Showing Office, Address, Duties, Cost to the Nation, and Principal Officials.

Admiralty, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £267,100. First Lord, the Earl of Selborne, £4,550; Parly, and Financial Sec., H. O. ArnoldForster, M.P., £2,000; Permanent Sec., Sir Evan Macgregor, K.C.B., £2,000. The First Lord is head of the Navy and medium of communication with the Cabinet. The Senior Naval Lord is the chief adviser of the First Lord, and is responsible generally for the condition of the fleet.

Agriculture, Board of, 4, Whitehall Place,


3, St. James's Square, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. 110,194. Pres., Rt. Hon. R. W. Hanbury, M.P., £2,000; Sec., T. H. Elliott, C.B., £1,500. The Board regulates the importation of animals into Great Britain, takes measures to suppress contagious diseases amongst animals; collects and issues agricultural and produce returns; supervises the regulation and inclosure of commons, and regulates the reapportionment and redemption of tithe rent charge; and edits a quarterly journal of information, and issues free leaflets on agricultural subjects. The following have been issued during the past year:-"The Pear and Cherry Sawfly," "Destruction of Charlock," White Root Rot," "The Small Ermine Moths," "Workmen's Compensation Act, 1900."


Army Purchase Commission. 7, Victoria Street, S.W. Commissioner, Sir J. C. O'Dowd, C.B. (unp.).

Charity Commission, Gwydyr House, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £36,650. Chief Commr., C. H. Alderson, C.B., £1,800; Commissioners, Sir George Young, £1,300; D. R. Fearon, C.B., £1,300; A. Griffith-Boscawen, M.P. (unpd.). Sec., R. Durnford, £1,000. The Commissioners are empowered to enquire into and examine any charity in England and Wales, into the value and condition of its estates and the application of the income, &c.; numerous bodies, however, are excepted.


Civil Service Commission, 68, Victoria Street, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £44,625. Commissioners, W. J. Courthope, C.B., £1,500; Lord Francis Hervey, £1,200. Sec. and Registrar, J. S. Lockhart,£900. The Commissioners control examinations for the civil, military, and naval services. Colonial Office, Downing Street, Hours, 11 to 6. £58,500. Sec. of State, Rt. Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., £5,000. Under Secs.-Permanent, Sir Montagu F. Ommanney, K.C.M.G., £2,000; Parly., Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., £1,500. The Sec. of State exercises the authority of the Crown in Crown Colonies, and Protectorates more especially, the enactments of whose legislatures come before him for approval" or disallowance; he appoints governors, and organises the government of new colonies. Treaties and questions of extradition are referred to him by self-governing colonies.

Customs, Customs House, E.C. Hours, 10 to 5. £838,500. Chairman, G. L. Ryder, C.B., £2,000; Deputy Chairman, J. A. Kempe, C.B., 1,500; Commissioner, T. J. Pittar, C.B., 1,200; Sec., Robert Henderson, £1,200; Assist. Sec., John Gatley, £850-1,000. This department controls the collection of Customs' Import and Export Duties for the United Kingdom.

Duchy of Cornwall, Buckingham Gate, S.W. Lord Warden of the Stanneries, the Earl of Ducie, P.C.; Keeper of the Privy Seal, the Earl Spencer, K.G., P.C.; Receiver-General, Col. Sir R. N. F. Kingscote, K.C.B.; Sec. and Keeper of the Records, Sir M, Holzmann, K.C,V,O.,

C.B. This Office superintends the management of the estates from which certain revenues of H.R.H. the Duke of Cornwall and York are derived.

Duchy of Lancaster, Lancaster Place, W.C. Hours, io to 5, Sat. 10 to 2. Chancellor, Lord James of Hereford, P.C., £2,000: Clerk of Council and Registrar, W. R. Smith. Superintends the management of the estates of the Duchy, the revenues from which are paid to the Privy Purse.

Ecclesiastical Commission, ro, Whitehall Place, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. Ecclesiastical Commrs., the 2 Archbishops, the 32 Bishops, 5 Cabinet Ministers, 4 Judges, 3 Deans, and 12 Eminent Laymen. Church Estates Commrs., the Earl Stanhope, £1,200; Lees Knowles, M.P. (unpd.); Rt. Hon. C. B. Stuart-Wortley, K.C., M.P., 1,000; Sec., Alfred de Bock Porter, C.B., £1,700. The Commissioners provide for the adjustment of the endowments to the wants of the Church; having power to form new parishes, and augment and endow poor benefices and arrange the sale, &c., of glebe lands (see also p. 108).

