more claimed is not more than £50, and to actions of judges at the discretion of the President) are ejectment, where neither the value nor the rent formed for the purpose of disposing of cases on exceeds £50, provided that the defendant or his the Crown or revenue side of the King's Bench landlord may, within one month from the day of Division, appeals from revising barristers, official service of the summons, apply to a judge of the referees, proceedings on election petitions, cases High Court at Chambers for a summons to the stated by the Railway Commissioners, cases of plaintiff to show cause why such action should habeas corpus, special cases by agreement be- not be tried in the High Court on the ground tween the parties, and appeals from Chambers in that the title to lands or hereditaments of greater the King's Bench Division, except in matters of annual value than £50 would be affected by the practice and procedure, which go direct to the decision in such action. Court of Appeal. When all the judges are in The Court in its equitable jurisdiction can town, there are usually at least two or three exercise all the

powers and authority of Divisional Courts sitting daily.

the High ourt in the following matters Every year a rota of judges is appointed for where the amount does not exceed £500:the trial of election petitions during the year. 1. Actions by creditors, legatees (whether spe

Another duty thrown upon the judges of this cific, pecuniary or residuary), devisees (whether division is that of commissioners of assize, oyer in trust or otherwise), heirs-at-law, or next-ofand terminer and general gaol delivery. Various kin. 2. For the execution of trusts. towns throughout the kingdom are constituted foreclosure or redemption, or for enforcing any assize towns, and these are visited three times a charge or lien. 4. For specific performance of, or year by one or more judges of the High Court. for the reforming, delivering up, or cancelling of It is the duty of the judge to try all prisoners who any agreement for the sale, purchase, or lease of are in gaol awaiting trial, and so make delivery any property. 5. Under any of the Trustees of the gaol. At all aşsize towns civil as well as Relief Acts or the Trustee Acts. 6. Relating to criminal business is taken twice a year, and at the maintenance or advancement of infants. 7. some of the larger centres, such as Liverpool and

For the dissolution or winding up of any partner-' Manchester, civil business is taken at every assize. ship. 8. Actions for relief against fraud or

3. For

tion

mistake. Transfer is to be made to the Chancery separate courts of quarter sessions, called borough Division of any action exceeding the jurisdiction sessions, of their own. The justices of the of the Court.

boroughs sit in these courts, and their jurisdiction There are two modes of procedure for the re- in their own boroughs is much the same as that covery of small debts : 1. The ordinary summons. of the county justices in the counties. The 2. The default summons.

If the debtor can be Borough Sessions Court is presided over by a easily served in person the default summons is barrister, called the Recorder, who is paid for his the better of the two, because redress--or at least services by the borough; he is supreme in his a hearing of the claim-where notice of defence own Court, and if he likes can ignore the wishes has been given, is much more promptly secured and recommendations of the justices who may be than under an ordinary summons.

sitting on the bench with him. The ordinary summons, though rather easier to The duties and functions of justices sitting in obtain, takes nearly a month before the case comes petty sessions, Metropolitan Police Magistrates, on for hearing.

and Stipendiary Magistrates require no special Should the plaintiff not succeed in obtaining explanation here. payment after judgment has been given in his Ecclesiastical Courts.-Are of three kinds :favour on either class of summons, then “execu- (1) The Courts of the Primates, or Provincial

may be levied against defendant's goods. Courts. (2) Diocesan Courts. (3) Archdeacons' Should plaintiff be unsuccessful in the execu- Courts. The Provincial Courts in Canterbury tion then application should be made to the are the Court of Arches (the Sanctuary, West. Court for a judgment summons." When ob- minster) and the Court of Peculiars (now almost taining such a summons the judge must be satis- obsolete), and in York the Chancery Court. They fied that defendant has really the means to pay are quite independent of each other, and appeals the amount claimed, and this is not always easy from them lie to the Privy Council. The Court to prove. If, however, such an order is made, of Arches, presided over by the Hon. Sir Arthur and still payment cannot be obtained, the final Charles, the Official Principal, or Dean of Arches, step is to apply to the judge for an order of has an appellate jurisdiction from the Diocesan committal to prison. Committal does not exone- Courts and from most of the Courts of Peculiars rate from the debt.

