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SENECA'S SPEECU TO NERO.

107 himself live in affluence and luxury? shall he purchase estates (1) and lay out money (2) at interest? shall he build palaces, plant gardens, and adorn a country at his own expense and for his own pleasure?'

Cæsar has given royally as became (5) imperial magnificence. Seneca has received what his prince beslowed : nor did he ever ask; he is only guilty of not refusing. Cæsar's rank places him above the reach of invidious (4) malignity. Seneca is not, nor can be high enough to despise the envious. As the overloaded soldier or traveller would be glad to be relieved of his burden, so I, in this last stage (5) of the journey (6) of life, now that I find myself unequal to the lightest cares, beg (7) that Cæsar would kindly ease me of the trouble of my unwieldy (8) wealth.

I beseech him to restore to the imperial treasury, whence it came, what is to me superfluous and cumbrous (9). The time, and the attention, which I am now obliged to bestow upon my villa and my gardens, I shall be glad to apply to the regulation of my mind. Cæsar is in the flower of life. Long may he be (10) equal

(1) Estates , terres, biens.
(2) To lay out money, employer de l'argent.
(3) To become, convenir.
(4) Invidious, envieux.
(5) Last stage, dernier relais.

(6) Journey, voyage ; en parlant des voyages par mer les Anglais disent voy age.

(7) To beg , prier, supplier.
(8) Unwieldy, énorme ; difficile à remuer.
(9) Cumbrous ou cumbersome, embarrassant.
(10) Long may he be , puisse-t-il être longtemps.

to the toils of government! His goodness will grant to his worn-out (1) servant leave to retire. It will not be derogatory from Cæsar's greatness, to have it said that he bestowed favours on some who, so far from being intoxicated with them, showed that they could be happy when (at their own request) divested (2) of them.

FAME.

Fame, like all other things which are supposed to give or lo increase happiness, is dispensed (3) with equality of distribution. He that is loudly praised will be clamorously (4) censured; he that rises hastily into Fame, will be in danger of sinking (5) suddenly into oblivion,

MEMORY

The necessity of Memory to the acquisition of Knowledge is inevitably felt (5) and universally acknowledged, so that scarcely any other of the mental faculties are commonly considered as necessary to a student : he that admires the proficiency (7) of another, always attributes it to the happiness of his Memory: and he that

(1) Worn-out, usé, épuisé.
(2) Divested , privé, dépossédé.
(3) Dispensed, distribué.
(4) Clamorously, hautement.
(5) To sink , tomber, s'enfoncer, couler bas.
(6) Felt, passé de to feel, sentir, ressentir.
(7) Proficiency, progrès.

INVENTION OF THE GAMUT.

109 laments his own defects, concludes with a wish that his Memory were better.

INVENTION OF THE GAMUT.

About the year 1100, a Benedictine (1) monk named Guido Aretini, a native of Tuscany, having a very musical ear, was struck with the inexpressive and unharmonious manner in which the monks chaunted or rather bawled out (2) the litanies and Latin hymns. His delicate ear told him that certain syllables of the verse should be inore emphatically expressed than others; and being particularly disgusted with their manner of singing the hymn dedicated to St. John, he took it and marked the emphatic syllables with points or dots in the following manner.

Ut queant laxis Resonare fibris

Mira gestorum Famuli tuorum.

Solve polluti Labii reatum ,

Sancte Johannes.

This notation gave him the syllables UT RE MI FA SOL LA. A note however was yet wanting (3) to complete the natural scale (4); he added a dot (5) and marked it

(1) Benedictine, bénédictin, de Sl.-Benoit.
(2) To bawl out , crier.
(3) Was yet wanting, manquait encore.
(4) Scale, échelle.
(5) A dot, un point.

by the Greck letter y (ganma), whence the Gamut took its name, because he placed the additional note at the beginning of his scale.

It is said also he noted the syllables by marking under them certain letters of the alphabet, thus,

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Among the English musicians the scale of letters only is in use, and corresponds with the French scale in the following manner.

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C D E F G A B Some very curious information on the different sys. tems of ancient and modern music is to be found in Recherches sur l'Analogie de la musique avec le langage, by Villoteau.

MAXIMS,

Employement is the greatest instrument of intellectual dominion. The mind (1) cannot retire from its

(1) The mind , l'esprit , l'âme.

1

SPEECH OF CHARIDEMUS.

111

enemy into total vacancy (1), or turn aside from one object, but by passing to another. The gloomy (2) and the resentful (3) are always found among those who have nothing to do, or who do nothing.

He that teaches us any thing that we knew not before is undoubtedly to be reverenced as a master. He that conveys (4) knowledge in the most pleasing ways, may very properly be loved as a benefaclor; and he that supplies life with innocent amusement, will be certainly caressed as a pleasing () companion.

THE WISE ADVICE (6) OF CHARIDEMUS.

AN ATHENIAN EXILE AT THE COURT OF DARIUS, WHEN
HE WAS ASKED HIS OPINION OF THE EVENT (7) OF
THE WARLIKE PREPARATIONS MAKING BY

DARIUS AGAINST ALEXANDER.

Perhaps your majesty may not bear (8) the truth from

(1) Vacancy, vide.
(2) The gloomy, les hommes mélancoliques, tristes.
(3) Resentful, qui se fâche aisément.

(4) To convey, communiquer, transporter d'un endroit dans un autre.

(5) Pleasing, agréable.

(6) Advice, conseil. Dans cette acception advice n'a pas de pluriel.

(7) Event, événement, employé ici pour result., résultat. (8) To bear, supporter.

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