Education, Board of, Whitehall and South Kensington, S.W. £9,747,716. Members: President, the Duke of Devonshire, K.G.; VicePres., Rt. Hon. Sir J. E. Gorst, K.C., M.P.; the Secs. of State, First Lord of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer; Sec., Sir G. W. Kekewich, K.C.B. The Board is the central authority. for primary, secondary, and technical education; certain educational powers of the Charity Commrs. and Board of Agriculture have been transferred to it.

Emigrants' Information Office, 31, Broadway, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5, Sat. 10 to 1.30. Chief Clerk, Malcolm Jones; Editor of Publications, Walter B. Paton, M.A.


Exchequer and Audit, Somerset House, W.C. Hours, 10 to 5. Sat., 9.30 to 2. Comptr. and Auditor-Gen., Douglas C. Richmond, £2,000; Assist. ditto, F. Phillips, £1,500; Chief Clerk, Wm. Owen, £1,000. The revenue raised in the United Kingdom-except such portion as is payable under statute to local authorities-is paid into the Exchequer, and cannot be issued therefrom without the concurrence of the Comptroller and Auditor-General, who is also charged with the duty of auditing the public accounts of the United Kingdom, and of reporting to the House of Commons thereon. His reports are referred by the House to the Public Accounts Committee, which is appointed annually.

Foreign Office, Downing Street, S.W. Hours, 12 to 6. £77,076. Sec. of State, Marquess of Lansdowne, K.G., £5,000; Under-Secs. :Permanent, Sir T. H. Sanderson, G.C.B., £2,000; Parly., Viscount Cranborne, M.P., £1,500; Chief Clerk, W. C. Cartwright, C.M.G., £900. The Sec. of State exercises the authority of the Crown in all dealings with Foreign countries, and nominates to appointments in the diplomatic service.

Friendly Societies' Registry, 28, Abingdon Street, S.W. £7,219. Chief Registrar, E. W. Brabrook, C.B., F.S.A., £1,500; Assistant Registrar, G. D. Stuart Sim, £800. Returns have to be made to the Registrar by the various Friendly and other registered Societies of the numbers of their members and the state of their funds, The Registrar has exclusive jurisdiction

in the settlement of disputes relating to deposits in Post Office and Trustee Savings Banks.

Geological Survey, 28, Jermyn Street, S.W. £18,158. Director, J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S. This dept. publishes a series of geologically coloured Ordnance maps (inch to a mile), and issues annually a detailed summary of the progress of the survey; fresh surveys being constantly made.

Heralds' College, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. Earl Marshal, Duke of Norfolk, K.G., P.C.: Garter King of Arms, Sir Albert Woods, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.; Acting Registrar, A. S. Scott-Gatty, York Herald.


Lyon King of Arms, Sir James Balfour Paul, F.S.A., Scot.; Lyon Clerk and Keeper of Records, Francis James Grant, W.S.


Ulster King of Arms, Sir A. E. Vicars, C.V.O., F.S.A.; Athlone Pursuivant, H. C. Blake; Secretary to Ulster, G. D. Burtchaell.

Grants of arms are obtained at the Heraids' College; the accession of a new sovereign is proclaimed by the officials of the College, and the details of certain royal ceremonies are organised.

Home Office, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 11 to 5. £144,880. Sec. of State, Rt. Hon. C. T. Ritchie, M.P., £5,000; Under Secs. :-Permanent, Sir Kenelm E. Digby, K.C.B., £2,000; Parly., Rt. Hon. Jesse Collings, M.P., £1,500. The Home Sec. has control of the Metropolitan Police, Prisons, and Reformatory and Industrial Schools; supervises the inspection of factories, of coal, and metalliferous mines, of certified inebriate reformatories, and of licensed retreats, under the Inebriates Acts; exercises certain powers under the Burial Acts, the Explosive Acts, and the Workmen's Compensation Acts; issues orders for the protection of wild birds; has the duty of examining and approving schemes for the re-housing of the working classes on occasions of Metropolitan street improvements or railway extensions; grants licenses for the practice of anatomy, and licenses under the Cruelty to Animals Act, and certificates for the naturalisation of aliens. He also nominates to the Sovereign the chief officers of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, whilst dignities and appointments conferred by means of Letters Patent are, in most cases, dealt with at the Home Office; and all addresses to the Sovereign_must pass through this Dept. The Sec. of State is also the medium of the exercise in England of the Prerogative of Mercy.

