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and continued till the 13th of Janu- the trees themselves withered, and ary, including a space of fifty days fome brought their fruits to maturisuccessively, with the intermillion of ty, but are expected not to survive auonly one day of thaw (the 25th of tumn. Some trees were faved by cutDecember). This period was at- ting them very short, or by making tended with considerable injury to ani- incisions in the bark. Those which mals and vegetables ; fome of its suffered most were the walnut-tree, effects, taken from observation, we the winter pear-tree, the apple-tree, Ihall proceed to enumerate.

part of the peach-trees, and the fig

tree; those which suffered leait were 1. The Vine.

the plum-tree, the apricot-tree, the

cherry-free: those were most damagThe effects of the frost on the vine ed which were exposed to were perceptible from the different south. colour of that part of it, which was above, from the withered state of the

III. FOREST-TREES. ftems, and the colour of the juice, which was black. What is remark. The effect of the frost on the foreftable, the young and slender vines suf- trees has been to rend them, which fered less than the old, which were occasioned the loss of a considerable taller and stronger, and even than number. Those which suffered most those which were grafted. In spire were the oak, the ash, the elm, the of the precautions which were taken linden-tree, the filberd. in fpring to give them air, there were but few clusters produced ; the frost IV. FOREIGN TREES. had seized the aqueous part of the vine, and at the moment of thaw, These are but little cultivated in from the improper combination of the this country. It was remarked ihat water with the spirit of the vine, there the ever green trees as the laurel, was occasioned a decay in the quality lost their leaves ; those called Les and colour.

Arbres de Judee, and the toxicoden

dron, withered, both trunk and II. Fruit-TREES.

branches, but the roots produced new

stems. It was remarked that young trees, whose bark was smooth, fuffered less

V. Grain. than old trees, whose bark was rough; from which it was concluded, that The grain did not suffer where it the congealed water fixed in the ca- was covered with snow, and the har: vities of the baik had occasioned all veft was sufficiently plentiful from the injury. It was remarked that the Champagne to S. Quentin, where the bark of the frozen trees was black, snow had fallen iwo days after the and the wood of a yellow colour; the frost: no grain was hurt except what body of the tree and the branches had been sown late. But from S. were injured in several places: no Quentin to Flanders the faow did not means that were employed to remedy fall three weeks after the frost, which the effects of the froit completely suc- made astonishing ravages in almost all ceeded. Several trees did not flourish, French Flanders, and a good part of and were absolutely dead; others Artois. The winter-barley, and the produced a few buds that were soon corn sowed late, were entirely lott, destroyed; some trees produced flow. After the thaw winter grain was fowa ers and fruits, which fell in summer, on the former feed, in order to pre

serve 402

Character of Judge Buller. serve what the froft had spared : this did not succeed, becapse the fishes, last seed quickly sprung up. In strong when they came to breathe at these and rich lands winter-grain was fow- holes, were at once enclosed between ed; ia thinner ground, barley. two pieces of ice. The fshes, bow

ever, in deep ponds, did not share VI. KITCHEN-Roots. the fate of the others. The eel fuf.

fered most on this occasion, and next All those plants were preserved to the eel the pike and the carp. which the snow had covered, but the ochers have been the vidims of the

VIII. ANIMALS. frost, as artichokes, colewort, fellery, and the aromatic herbs ; those pre- Hens and turkies are moft exposed served were the forrel, lettuce, alpa- to the effects of froit; several hens ragus, and wild fuccory,

lost their legs, which did not, how

ever, prevent them, after the thaw, VII. FISHES.

from laying eggs; they supplied the

loss of their legs by employing their So intense was the frost that the knees in walking. In general, the usual method employed for preserving cows and horses suffered little, being fifhes, by making holes in the ice, well fed and kept warm.

Character of the Honourable Sir Francis Buller, Bart. one of the Judges

of the Court of King's Bench.*

« Our city's inftitutions, and the terms
Of common justice, y'are as pregnant in,
As art and pra&ice hath enriched any
That we remember.

Shakspeare's Mcafure for Measure. THE great and learned Judge Bul. ted to assume the dignity of the coif,

ler was admitted of the Inner or to ascend the magifterial bench ; a Temple on the 8th of February, periud indeed, sbeyond the bloom of 1763, and called to the bar after the manhood, customarily elapsed before usual period of probation, from the their “ call to the bar.” In the ina honourable society of the Middle Atance before us, we see a judge emiTemple ; from the same society he nently qualified for the station he fills, was also made a serjeant, and, almost almost in the bloom of youth. immediately after, promoted to the Mr Buller's first entré into the prorank of a judge of the Court of feffion, was in the department of fpeKing's Bench.

cial pleading. He studied under the This is the age of young men— present Judge, then Mr. Aslıhurst, we now see men born statesmen and and, like Demofthenes, excelled his lawyers. They are translated almoft mifter,t and was always ranked 2from the cradle to the government of mongst the most eminent of the prokingdoms, and to presidency in legi- feflion. His acceffion to business, as Dlation. In former times, none but a common law draughứman, was immen advanced in years were permit- mediate and immense ; his practice as

• From Stri&ures on the lives and Characters of the molt eminent Lawyers of the present day.