within the Province of Canterbury; it also takes Central Criminal Court.-This Court takes the cognisance of certain causes which properly place of an Assize Court for the City and County belong to the inferior courts, the jurisdiction of London, the County of Middlesex, and parts being waived by letters of request from such of the counties of Surrey, Essex, and Kent. courts. The judges of the Court are the Lord Mayor, The Chancery Court in York corresponds to Lord Chancellor, judges of the High Court of the Court of Arches in Canterbury, and is the Justice, judge of the Bankruptcy Court, judge of general court of appeal for the Diocesan Courts the Admiralty, Dean of the Arches, aldermen of of the Province. The Judge of the court is the London, past Lord Chancellors or judges, Sir For- Hon. Sir Arthur Charles, who is called the rest Fulton, K.C. (Recorder), F. A. Bosanquet, K.C. Official Principal, or Auditor." Since the Public (Common Serjeant), and R. M. Kerr (judge of the Worship Regulation Act, 1874, the two ArchSheriffs' Court). Sessions are held every month bishops have appointed one and the same Judge for the trial of prisoners, and usually three courts to preside over each of the Provincial Courts. sit, presided over by a judge of the High Court, Diocesan or Consistory Courts have cognisance the Recorder and the Common Serjeant. Capital of all matters which arise locally within their charges are always tried by the judge, though own limits, and administer generally all branches the presidents of the other courts have jurisdic- of Ecclesiastical Law. The Judge is the Bishop's tion to try such cases. There is jurisdiction, Chancellor or his Commissary. Appeals from though it is not often exercised, to send a prisoner these courts lie to the Archbishops' Provincial for trial to the Central Criminal Court from any Courts. assize town.

The Archdeacons' Court is subordinate to the Courts of Quarter Sessions are held quarterly Bishops' Court, to which appeals.lie. The Judge in every county or division of a county having is appointed by the Archdeacon and is called his Quarter Sessions. The judges of these courts are

" Official.” the justices of the peace for the county or divi- By the provisions of the Clergy Discipline Act, sion. The principal work which falls to their lot 1892, if a clergyman holding preferment is conis the trial of prisoners who have been committed victed of any of the offences enumerated in the for trial by the justices in petty sessions. All

Act, then his preferment is, without any further minor offences are triable at sessions, but murder trial, to be declared vacant by the Bishop within cases, felonies and assaults on women or children 21 days. Before the passing of that Act a trial must be sent to the assizes for trial. Although would have been necessary in

one of the all the justices who are sitting have an equal Ecclesiastical Courts. voice in every sentence or decision, in practice the Ecclesiastical Court Officials:--ARCHES Court: chairman only takes any part in the proceedings. Registrar, F. H. Lee; Clerk, Kenneth Munro. He charges the jury and sentences the prisoners if -Faculty CourT, 22, Knightrider Street, E.C. : convicted. Apart from their criminal jurisdiction Registrar, W. P. Moore; Clerk, B. B. Bull.Courts of Quarter Sessions have a certain appel- Vicar-General's Office, 3, Creed Lane, E.C. : late jurisdiction. Appeals from sentences or de- Vicar-General, Sir James Deane, K.C., D.C.L. ; cisions by justices in petty sessions are heard by Registrar, Harry W. Lee ; Apparitor-General, quarter sessions, also bastardy appeals and rating Arthur Ryder ; Chief Clerk, T. G. Ryder.appeals. They have also an original jurisdiction DEAN AND CHAPTER OF St. Paul's Court, as the county authority for making orders to close 68, St. Paul's Churchyard, E.C.: Commissary, or divert roads or footpaths in the county. Much Arthur Milman; Chapter Clerk, H. W. Lee; of the jurisdiction which the courts formerly held Receiver, G. Murray.-BISHOP OF LONDON'S was taken away from them by the Local Govern- CONSISTORY Court, Dean's Court, Doctor's ment Act, 1888, and vested in the county councils. Commons, E.C. : Chancellor, T. H. Tristram, In addition to the county sessions there are many K.C., D.C.L.; Registrar, H. W. Lee; Apparitor, boroughs throughout the country which have

Arthur Ryder.

ENGLAND AND WALES.

ABBREVIATIONS.-L. L.-Lord Lieutenant; Q. S., Quarter Sessions; C., Chairman; V.-C., ViceChairman; C. of P., Clerk of the Peace; C. T., County Treasurer; Cf. C., Chief Constable; C. C., County Council; D.,Deputy; C.Cor., County Coroner; C.S.,County Surveyor; C.A., County Analyst. Con. C., Convener of County; V. Con., Vice-Convener of County; Sh., Sheriff; C. of P., Clerk of the Peace; Co. Cl., County Clerk, Cf. C., Chief Constable; C. C. F., County Court Judge; C. of C., Clerk of the Crown; C. S., Crown Solicitor.