India Office, St. James's Park, S.W. £185,645. Sec. of State, Rt. Hon. Lord George Hamilton, M.P., £5,000; Under Secs. :-Permanent, Sir Arthur Godley, K.C.B., £2,000; Parly., the Earl of Hardwicke, £1,500. Every measure concerning India runs in the name of the Sec. of State, who is responsible to Parliament, and who annually presents the Indian Budget.

Inland Revenue, Somerset House, W.C. Hours, 10 to 5. £1,274,500. Chairman, Sir H, W. Primrose, K.C.B., C.S.I., £2,000. DeputySir F. Lacy Robinson, K.C.B., £1,500. Commissioners, E. H. Wodehouse, C.B., Bernard Mallet, each £1,200. This Department collects excise, estate duties, stamp duties, land tax, house duty, and property and income tax.

Judge-Advocate-General's Office, 7, Victoria Street, S.W. Hours, 10 to 4. Judge Adv.Gen., Rt. Hon. Sir F. H. Jeune, P.C., K.C.B.; Deputy, Sir J. Scott, K.C.M.G.

Local Government Board, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £215,269. President, Rt. Hon. Walter H. Long, M.P., £2,000. Secs.:

Permanent, S. B. Provis, C.B., £1,700; Parly., J. Grant Lawson, M.P. £1,200.

Metropolitan Water Act Department. Water Examiner, C. Perrin, M.Inst.C.E., £850; Auditor, A. Stoneham, £650.

The Central Department for Poor Law, Public Health, and other local matters, and nearly every local authority, is subject to its control, and must obtain its sanction to borrow money, make byelaws, &c.

Lord Great Chamberlain's Office, Palace of Westminster, S.W. Hours, 11 to 4. Lord Great Chamb. (Joint Hereditary), Earl of Ancaster, Earl Carrington, G.C.M.G., Marquess of Cholmondeley; Sec., Capt. T. D. Butler, £200. Assists, with the Earl Marshal, at the ceremony of introducing new Peers; issues tickets for the opening and prorogation of Parliament, and for viewing the Houses, and arranges all ceremonies within Westminster Hall and at State Trials.

Lunacy Commission, 66, Victoria Street, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. Sat. 10 to 2. £14,962. Chairman, Earl Waldegrave. Sec., Lionel L. Shadwell. £800 to £1,000. Supervises all lunatic asylums in England and Wales; grants licenses for private asylums, and issues an Annual Report,

Meteorological Council. 63, Victoria Street, S.W. Hours, 10 to 4; Sat. 10 to 1 p.m. (general enquiries); 8.30 a.m. to 8 p.m.; Sundays 6 to 8 p.m. (telegraphic enquiries). £15,300. Chairman, Lt.-Genl. Sir R. Strachey, R.E., G.C.S.I. Sec., W. Napier Shaw, F.R.S. Collects statistics and issues forecasts of the weather. Sends information on payment of a fee of 6d., in addition to cost of telegrams, to farmers and others, as to probable weather twenty-four hours in advance.

Mint, The, Tower Hill, E. Hours, 10 to 5. Sat. 10 to 1. £32,000 (salaries). Master and Worker, Chancellor of the Exchequer. Deputy, H. A. D. Seymour, C.B., £1,500. Mints the coinage of the realm, and issues an annual report thereon. National Debt Office, Old Jewry, E.C. Hours, 10 to 4. £13,107. Compt.-Gen., G. W. Hervey, C.B., £1,500. Assistant ditto, W. Taylor, £1,000. Chief Clerk, A. T. King, £800. This Office deals with Government Life Annuities. Ordnance Survey, Southampton. £210, 159. Director-Gen., Col. D. A. Johnston, R.E. This Department, under the Board of Agriculture, prepares maps and plans of the United Kingdom on various scales. Surveys are continually in progress (see also pp. 252-256 Brit. Almck. 1901).