† lfæus was the preceptor of the great Athenian orator.

a barrister was also, at firft, confider- If special pleading has any fans able, and, in an extremely short pe- beams, many others have been lightriod, became equal to that of the very ed up by his. The astonishing fucfirst-rate lawyers.

cess of Judge Buller, introduced the In all that part of practice which fashion of making the study of that pufhes a cause out of its regular science (if it ought to be dignified by course, and forms the great business that name) an introduction to the of the term, he had no equal ; in profeflion. every motion of consequence, or spe- Th eloquence of magistracy is of cial argument, he was always engaged a far different kind from that of the either for the plaintiff or defendant; advocate ; and the speeches of this and here Mr. Buller was perfectly at very learned judge from the Bench, home,

certainly approach as near perfection Nature designed him for a lawyer, as modern example reaches; it is a and he wisely pursued her bias ; for model for imitation. very early in life he seems to have en- He possesses great quickness of pertered into a recognizance, to talk and ception; sees the consequences of a think of nothing but law; his know. fact, and the drift of an argument at ledge of practice and cases, left him its first opening, and can immediately without a competitor. He resembles reply to an unforeseen objection; the Roman lawyer Sulpitius, and though, perhaps, it may be sometimes certainly is the Coke of the preient suspected that his perception is too age.

quick; it has certainly exposed him His Nifi Prius pra&tice was, in- in some instances to the charge (whedeed, comparatively inconfiderable.- ther true or false) of in patience and The fact is, Mr Bulier had liucle suc- petulance, very indecorous in the cess in his address to the paffions, and character of a judge; it is not ecould not therefore be eminent in his nough that the magistrate on the bench appeal to a jury. However threwdly should perceive the truth or fallacy he cross-examined; however fagacious of an argument; it is his duty to prohe might be in the arrangement and ceed with the most cautious delihermanagement of a caufe (from a want, ation, 'till, from the arguments of probably, of directing his attention the pleader, or the result of evidence, to the embellishırents of oratory) he he has drawn forth the cleareit dewas by no means, happy as an advo- moní rations tha, the case posibly advocate, his advocatorial adaress ra- mits, and established conviction, by ther conveyed the idea of barking the patient exertion of argumentative than speaking; but excellence does reason. not ereat her banner in every region It is the general, as it is the juft of the mind; he fought and found profeflional character of this great fame in the recesses of law learning ; lawyer, that he states his arguments and therefore we are not to be fur- with the utmost accuracy and preciprised, if he was deficient in those fion, reasoning logically and in a more showy accomplishments, which style, which may be deemed the true were little, or not at all, objects of eloquence of law. Like his present his choice or attention.

Chief, he was not calculated to push

his

* Sulpitius, the great Roman lawyer, is faid to have left behind him one hundred and fourscore volumes on law subjects, of his own compiling. It is extremely proble that Mr Buller's manuscript collections are considerably of a larger bulk, and of a fimilar rature.

104

Character of Sir John Scott, Solicitor General. his way in parliamentary campaigns; The anecdote being remarkable, but his consummate knowledge ren- and eminently calculated to illuftrate derered him an important acquisition this part of the Judge's character, it to the Bench. He was the youngest may not be improper to relate it. English Judge ever promoted to that Mr Erskine put a question to the rank; aid, growing up, under the Jury, relative to the meaning of their Cetary of knowledge and eloquence verdict; Mr Justice Buller objected may juftly now be considered as one to its propriety. The counsel reiterof its greatest orna nents

ated his question, aod perfifted in deMr Juftice Buller, if we consider manding an answer"; the Judge again the traits by which is judicial con- interposed his authority in these emduét has been strongly marked, seems phatic words: “ Sit down, Mr to possess the greatest inflexibility of “ Erskine; know your duty, or I sentiment and opinion.* Like Holt, “ thall be obliged to make you know he is too itaunch and too systematic a “ it.”—Mi Erskine, with equal lawyer to suffer the stubborn and warmth replied: "I know mig duty general principles of law to give “ as well as your Lordship knows way, in any instance, to the milder"

ynur duty.