Walter B. C. Jones, Criccieth. Cf. C., Lt.-Col, Ruck, Carnarvon. C. S., Evan Evans. C. C., 64 members. C., Robert Hughes.

*Except where otherwise stated the Clerk of the Peace is also Clerk of the County Council. Anglesey.-Pop., 50,590. Acres, 175,836 L. L., Sir Richard Williams Bulkeley. Q. S., alt. Beaumaris, Holyhead and Llangefni. C., Şir Richard H. Williams Bulkeley, Bart. C. of P., John Lloyd Griffith, Holyhead. C. T., Evan M. Roberts. Cf. C., Lewis Prothero, C.C.,* 30 members. C., R. R. Jones.

Bedfordshire.-Pop., 171,249. Acres, 298,494. L. L., Earl Cowper, K.G. Q. S., Bedford. C., Lord St. John. C. of P., Wm. W. Marks, Bedford. C. T., Thos. Barnard, Cople. Cf. C., Lt. Col. F. J. Josselyn, Bedford. C. C., 68 members. C., Duke of Bedford.

Berkshire.-Pop., 254,931. Acres, 455,453. L. L., James Herbert Benyon. 2. S., Reading. W. G. Mount, M.P., A. R. Tull. C. of P., John Thornhill Morland, Reading. D. C. of P., F. Morland, Reading, C. T., Henry Collins, Reading. Cf. C., Col. Adam Blandy, Reading. C.Cors., B. Challenor (Abingdon), J. C. Pinniger (Newbury), L. Jotcham (Wantage), W. Weedon (Reading). C. C., 68 members. C., W. G. Mount.

Brecon.-Pop., 59,906. Acres, 454,536. L. L., Sir J. R. Bailey, Bt. Q. S., Brecon. C., Sir J. R. Bailey, Bt. C. of P., H. E. Thomas, Brecon. C.T., John Tudor, Brecon. Cf. C., E. R. Gwynne, Llanthetty Hall, near Brecon. C. C., 60 members. C., Charles Evan Thomas. Buckinghamshire.-Pop., 195,534. Acres, 478,691. L. L., Lord Rothschild. Q. S., Aylesbury. C., Lord Cottesloe. C. of Second Ct., C. A. Cripps, K.C., M.P. C. of P., William Crouch, Aylesbury. C. T., C. E. Cobb, Bucks and Oxon Union Bank, Aylesbury. Cf. C., Major Otway Mayne, Aylesbury. C. C., 68 members. C., Rt. Hon. Lord Cottesloe.

Cambridgeshire.-Pop., 190,687. Acres, 315,236. L. L., A. Peckover. C. of Q.S., Edward S. Fordham, LL.M. C. of P., S. R. Ginn, St. Andrews St., Cambridge, D. C. of P., Arthur Wright, LL.M., Cambridge. C. T., E. H. Parker, Cambridge. C. S., W. M. Fawcett, Cambridge. Cf. C., Charles Stretten, Cambridge. C. Cor., Algernon J. Lyon, Cambridge. C. C., 63 members. C., Robert Stephenson.

Do.-Isle of Ely.-Pop., 64,494. Wisbech, Ely. C. of Q. S., Sir T. G. Fardell. C. of P. and C. C., E. H. Jackson, Wisbech. T., F. M. Bland, Wisbech. Cf. C., Col. W. Browne Ferris, Ely. C. S., H. F. Simpson, Wisbech. C. C., 56 members. C., Joseph Martin.

Cardigan.-Pop., 60,237. Acres, 443,071. L. L., H.D. Evans. Q. S., Lampeter. C. of Q.S., J. W. Willis Bund. C. of P., Henry C. Fryer, Aberystwyth. D. C. of P., F. R. Roberts, Aberystwyth. C. T., Joseph Denston Perrott, Aberystwyth. Cf. C., Howell Evans, Aberystwyth. C. C., 64 members. C., M. L. V. Davies, M.P.

Carmarthen.-Pop., 135,325. Acres, 541,25).
L. L., Sir James Drummond. Q.S., Carmarthen.
C., Lord Cawdor. V.-C., Arthur Lewis. C. of
P. and C. C.,
Rec.

for G. of B. of Carmarthen, Arthur Lewis. C. of
P., James John Eyre, Carmarthen. C. T., R.
Peel Price, Llandovery. Cf.C., William Philipps,
Llandilo. C. C., 90 members. C., Lord Cawdor.