Observatory (Royal), Greenwich Park, S.E. £10,000. Astron. Roy., W. H. M. Christie, C.B., F.R.S., £1,000: Chief Assistants, F. W. Dyson, F.R.A.S., P. H. Cowell, F.R.A.S., £600 each. The Astronomer Royal is under the control of the Admiralty. The fundamental work of the Observatory is undertaking meridian observations of sun, moon, planets and stars.

Patent Office (Board of Trade), 25, Southampton Buildings, W.C. £68,192. Comptr.Gen., C. N. Dalton, C.B., £1,400; Registrar of Designs and Trade Marks, R. Griffin, £1,000; Chief Examiner, H. Hatfield, £1,000; Chief Clerk, P. G. L. Webb, £800. Issues patents and registers Designs and Trade Marks. Complete specifications, when accepted, are inspection by the public at the Office on payment of a fee of IS.



Pay Office, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 10 to 4. Paymaster-General, Duke of Marlborough (unp.); Assist., C. J. Maude, £1,100.

Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand, E.C. 49,328,810, Postal; £781,085, Packet Service; £4,036,580, Telegraphs. Postmaster-Gen., Marquess of Londonderry, K.G., £2,500; Sec., Sir G. H. Murray, K.C.B., £2,000. The PostmasterGen. is Parliamentary Head of the Office, which transacts money orders, savings bank, annuity, insurance and telegraphic business, as well as acting as the carrier of letters and parcels.

Prison Commission. Home Office. Chairman of Commissioners and Directors, E. J. Ruggles Brise, C.B., £1,800; Inspector and Secretary, Major E. G. Clayton, £700 to £800.

Privy Council Office, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 11 to 5. £12,300. Lord President of the Council, The Duke of Devonshire, K.G., £2,000; Clerk, Almeric W. Fitzroy, £1,250. Deputy Clerk, J. H. Harrison, £1,200. The functions of State formerly exercised by the Council when it was a small body are now confined to the members of the Cabinet. There is a Judicial Committee for appeals, consisting of the President of the Council, the Lord Chancellor, and such members of the Council as may hold, or have held, certain high judicial offices.

Privy Seal Office, Downing Street, S.W., £2,920. Lord Privy Seal, The Marquess of Hon. Salisbury, K.G., £2,000; Priv. Sess., Schomberg McDonnell, £400; Claude Cuthbertson, £250: Evelyn Cecil, M.P. (unpd.). The Lord Privy Seal has the custody of the Privy Seal, which he must not put to any grant without good warrant under the Sovereign's signet.

Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, W. C. Hours, 10 to 4.30. Sats. 10 to 2. £23.938. Keeper of the Records, Master of the Rolls; Deputy, Sir H. C. Maxwell Lyte, K.C.B., F.S.A., £1,100; Sec., J. J. Cartwright, £600. Publi Records and State papers are preserved here, where they are open to public inspection.

Public Works Loan Board, 3, Bank Buildings, E.C. Hours, 10 to 5. Sat. 10 to 3. Chairman, Sir Herbert Barnard; Sec., R. Philpot. The Board is empowered to grant loans to local authorities for burial grounds, the conservancy of rivers, main drainage works, docks, baths and washhouses, for improvements of towns, dwellings, lunatic asylums, &c., and various sanitary


Queen Anne's Bounty, 3, Dean's Yard, Westminster, S.W. Sec. and Treasurer (vacant). Chief Clerk, Wm. R. Le Fanu. This Department is empowered to augment poor livings in the Church of England, and to assist clergy by loans, on security of the revenues of benefices, to build residences, &c.

Reformatory and Industrial Schools, Great Scotland Yard, S.W. Inspector, J. G. Legge; Chief Clerk, J. L. Heath.

Registrar-General's Office, Somerset House, W.C. Hours, 10 to 5. 166,430. Reg.-Gen., Reginald McLeod, C.B., £1,200; Chief Clerk, N. A. Humphreys, £900. The Registrar-General controls the civil registration of Births, Marriages, and Deaths (certified copies and registers being deposited at the General Register Office), and also supervises the decennial census.

Stationery Office, Storey's Gate, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £648,037. Controller, T. Digby Pigott, C.B., £1,500; Assistant, E. P. Plowman, £750. The Controller superintends the issue of numerous official publications affecting the civil, naval, and military services.

