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No. of Representatives.

5,084,999 465
304,866 30
696,869 72

735,851 103

6,822,585 670

If the average of 10,183 per member, referred to in No. 1, is taken as a guide, England should have 34 more members, Scotland 3 less, and Ireland 31 less.

Balance in Excnequer .........


Estate and Legacy Duties

Land Tax.......
House Duty

Property and Incoine Tax...

Post Office.....

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Telegraph Service

Crown Lands (net)

Suez Canal Share Receipts, &c.










Repayments of Advances ........
Treasury Bills

Raised by Creation of New Debts...

Temporary Loans, &c.
Casual Receipts

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£ 3,517,047 26,262,000















(3.) Divide the total electorate into two nearly equal parts, thus: 3,417,513 and 3,405,072.

3,417,513 are represented by 239 members. 3,405,072 are represented by 431 members. One part has 192 more representatives than the other!!


(4.) There are 7 constituencies with over 20,000 electors, and 69 with over 15,000; the representatives of these are elected by an average of 17,341 per seat, and there are 48 constituencies with less than 5,000 electors each, whose representatives are elected by an average of 3581 per seat.

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National Debt Services-
(a) Funded Debt

(b) Unfunded Debt Interest
(c) Management of the Debt......
(e) Interest on War Debt ...
Civil List, Annuities, &c. ...............
Local Taxation Accounts

Naval and Military Expenses

Army Services

Navy Services

Ordnance Factories...........

Civil Services.......

Charges for Collection


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Inland Revenue

Postal and Telegraph..........
To meet other Expenditure and


Renewable Bills

Suez Canal Shares

Temporary Advances repaid............

Balance at Exchequer


17,863,144 415,254 174,310 1,382,780 1,569,407




204,100 23,500,000

823,000 2,011,000 13,471,000



6,965 25,350,000 5,596,918





Persons entitled to the Franchise in Counties



Freeholders, also persons seised of a freehold estate for life, of the annual value of 40s., who actually occupy, or were seised on June 7, 1832, or acquired their estate after that date by marriage, settlement, devise or promotion to a benefice or office; persons seised for life in copyhold lands of the clear annual value of £5.

Leaseholders of an original term of not less than 60 years of the value of £5 per annum ; or of a term of not less than 20 years of the annual value of £50.

Occupiers, as owners or tenants, for 12 months preceding July 15 in any year of land or tenement of £10 clear yearly value.

Dwelling-houses.-The inhabitant householder (owner or tenant) for 12 months preceding July 15 in any year of any dwelling-house; including also the service occupation of any man who inhabits a dwelling-house by virtue of any office, service, or employment, provided that the person under whom he serves does not inhabit the house.

Lodgers.-Inhabitant occupiers, as above, of lodgings furnished or unfurnished in the same house of the clear yearly value of £10 or upwards.


Persons entitled to the Franchise in Boroughs


Occupiers (owners or tenants) for 12 months, as above, of any land or tenement within the borough of 10 clear yearly value, provided the voter has resided within the borough or 7 miles thereof (City of London 25 miles) for the 6 months preceding July 15.

Householders.-The inhabitant householder for 12 months, as above, of any dwelling-house within the borough. Service occupation is also included as in the County franchise. In neither case does absence on duty for not more than 4 months disqualify.

Lodgers.-Inhabitant occupiers, as above, of lodgings furnished or unfurnished of the clear yearly value of £10 or upwards.

Freemen, etc.-Persons possessing rights under the Reform Act of 1832, including freeholders and burgage tenants in cities and towns which are counties of themselves, and freemen and burgesses by servitude (except in London), and freemen and liverymen in the City of London.


The electors (male or female) must be of full age, not subject to any legal incapacity, and must not, within the 12 months preceding the 15th July before the election, have received parochial, other than medical, relief. They must also, during the same period, have been in occupation, joint or several, of a house, shop, or other building in the parish, or have been an occupier, as owner or tenant, of some land or tenement in the parish of the clear yearly value of £10. Non-resident owners, lodgers, and service occupiers are now entitled to vote both for county and borough councils. Electors must have resided in the county or within 7 miles thereof (in the case of London, 15 miles) for 12 months prior to July 15th (or, in the case of the £10 qualification, 6 months). The elector or someone else must, during the 12 months, have been rated in respect of the qualifying property to all

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The Councillors are elected by the parochial electors of the parishes or areas which elect Guardians, and the persons who are elected as District Councillors for the parish are the representatives of the parish on the Board of Guardians.