Carnarvon.-Pop., 126,835. Acres, 360,138.
L. L., John E. Greaves. Q. S., Carnarvon. C.,
J. E. Greaves. C. of P., J. H. Bodvel-Roberts,

Cheshire.-Pop., 814,555. Acres, 633,101. L. L., The Earl Egerton of Tatton, Q.S.,Chester, Knutsford. C., His Honour Sir Horatio Lloyd. C. of P., Reginald Potts, Chester. C. T., James R. Thomson, Chester. Cf. C., Lt.-Col. Hamersley, Chester. C. Acct., James Williams, Chester. C. S., S. Bull, Chester. C. C., 78 members. C., Col. George Dixon. V.-C., T. W. Killick.

Cornwall.-Pop., 322,957. Acres, 863,665. L. L., Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe. Q. S., Bodmin. C., W. C. Pendarves, F. Buller Howell. C. of P., C. L. Cowlard, Bodmin. C. T., Consolidated Bank of Cornwall. Cf. C., R. M. Hill, Bodmin. C. C., 88 members. C., Earl of Mount-Edg

cumbe.

THE DUCHY.-Office, Buckingham-gate, S.W. L. Wdn. of Stannaries, Earl of Ducie.K. of P., Seal, Earl of Leicester, K.G. Rec. Gen., Col. Sir R. N. F. Kingscote, K.C.B. At.-Gen., C. A. Cripps, K.C., M.P. Aud., L. C. Probyn. Kp. of Rec., M. Holzmann, C.B. Min. Insp.,T. Forster Brown. Solr., T. B. Heathcote. Lnd. Std., Mr. Webster. Asst. Sec., J. C. Pearce.

PRINCE OF WALES' COUNCIL.-Rt. Hon. Earl of Ducie; Earl of Leicester, K.G.; Rt. Hon. Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe; Rt. Hon. Earl Spencer, K.G.; C. A. Cripps, K.C., M.P.; Col. Sir Nigel Kingscote, K.C.B.; General Sir Dighton M. Probyn, G.C.V.O., K C.B., K.C.S.I., V.C.; Sir W. G. Anderson, K.C.B.; M. Holzmann, C.B. Sec., M. Holzmann.

Cumberland.-Pop., 266,921. Acres, 970,161. L. L., Lord Muncaster. Q. S., Carlisle. C., J. W. Lowther, M.P. C.of P. and C. C., C. B. Hodgson, Carlisle. C. T., T. Godding, Cumberland Union Banking Co., Limited. Cf. C., Sir John Dunne, K.B.D.L., Carlisle. C. Š., G. J. Bell, Carlisle. C. C., 89 members. C., H. C. Howard.

Denbighshire.-Pop., 129,935. Acres, 425,038. L. L., Col. Cornwallis West. Q. S., Ruthin, Denbigh, Wrexham. C., B. T. Griffith Boscawen. D. C., Col. Mesham. C. of P., W. R. Evans, Ruthin and Wrexham. T., Marcell Conran, Bron Dyffryn, Denbigh. Cf. C., Major Leadbetter, County Buildings, Wrexham. S., R. Ll. Williams, Denbigh. C. C., 64 members. C. C., O. Isgood Jones.

Derbyshire.-Pop., 620, 196. Acres, 654,100. L. L., Duke of Devonshire, K.G. Q. S., Derby. C., Tonman Mosley. C. of P., N. J. HughesHallett, Derby. C. T., J. F. Thirlby, The Bank, Irongate, Derby. C. S., J. S. Story. Cf. C., Captn. H. C. Holland, Derby. C. C., 80 members. C., G. H. Strutt, J.P.

Devonshire.-Pop., 660,444. Acres, 1,666,579. L. L., Lord Clinton. Q. S., Exeter. C., Lord Ebrington, Lord Coleridge, Q.C., Joseph Graham, Q.C. C. of P., H. Michelmore, The Castle, Exeter. C. T., Nat. Prov. Bk., Ld., Exeter. Cf. C., F. R. C. Coleridge, Exeter. C. C., 104 members. C., Viscount Ebrington. V.-C., The Earl of Morley.

Dorsetshire.-Pop., 202,962. Acres, 632,272. L. L., Earl of Ilchester. Q. S., Dorchester. C., H. B. Middleton. D. C., J. R. P. Goedden. C. of P. and C. C., E. Archdall Ffooks, Sherhorne. C. T., John Lush, Dorchester. C. S., W. J. Fletcher. Cf. C., Captain Granville, Dor

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