Thames Conservancy, Victoria EmbankE.C. Hours, 10 to 4: Sat. 10 to 2. Chair


man, Sir F. D. Dixon-Hartland, Bart., M.P.; Sec., R. Philipson; Engineer, C. J. More, C.E. The Conservators maintain and regulate the navigation of the Thames, provide moorings for vessels, prevent the pollution of the river, and of all streams within its watershed, an area of 3,800 square miles, and undertake the preservation and improvement of the river generally.

Trade, Board of, Whitehall Gardens, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £192,328. President, Rt. Hon. Gerald Balfour, M.P.,£2,000; Secs.-Permanent, F. J. S. Hopwood, C.B., £1,500 to £1,800; Parly., The Earl of Dudley, £1,200.

Commercial Department,

43. Parliament Street, S. W. Controller-Gen., Sir Alfred E. Bateman, K.C.M.G., £1,200 to £1,500; Deputy Comp. and Lab. Commis., H. Llewellyn Smith, £850 to £950.

Bankruptcy Department,

Horse Guards Avenue, S.W. Hours 10 to 5. Inspec. General, John Smith, C.B., £1,800; Inspectors, F. Wreford, E. Hough, W. Evans, £2,800.

Patents, Designs and Trade Marks, Southampton Buildings, W.C. Compt. Gen., C. N. Dalton, C.B., £1,200 to £1,500.

Registry of Shipping and Seamen,

Custom House, Thames Street.

Reg. Gen. of Seamen, J. Clark-Hall, £900. The Commercial Department deals with tariffs, treaties, labour questions, statistics, &c. The Railway Department inspects railways before opening, inquires into railway accidents, investigates complaints as to hours of work of railway servants, approves railway and canal bye-laws, authorises the construction of railways, and issues provisional orders authorising gas, tramway, electric, and water undertakings. The Fisheries and Harbour Departments deal with freshwater and sea fisheries, pier and harbour works, and works on tidal land; the Marine Department mainly with administration of Merchant Shipping Acts; the Bankruptcy Department with insolvent companies, &c.; the Finance Department with merchant seamen's savings bank, lighthouse accounts, &c.

Treasury, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 11 to 6. £89,272. First Lord, Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., £5,000; Chan, of the Exchequer, Rt. Hon. Sir M. Hicks-Beach, M.P., £5,000; Foint Secs.-Patronage, Rt. Hon. Sir W. H. Walrond, Bart, M.P., £2,000; Financial, Austen Chamberlain, M.P., £2,000; Permanent, Sir Francis Mowatt, G.C.B., £2,500. Controls the manage ment, collection, and expenditure of public revenue; and exercises general control and supervision over all other public departments.

Trinity House, Tower Hill, E.C. Hours, 10 to 4. Master, H.R.H. The Duke of Cornwall and York, K.G.; Deputy Master, Capt. George R. Vyvyan; Sec., Charles A. Kent. The Trinity House is the General Lighthouse Authority for England, and the Chief Pilotage Authority of the Kingdom.

War Office, Pall Mall, S.W. Hours, IO to 5. Sec. of State, Rt. Hon. St. John' Brodrick, M.P., £5,000; Financial Sec., Lord Stanley, M.P., £1,500: Under-Secs.: Permanent, Col. Sir E. W. D. Ward, K.C.B., £2,000; Parly. Lord Raglan, £1,500; Accountant-Gen., F. T. Marzials, £1,500. The Army Services are under! the administrative control of the Sec. of State, to whom the Heads of Departments are responsible, (For Military Administration, see p. 199).

Woods and Forests, 1 & 2, Whitehall Place, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £22,014. Commissioners, E. Stafford Howard, C.B., J. F. F. Horner, each £1,200. This Department administers woods, forest, mines, etc. on the Crown lands.

Works and Public Buildings, Storey's Gate, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £56,450. First Commissioner, Rt. Hon. A. Akers-Douglas, M.P., £2,000; Sec., Viscount Esher, K.C.V.O., C.B., £1,500; Principal Clerks, J. Fitzgerald and W. J. Downer, £600 to £800. The Commissioners have control of Government Buildings and Royal Parks and Pleasure Gardens.


Secretary for Scotland's Office, Dover House, Whitehall, S. W., and Parliament Square, Edinburgh. £33,454. Sec., Lord Balfour of Burleigh, K.T., £2,000; Under-Sec., Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff, K.C.M.G., C.S.I., £1,500. Business connected with Scotland is transacted in this Office.