The parochial electors of the parishes in the districts are the electors of the councillors of the district, and, if the district is divided into wards, the electors of the councillors for each ward are such of the parochial electors as are registered in respect of qualifications within the ward.


The persons qualified to vote are-in a borough -those whose names are on the burgess roll of such borough, and--in a parish not situate in the metropolis-the ratepayers. The members of the School Board in the City of London are elected by the same persons and in like manner as common councilmen are elected, and in the other divisions of the metropolis by the same persons and in the same manner as vestrymen under the Metropolis Management Act, 1855, and the Acts amending the same.

N.B.-Ratepayers are responsible for seeing that their names are entered in the Rate-book as ratepayers one month before the date of any School Board Election.


It is bribery to give, lend, or promise money or valuable consideration in order to induce an elector to vote or abstain from voting for a particular candidate. The consequences are the same whether the payment is made directly or indirectly, and whether before, during, or after an election.

It is bribery to give, offer, or promise any employment to or for a voter, or anyone connected with him, with the same object. [No persons must be employed for payment at an election except by the election agent, who is strictly limited in the numbers he may engage.]

Any person who gives money to be spent in bribery, or who repays it afterwards, is guilty of a corrupt practice.

It is bribery to make a gift or promise to any third person in order to secure an elector's vote.

It is bribery to pay the day's wages of any voter, or to give him money for railway fare, loss of time, &c.

An employer may give his workmen or servants reasonable leave of absence (without deduction of pay) for the purpose of voting, on condition that all voters in his employment are treated alike.

The elector who receives a bribe for his vote, or who bargains for a promise of employment or reward of any kind, is equally guilty of bribery, whether it is done before or after the election.

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Showing Office, Address, Duties, Cost to the Nation, and Principal Officials.

Admiralty, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £267,100. First Lord, the Earl of Selborne, £4,550; Parly, and Financial Sec., H. O. ArnoldForster, M.P., £2,000; Permanent Sec., Sir Evan Macgregor, K.C.B., £2,000. The First Lord is head of the Navy and medium of communication with the Cabinet. The Senior Naval Lord is the chief adviser of the First Lord, and is responsible generally for the condition of the fleet.

Agriculture, Board of, 4, Whitehall Place, and 3, St. James's Square, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. 110,194. Pres., Rt. Hon. R. W. Hanbury, M.P., £2,000; Sec., T. H. Elliott, C.B., £1,500. The Board regulates the importation of animals into Great Britain, takes measures to suppress contagious diseases amongst animals; collects and issues agricultural and produce returns; supervises the regulation and inclosure of commons, and regulates the reapportionment and redemption of t'the rent charge; and edits a quarterly journal of information, and issues free leaflets on agricultural subjects. The following have been issued during the past year:-"The Pear and Cherry Sawfly," "Destruction of Charlock," White Root Rot," "The Small Ermine Moths," "Workmen's Compensation Act, 1900."


Army Purchase Commission. 7, Victoria Street, S.W. Commissioner, Sir J. C. O'Dowd, C.B. (unp.).

Charity Commission, Gwydyr House, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £36,650. Chief Commr., C. H. Alderson, C.B., £1,800; Commissioners, Sir George Young, £1,300; D. R. Fearon, C. B., £1,300; A. Griffith-Boscawen, M.P. (unpd.). Sec., R. Durnford, £1,000. The Commissioners are empowered to enquire into and examine any charity in England and Wales, into the value and condition of its estates and the application of the income, &c.; numerous bodies, however, are excepted.

Civil Service Commission, 68, Victoria Street, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £44,625. Commissioners, W. J. Courthope, C.B., £1,500; Lord Francis Hervey, £1,200. Sec. and Registrar, J. S. Lockhart,£900. The Commissioners control examinations for the civil, military, and naval services.