I stand bere as the inferences of equity. It cannot, how

" advocate of a fellow-citizen, and I ever, be denied or concealed, that will not fit down." The Judge was the calmness of his temper, and the filent, and the Advocate persisted in deliberate firinness of his conduct, has his question. not in every instance kept pace with Who was legally right, is not in. the inflexibility of his judgment, and tended to be here difeuffed; foce tenacious adherence to general max. this book treats of the characters of ims. A striking proof of this was Judges, not of the maxims of law. exhibited at the famous trial of the But it must readily be allowed, that Dean of St Asaph, when, after push. to proceed to threats, which either he ing his opposition to Mr Erskine, even could not, or he was not inclined to to threats and commands, he yet suf- carry into execution, was, in fome fered him to fet his authority at open repea, derogatory from that dignity defiance, and proceed in the interro- which the representative of majesty gation, to which he had so ftrenously and justice ought carefully to sustain. objected.

Character of the Honourable Sir John Scott, Knight, His Majesty's Solicitar

General. +

Pleasant without scurrility-witty without affectation-audacious without impudence and learned without opinion.

SHAKESPEARE's Love's Labour Lot
He hath a prosp'rous art
When he will play with reason, and discourse,
And well he can persuade.

SHAKESPEARE's Measure for Measure

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T would be a curious, and by po view the revolutions of taste in the

means a usciess gratification, to re- different periods of English hiftory,

and

Ś Lord Mansfield. • See his cage to the jury in Dónnellan's case, and his memorable opinion, of the right of the bad over the wife, to the excrcisc of the thumb-flick.

† From the fame.

to

court.

and observe the very dissimilar means main almost the only avenue which varied manners hold out to the wealth and famc, may be a matter of aspiring and ambitious in the career of great speculative curiosity to the phifame. The fame path that is ob- losophical observer ; but not being di. structed in one age by endless difficul. rectly pertinent to the subject before us, ties, is opened by the flattering hand it mutt pass us undiscussed, while we of invitation and incitement, in ano- proceed to narrate what we know, or ther.

have been able to obtain, respecting Monkish habits were, in other times, Sir John Scott, from the stricteft ena prelude to the Statesman's robes. quiry. -Honours and emoluments were on- Sir John Scort is the son of a rely lavished upon churchmen, and those spectable tradelinan in Newcastle. of minds enslaved by the grofs bigot. His elder brother Sir William Scott, ry of monastic life. Every depart- was bred up in the civil law courts, ment of State was priest-ridden; the and is at this time a Dotor of Laws, helm of England has been conducted and his Majesty's Advocate General, by the tyrannic hand of a butcher's and will, in all probability, rise to the són! under the sanction of these trap- higheit honours in the ecclesiastical pings.

Sir John, then Mr Scott, was To this succeeded a more liberal admitted a student of the Middle age. Elegance and refinement were Temple of Hillary Term, 1772; feen, like the great luminary of the and after studying with much applicaworld, emerging from a cloud, and tion, keeping his terms regularly, and bursting through the gloom of Monk- attending the court of chancery with ilh ignorance. Polite and speculative great asliduity during the usual season literature succeeded the doll jargon of of probation, was called to the Bar in the schools ; and poets and philofo- Hillary Term 1776. phers were called to occupy the first He devoted his attention principal. ofices of state.

ly to the practice of the courts of equi. A fucceeding revolution dethroned ty. Indeed, for several years after the Muses, to make way for the nen his call to the bar, with a timility naof law. The present may fairly be de- tural to his character, he shuoned, as nominated the Age of Lawyers.--- much as possible, appearing even at the Formerly men were whelnied in the chancery bar as a pleader; confining vaffalage of priest-hood.- Priets were himself almost entirely to the business in those times a kind of folicitors in of a draughtsman, in which he was rethe chancery of heaven, invested, how- puted extremely able, and in which ever, with all its plenitude of power on he had vatt practice. earth. Lawyers are now, what priests Many have forced themselves, in were then; and the tribute paid to this profession, into public notice, by them, is as great as fuperftition once the resolute and persevering industry rendered to the church.

the strength of their conititutions have Men of this profession, without birth, enabled them to support; and not a family, connections, or wealth, are few have succeeded by means of that daily raising themselves to the highest forid energy of character, diftinguishdignities of State; and the character, ed by the word asurance; but Sir now under confideration, will pro. John Scott is a fingular instance, bably live to be decorated with a com- where the source of advancement in million, that will give himn precedence life is to be traced to great natural over every Lay Subject of the king modetty and feebleness of conftitution, dom. How long the law may poffefs which is too apt to operate as a check this great fuperiority, and the bar re- upon young ambition's wing; and is VOL. XII. No. 72. 3 F

very

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