Education Department, Dover House, Whitehall, S.W. £1,363,881. Administration (including inspection), £58,871. Sec., Sir Henry Craik, K.C.B., LL.D., £1,500: Assist.-Secs., J. Struthers, £900 to £1,200, and G. Todd, £650 to £900. Deals with all educational matters in Scotland in same way as the Board of Education does in England.

Local Government Board, 125, George Street, Edinburgh. Hours, 9.30 to 4.30; Saturday, 9.30 to I. £13,778. Pres., The Sec. for Scotland, ex officio; Chairman, M. McNeill, C.B.; Sec., G. Falconar-Stewart. The central department for public health, poor law, and other local matters in Scotland; local authorities are subject to its control, and must obtain its sanction to borrow money, make bye-laws, etc.

General Register House, Edinburgh. £33,473. Keeper of the Records and Reg.-Gen., Sir Stair Agnew, K.C.B., advocate, £1,200; Deputy Keeper of the Records, M. Livingstone, £600. The Registrar-General collects and issues statistics of births, marriages, and deaths in Scotland, and arranges the decennial census.


Office of Works, Parliament Square, Edinburgh. Surveyor for Scotland, W. W. Robertson; Clerk, G. W. Jupp. This department has control of government buildings and royal parks.

Law Officials. Lord Justice Gen., Rt. Hon. J. B. Balfour; Lord Justice Clerk, Rt. Hon. J. H. A. Macdonald, C.B.; Lord Advocate, Rt. Hon. A. Graham Murray, K.C., M.P., £5,000; Solicitor-Gen., C. S. Dickson, K.C., £2,000; Advocates Depute, C. K. Mackenzie, J. A. Fleming, and A. L. M'Clure, £700 each; Crown Agent, W. J. Dundas, W.S., £1,300.

Other Scottish Officials. Hered. Grand Constable, Earl of Erroll; Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal, Earl of Leven and Melville; Lord Clerk Register, Duke of Montrose, K.T.; Hered. Master of the Household, Duke of Argyll. K.T.; Hered. Standard Bearer, Earl of Lauderdale; Her titary Keeper of Holyrood Palace, Duke of Hamilton and Brandon; Lord High Commis., The Earl of Leven and Melville; Reg.-Gen. and Dep. Keeper of Great Seal, Sir Stair Agnew, K.C.B.; Dean of the Thistle, J. Cameron Lees, D.D.; Com. of the Forces, Lt. Gen. Sir Archibald Hunter, K.C.B.


Irish Secretary's Office, Old Queen Street. S.W., and The Castle, Dublin. Hours, 10 to 5, £25,676. Lord Lieutenant, Earl Cadogan, K.G., £20,000; Chief Sec. to the L. L., Rt. Hon. George Wyndham, M.P., £4,425; Under-Sec., Rt. Hon. Sir David Harrel, K.C.B., K.C.V.O., £2,000; Priv. Sec. to L. L., Lord Plunket, C.V.O. The Lord Lieutenant represents the Sovereign, and all business connected with Ireland is transacted in this Department.

Department of Agriculture and Technical Instruction, 4, Upper Merrion Street, Dublin. £140,806. Vice-President, Rt. Hon. H. C. Plunkett, £1,350; Sec., T. P. Gill, 1,300. This Department aids and develops agriculture, rural industries, and sea and inland fisheries; and promotes Technical Instruction. It also administers the Parliamentary grant for Science and Art in Ireland, and is the Central Authority under the Acts for the prevention of the spread of contagious diseases in animals.

General Prisons Board. Chairman, J. S. Gibbons, C.B., £1,200. Vice Chairman, J. Mulhall, £1,000.

Local Government Board, Custom House, Dublin. 66,182. President, Chief Sec. to the Lord Lieutenant; Vice-President, Sir Henry A. Robinson, K.C.B.; Sec., H. M. Swaine, £900. The Central Department in Ireland for poor law, public health, and other local matters; most local authorities are subject to its control, and must obtain its sanction to borrow money, make bye-laws, etc.

National Education, Tyrone House, Marlborough Street, Dublin. £1,300,771. Adminis tration, £ Resident Commr., W. J. M. Starkey, Litt.D., £1,500; Senior Sec., Alexr. Hamilton, 1,000. Deals with all educational matters in Ireland in same way as the Board of Education does in England.