Colonial Office, Downing Street, S.W. Hours, 11 to 6. £58,500. Sec. of State, Rt. Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, M.P., £5,000. Under Secs.-Permanent, Sir Montagu F. Ommanney, K.C.M.G., £2,000; Parly., Earl of Onslow, G.C.M.G., £1,500. The Sec. of State exercises the authority of the Crown in Crown Colonies, and Protectorates more especially, the enactments of whose legislatures come before him for approval or disallowance; he appoints governors, and organises the government of new colonies. Treaties and questions of extradition are referred to him by self-governing colonies.

Customs, Customs House, E.C. Hours, 10 to 5. £838,500. Chairman, G. L. Ryder, C.B., £2,000; Deputy Chairman, J. A. Kempe, C.B., 1,500; Commissioner, T. J. Pittar, C.B., 1,200; Sec., Robert Henderson, £1,200; Assist. Sec., John Gatley, £850-£1,000. This department controls the collection of Customs' Import and Export Duties for the United Kingdom.

Duchy of Cornwall, Buckingham Gate, S.W. Lord Warden of the Stanneries, the Earl of Ducie, P.C.; Keeper of the Privy Seal, the Earl Spencer, K.G., P.C.; Receiver-General, Col. Sir R. N. F. Kingscote, K.C.B.; Sec. and Keeper of the Records, Sir M, Holzmann, K.C,V,O.,

C.B. This Office superintends the management of the estates from which certain revenues of H.R.H. the Duke of Cornwall and York are derived.

Duchy of Lancaster, Lancaster Place, W.C. Hours, ro to 5, Sat. 10 to 2. Chancellor, Lord James of Hereford, P.C., £2,000; Clerk of Council and Registrar, W. R. Smith. Superintends the management of the estates of the Duchy, the revenues from which are paid to the Privy Purse.

Ecclesiastical Commission, 10, Whitehall Place, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. Ecclesiastical Commrs., the 2 Archbishops, the 32 Bishops, 5 Cabinet Ministers, 4 Judges, 3 Deans, and 12 Eminent Laymen. Church Estates Commrs., the Earl Stanhope, 1,200; Lees Knowles, M.P. (unpd.); Rt. Hon. C. B. Stuart-Wortley, K.C., M.P., £1,000; Sec., Alfred de Bock Porter, C.B., £1,700. The Commissioners provide for the adjustment of the endowments to the wants of the Church; having power to form new parishes, and augment and endow poor benefices and arrange the sale, &c., of glebe lands (see also p. 108`,

Education, Board of, Whitehall and South Kensington, S.W. £9,747,716. Members:President, the Duke of Devonshire, K.G.; VicePres., Rt. Hon. Sir J. E. Gorst, K.C., M.P.; the Secs. of State, First Lord of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer; Sec., Sir G. W. Kekewich, K.C.B. The Board is the central authority, for primary, secondary, and technical education; certain educational powers of the Charity Commrs. and Board of Agriculture have been transferred to it.

Emigrants' Information Office, 31, Broadway, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5, Sat. 10 to 1.30. Chief Clerk, Malcolm Jones; Editor of Publications, Walter B. Paton, M.A.

Exchequer and Audit, Somerset House, W.C. Hours, 10 to 5. Sat., 9.30 to 2. £62,656. Comptr. and Auditor-Gen., Douglas C. Richmond, £2,000; Assist. ditto, F. Phillips, £1,500; Chief Clerk, Wm. Owen, £1,000. The revenue raised in the United Kingdom-except such portion as is payable under statute to local authorities-is paid into the Exchequer, and cannot be issued therefrom without the concurrence of the Comptroller and Auditor-General, who is also charged with the duty of auditing the public accounts of the United Kingdom, and of reporting to the House of Commons thereon. His reports are referred by the House to the Public Accounts Committee, which is appointed annually.

Foreign Office, Downing Street, S.W. Hours, 12 to 6. £77,076. Sec. of State, Marquess of Lansdowne, K.G., £5,000; Under-Secs. :Permanent, Sir T. H. Sanderson, G.C.B., £2,000; Parly., Viscount Cranborne, M.P., £1,500; Chief Clerk, W. C. Cartwright, C.M.G., £900. The Sec. of State exercises the authority of the Crown in all dealings with Foreign countries, and nominates to appointments in the diplomatic service.

Friendly Societies' Registry, 28, Abingdon Street, S.W. £7,219. Chief Registrar, E. W. Brabrook, C.B., F.S.A., £1,500; Assistant Registrar, G. D. Stuart Sim, 800. Returns have to be made to the Registrar by the various Friendly and other registered Societies of the numbers of their members and the state of their

funds, The Registrar has exclusive jurisdiction

in the settlement of disputes relating to deposits in Post Office and Trustee Savings Banks.

Geological Survey, 28, Jermyn Street, S.W. £18,158. Director, J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S. This dept. publishes a series of geologically coloured Ordnance maps (inch to a mile), and issues annually a detailed summary of the progress of the survey; fresh surveys being constantly made. Heralds' College, Queen Victoria Street, E.C. Earl Marshal, Duke of Norfolk, K.G., P.C. Garter King of Arms, Sir Albert Woods, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.; Acting Registrar, A. S. Scott-Gatty, York Herald.


Lyon King of Arms, Sir James Balfour Paul, F.S.A., Scot.; Lyon Clerk and Keeper of Records, Francis James Grant, W.S.


Ulster King of Arms, Sir A. E. Vicars, C.V.O., F.S.A.; Athlone Pursuivant, H. C. Blake; Secretary to Ulster, G. D. Burtchaell.

Grants of arms are obtained at the Heralds' College; the accession of a new sovereign is proclaimed by the officials of the College, and the details of certain royal ceremonies are organised.

Home Office, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 11 to 5. £144,880. Sec. of State, Rt. Hon. C. T. Ritchie, M.P., £5,000; Under Secs. :-Permanent, Sir Kenelm E. Digby, K.C.B., £2,000; Parly., Rt. Hon. Jesse Collings, M.P., £1,500. The Home Sec. has control of the Metropolitan Police, Prisons, and Reformatory and Industrial Schools; supervises the inspection of factories, of coal, and metalliferous mines, of certified inebriate reformatories, and of licensed retreats, under the Inebriates Acts; exercises certain powers under the Burial Acts, the Explosive Acts, and the Workmen's Compensation Acts; issues orders for the protection of wild birds; has the duty of examining and approving schemes for the re-housing of the working classes on occasions of Metropolitan street improvements or railway extensions; grants licenses for the practice of anatomy, and licenses under the Cruelty to Animals Act, and certificates for the naturalisation of aliens. He also nominates to the Sovereign the chief officers of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, whilst dignities and appointments conferred by means of Letters Patent are, in most cases, dealt with at the Home Office; and all addresses to the Sovereign must pass through this Dept. The Sec. of State is also the medium of the exercise in England of the Prerogative of Mercy.

India Office, St. James's Park, S.W. £185,645. Sec. of State, Rt. Hon. Lord George Hamilton, M.P., £5,000; Under Secs. :-Permanent,_Sir Arthur Godley, K.C.B., £2,000; Parly., the Earl of Hardwicke, £1,500. Every measure concerning India runs in the name of the Sec. of State, who is responsible to Parliament, and who annually presents the Indian Budget.

Inland Revenue, Somerset House, W.C. Hours, 10 to 5. £1,274,500. Chairman, Sir H, W. Primrose, K.C.B., C.S.I., £2,000. DeputySir F. Lacy Robinson, K.C.B., £1,500. Commissioners, E. H. Wodehouse, C.B., Bernard Mallet, each £1,200. This Department collects excise, estate duties, stamp duties, land tax, house duty, and property and income tax. Judge-Advocate-General's Office, 7, Victoria Street, S.W. Hours, 10 to 4. Judge Adv.Gen., Rt. Hon. Sir F. H. Jeune, P.C., K.C.B.; Deputy, Sir J. Scott, K.C.M.G.

Local Government Board, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £215,269. President, Rt. Hon. Walter H. Long, M.P., £2,000. Secs.:-

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Lunacy Commission, 66, Victoria Street, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. Sat. 10 to 2. 14,962. Chairman, Earl Waldegrave. Sec., Lionel L. Shadwell. £800 to £1,000. Supervises all lunatic asylums in England and Wales; grants licenses for private asylums, and issues an Annual Report.