Public Works Board, Custom House, Dublin. £35,940. Chairman, George V. C. Holmes, £1,500; Sec., H. Williams, £700. Assist.-Sec., Geo. E. Shanahan, £680. The Board has control of Government buildings and royal parks in Ireland.

Registrar General's Office, Charlemont House, Dublin. £30,278. Regis.-Gen., Robert E. Matheson, B.L., £1,000; Sec. and Assist., Robert J. Brew, £600 to £800. Records of births, marriages, and deaths are preserved and indexed here. The Reg.-Gen. issues statistics of births, etc., and collects and compiles the emigration Statistics of Ireland. He also reports on the judicial statistics, and superintends the taking of the decennial census.

Law Officials. Lord Chancellor, Rt. Hon. Lord Ashbourne; Master of the Rol s, Rt. Hon. Andrew M. Porter; Vice-Chanc., Rt. Hon. H. E. Chatterton; Lord Chief Justice, Rt. Hon. Lord O'Brien; Lord Chief Baron, Rt. Hon. Chris. Palles; Attorney-Gen., Rt. Hon. J. Atkinson, K.C., M.P.; Solicitor General, James H. M. Campbell, K.C.

Other I ish Officials. Assist.-Under-Sec. and Clerk of Privy Council, James B. Dougherty, C.B.; State Steward, The Lord Lurgan; Comptroller, The Lord Langford, K.C.V.O.; Gentleman Usher, John Olphert; Chamber. lain, Lt.-Col. Sir Gerald R. Dease, C.V.O.; Ulster King of Arms, Sir A. Vicars, C.V.O., F.S.A.; Dean of the Chapel, Very Rev. H. H. Dickinson, D.D.;_ Com. of the Forces, General H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, K.G., K.T., K.P.


**For Scotch and Irish Law Officials see page 105.

House of Lords.-Lord High Chancellor, Earl of Halsbury, £6,000. Lords of Appeal in Ord., Lord Macnaghten, Lord Davey, Lord Robertson, Lord Lindley, each £6,000, and such Peers as hold or have held high judicial office. This is the highest and final appellate Court in the United Kingdom, and all appeals to the House must be brought from the Courts of Appeal in England and Ireland and the Court of Session in Scotland. Not less than 3 Lords of Appeal must be present at the hearing of any appeal. The decisions of the House are not technically judgments; each law Lord, in order of seniority, delivers a speech expressing his opinion on the particular case, and in the end the vote of the majority decides whether an appeal is allowed or whether the judgment of the Court below is to stand. Should a decision of the House of Lords be generally considered to defeat the intention of the Legislature, the only way to remedy it is by fresh legislation on the point in question.

Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is composed of the Lord Chancellor, Lord President, Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, and members of the Privy Council who hold or have held high judicial office, including Lord Hobhouse, Lord Ashbourne, Lord Field, Lord Shand, Lord James of Hereford, Lord Kinnear, Lord Brampton, Lord Lindley, Sir R. Couch, Sir Ford North, Sir S. J. Way (S. Australia), Sir J. H. De Villiers (Cape of Good Hope), and Sir Hy. Strong (Canada). Registrar, E. S. Hope, C.B., £1,500, Chief Clerk, Judicial Department, G. P. Wheeler, £600. All appeals from the higher Courts of record of the Colonies and Dependencies and from India lie to the King in Council, who hears and determines them through the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Technically this Committee has no executive authority, but is merely a deliberative body advising his Majesty in all cases which are brought before the Judicial Committee, whereupon an Order in Council is made carrying out the recommendations of the Committee. Appeals from the Ecclesiastical Courts also go to this Court, which is usually assisted by ecclesiastical assessors. The two Archbishops are ex officio assessors, the other assessors being the Bishops, who attend according to a rota.

Supreme Court of Judicature.-Court of Appeal. -Ex-officio Judges.-The Lord Chancellor, exLord Chancellors, the Lord Chief Justice, the President of the Probate Division.-Ordinary Judges-Master of the Rolls, Sir Richard Henn Collins, £6,000. Lords Justices, Sir John Rigby, Sir R. Vaughan Williams, Sir Robert Romer, G.C.B., Sir James Stirling, and Sir J. C. Mathew, each £5.000.

This Court usually sits in two divisions, the one the Chancery Court of Appeal and the other the King's Bench Court of Appeal. The former deals, with all appeals from the Chancery Courts Probate and Divorce Courts, the Palatine Courts of Lancaster and Durham, and appeals in bankruptcy. The latter hears all appeals from the King's Bench or common law Courts, Admiralty Court, County Courts, election appeals. All final appeals-i.e., appeals in cases where a final judgment or order has been made by the Court below-must be heard by at least three judges, unless the parties consent to the hearing of an appeal by two judges only (62 & 63 Vict. c. 6). Although this statute has been in force for nearly three years, very few litigants have availed themselves of its provisions. Interlocutory appeals (on questions of procedure,&c., and interim orders

made during the preliminary stages of an action before trial may be heard by two judges only. One day in each week is set apart by each Court for ex parte applications and interlocutory business generally. No appeal lies from any Court whatever simply on a question of costs.

High Court of Justice. Chancery Division Judges.-The Lord Chancellor ; Sir A. Kekewich, Sir E. W. Byrne, Sir H. H. CozensHardy, Sir Geo. Farwell, Sir H. Burton Buckley, and Sir M. I. Joyce, £5,000 each.

King's Bench Division Judges.-Lord Chief Justice, £8,000 (Lord Alverstone); Sir Alfred Wills, Sir W. Grantham, Sir J. C. Lawrance, Sir R. S. Wright, Sir Gainsford Bruce, Sir William R. Kennedy, Sir Edward Ridley, Sir J. C. Bigham, Sir C. J. Darling, Sir A. M. Channell, Sir W. G. F. Phillimore, Sir T. T. Bucknill, and Sir Joseph Walton, £5,000 each.

Bankruptcy. Judge, Hon. Mr. Justice Wright. Clerk to the Court, G. Falkner. Senior Registrar, J. R. Brougham. — Registrars, H. S. Giffard, J. E. Linklater, H. J. Hope, H. J. Hood.-Chief Clerk, S. R. Stockton.Senior Official Receiver, E. L. Hough.

Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Division.— President, Rt. Hon. Sir F. Jeune, £5,000; Judge, Sir J. Gorell Barnes, £5,000.-Admiralty Advocate, Rt. Hon. Sir J. P. Deane, K.C., D.C.L. -Admiralty Registrar, J. G. Smith.-Probate Registrars, D. H. Owen, R. A. Pritchard, the Hon. J. C. Hannen, A. Musgrave.

Masters of the Supreme Court. Geo. Fred. Pollock (King's Remembrancer), Marcus H. Johnson, Joseph Kaye, Charles H. Walton, Lord Dunboyne, Jas. R. Mellor, John Macdonell, LL.D., Edw. Wilberforce, Wm. F. A. Archibald, T. Willes Chitty, Hon. G. J. D. Coleridge, Egerton C. B. Lawford, and W. H. Macnamara.

Masters of the Supreme Court, Chancery Division.-J. W. Hawkins, E. W. Walker, W. Binns Smith, C. Burney, E. L. A. Clarke, J. A Romer, W. O. Hewlett, J. C. Fox, R. J. Villiers, Spencer Whitehead, S. A. M. Satow, and R. White. Official Referees.-H. M. Verey, G. W. Hemming, K.C., E. J. Pollock, £1,500 each.

The High Court of Justice is divided into three main divisions-(1) Chancery, (2) King's Bench, and (3) Probate, Divorce, and Admiralty Divisions. Each Division tries causes specially assigned to it, but all the divisions have co-ordinate jurisdiction.

The Chancery Division. The judges are grouped in three pairs for the more convenient and expeditious disposal of the business, one of each pair sitting continuously for the trial of witness actions on which final judgments are pronounced, the other dealing with all interlocutory matters preliminary to the final trial and with all non-witness actions, and with all applications which are made privately in the Judge's Chambers and not in open Court. Each term the judges in each pair change about, the one who had last taken non-witness work taking the witness actions for the next term, and vice versa. Specially assigned to this division are the administration of the estates of deceased persons; the dissolution of partnerships or taking of partnership or other accounts; redemption or foreclosure of mortgages; raising of portions or other charges on land: sale and distribution of proceeds of property subject to any lien or charge; execution of trusts; rectification or cancellation of deeds; specific performance of contracts of sale of real estates, including contracts for leases; partition or sale of real estates; wardship of

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