Meteorological Council. 63, Victoria Street, S.W. Hours, 10 to 4; Sat. 10 to 1 p.m. (general enquiries); 8.30 a.m. to 8 p.m.; Sundays 6 to 8 p.m. (telegraphic enquiries). 15,300. Chairman, Lt.-Genl. Sir R. Strachey, R.E., G.C.S.I. Sec., W. Napier Shaw, F.R.S. Collects statistics and issues forecasts of the weather. Sends information on payment of a fee of 6d., in addition to cost of telegrams, to farmers and others, as to probable weather twenty-four hours in advance.

Mint, The, Tower Hill, E. Hours, 10 to 5. Sat. 10 to 1. £32,000 (salaries). Master and Worker, Chancellor of the Exchequer. Deputy, H. A. D. Seymour, C.B., £1,500. Mints the coinage of the realm, and issues an annual report thereon.

National Debt Office, Old Jewry, E.C. Hours, 10 to 4. £13,107. Compt.-Gen., G. W. Hervey, C.B., £1,500. Assistant ditto, W. Taylor, £1,000. Chief Clerk, A. T. King, £800. This Office deals with Government Life Annuities. Ordnance Survey, Southampton. £210,159. Director-Gen., Col. D. A. Johnston, R.E. This Department, under the Board of Agriculture, prepares maps and plans of the United Kingdom on various scales. Surveys are continually in progress (see also pp. 252-256 Brit. Almck. 1901).

Observatory (Royal), Greenwich Park, S.E. £10,000. Astron. Roy., W. H. M. Christie, C.B., F.R.S., £1,000: Chief Assistants, F. W. Dyson, F.R.A.S., P. H. Cowell, F.R.A.S., £600 each. The Astronomer Royal is under the control of the Admiralty. The fundamental work of the Observatory is undertaking meridian observations of sun, moon, planets and stars.

Patent Office (Board of Trade), 25, Southampton Buildings, W.C. 468,192. Comptr.Gen., C. N. Dalton, C.B., £1,400; Registrar of Designs and Trade Marks, R. Griffin, £1,000; Chief Examiner, H. Hatfield, £1,000; Chief Clerk, P. G. L. Webb, £800. Issues patents and registers Designs and Trade Marks. Complete specifications, when accepted, open to inspection by the public at the Office on payment of a fee of IS.


Pay Office, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 10 to 4. Paymaster General, Duke of Marlborough (unp.); Assist., C. J. Maude, 1,100.

Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand, E.C. 49,328,810, Postal; £781,085, Packet Service; £4,036,580, Telegraphs. Postmaster-Gen., Marquess of Londonderry, K.G., £2,500; Sec., Sir G. H. Murray, K.C.B., £2,000. The PostmasterGen. is Parliamentary Head of the Office, which transacts money orders, savings bank, annuity, insurance and telegraphic business, as well as acting as the carrier of letters and parcels.

Prison Commission. Home Office. Chairman of Commissioners and Directors, E. J. Ruggles Brise, C.B., £1,800; Inspector and Secretary, Major E. G. Clayton, £700 to £800.

Privy Council Office, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 11 to 5. £12,300. Lord President of the Council, The Duke of Devonshire, K.G., £2,000; Clerk, Almeric W. Fitzroy, £1,250. Deputy Clerk, J. H. Harrison, £1,200. The functions of State formerly exercised by the Council when it was a small body are now confined to the members of the Cabinet. There is a Judicial Committee for appeals, consisting of the President of the Council, the Lord Chancellor, and such members of the Council as may hold, or have held, certain high judicial offices.

Privy Seal Office, Downing Street, S.W., £2,920. Lord Privy Seal, The Marquess of Salisbury, K.G., £2,000; Priv. Sess., Hon. Schomberg McDonnell, £400; Claude Cuthbertson, £250: Evelyn Cecil, M.P. (unpd.). The Lord Privy Seal has the custody of the Privy Seal, which he must not put to any grant without good warrant under the Sovereign's signet.

Public Record Office, Chancery Lane, W. C. Hours, 10 to 4.30. Sats. 10 to 2. £23,938. Keeper of the Records, Master of the Rolls; Deputy, Sir H. C. Maxwell Lyte, K.C.B., F.S.A., £1,100; Sec., J. J. Cartwright, £600. Publi Records and State papers are preserved here, where they are open to public inspection.

Public Works Loan Board, 3, Bank Buildings, E.C. Hours, 10 to 5. Sat. 10 to 3. Chairman, Sir Herbert Barnard; Sec., R. Philpot. The Board is empowered to grant loans to local authorities for burial grounds, the conservancy of rivers, main drainage works, docks, baths and washhouses, for improvements of towns, dwellings, lunatic asylums, &c., and various sanitary


Queen Anne's Bounty, 3, Dean's Yard, Westminster, S.W. Sec. and Treasurer (vacant). Chief Clerk, Wm. R. Le Fanu. This Department is empowered to augment poor livings in the Church of England, and to assist clergy by loans, on security of the revenues of benefices, to build residences, &c.

Reformatory and Industrial Schools, Great Scotland Yard, S.W. Inspector, J. G. Legge; Chief Clerk, J. L. Heath.

Registrar-General's Office, Somerset House, W.C. Hours, 10 to 5. £166,430. Reg.-Gen., Reginald McLeod, C.B., £1,200; Chief Clerk, N. A. Humphreys, 6900. The Registrar-General controls the civil registration of Births, Marriages, and Deaths (certified copies and registers being deposited at the General Register Office), and also supervises the decennial census.

Stationery Office, Storey's Gate, S.W. Hours, 10 to 5. £648,037. Controller, T. Digby Pigott, C.B., £1,500; Assistant, E. P. Plowman, £750. The Controller superintends the issue of numerous official publications affecting the civil, naval, and military services.

Thames Conservancy, Victoria Embankment, E.C. Hours, 10 to 4: Sat. 10 to 2. Chair.

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Registry of Shipping and Seamen, Custom House, Thames Street. Reg. Gen. of Seamen, J. Clark-Hall, £900. The Commercial Department deals with tariffs, treaties, labour questions, statistics, &c. The Railway Department inspects railways before opening, inquires into railway accidents, investigates complaints as to hours of work of railway servants, approves railway and canal bye-laws, authorises the construction of railways, and issues provi sional orders authorising gas, tramway, electric, and water undertakings. The Fisheries and Harbour Departments deal with freshwater and sea fisheries, pier and harbour works, and works on tidal land; the Marine Department mainly with administration of Merchant Shipping Acts; the Bankruptcy Department with insolvent companies, &c.; the Finance Department with merchant seamen's savings bank, lighthouse accounts, &c.

Treasury, Whitehall, S.W. Hours, 11 to 6. £89,272. First Lord, Rt. Hon. A. J. Balfour, M.P., £5,000; Chan. of the Exchequer, Rt. Hon. Sir M. Hicks-Beach, M.P., £5,000; Foint Secs.-Patronage, Rt. Hon. Sir W. H. Walrond, Bart, M.P., £2,000; Financial, Austen Chamberlain, M.P., £2,000; Permanent, Sir Francis Mowatt, G.C.B., £2,500. Controls the manage. ment, collection, and expenditure of public revenue; and exercises general control and supervision over all other public departments.

Trinity House, Tower Hill, E.C. Hours, 10 to 4. Master, H.R.H. The Duke of Cornwall and York, K.G.; Deputy Master, Capt. George R. Vyvyan; Sec., Charles A. Kent. The Trinity House is the General Lighthouse Authority for England, and the Chief Pilotage Authority of the Kingdom.

War Office, Pall Mall, S.W. Hours, IO to 5. Sec. of State, Rt. Hon. St. John Brodrick, M.P., £5,000; Financial Sec., Lord Stanley, M.P., £1,500; Under-Secs.: Permanent, Col. Sir E. W. D. Ward, K.C.B., £2,000; Parly, Lord Raglan, £1,500; Accountant-Gen., F. T. Marzials, £1,500. The Army Services are under the administrative control of the Sec. of State, to whom the Heads of Departments are responsible. (For Military Administration, see p. 199).

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