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From The Saturday Review. imagining for himself a unit followed by AGAMOGENESIS.
some inches of ciphers. Surely there is some The long word which heads this article was thing almost touching in the consideration invented by an eminent French naturalist, M. that all the mighty hordes which we see de Quatrefages, and applied by him to those swarming over our rose-trees and geraniuras, singular modes of reproduction without the our orchards and hop-gardens, are orphans influence of sex which have now been observed orphans too of so peculiar a kind that they to obtain very extensively in both the animal not only have no fathers, but never had any. and the vegetable worlds. The occurrence of Nothing, however, can be better established this kind of multiplication was first clearly than the fact. Subsequent observers have redemonstrated by Bonnet, in the middle of the peated Bonnet's experiments with results in last century. Stimulated by Reaumur, the all essential respects the same. They have patient author of the Insectologie instituted a obtained a large number of successive broods ; very remarkable series of investigations upon and one of them, Kyber, has even shown that those well-known pests of the garden and if the supply of warmth and food be kept up, green-house, the Aphides — “blight-insects;" agamic reproduction will go on for two or
or “plant-lice" as thez are commonly three years without a symptom of diminished called. A newly-born Aphis was carefully is- energy. More than this—the researches of solated, and the twig which served as the in- the numerous excellent naturalists who have sect's pasture-ground and residence, having of late years applied themselves to the invesits end inserted into a vessel of water, was tigation of the lower animals have brought to covered over with a glass shade. Bonnet, hold- light a great number of parallel cases, not ing his captive, as he says, exultingly, “more only among other insects, but in other divissafe than Danaë in her tower," watched its ions of the animal kingdom and in the vege proceedings with an assiduity, and recorded table world; so that there is now a large and them with a Boswellian minuteness, which compact body of evidence all tending to show would be ludicrous if they were not almost that “Lucina sine concubitu." the favorite sublime; and he had his reward in the dis- miracle of a past age, is among many living covery that, under these circumstances, the beings an orderly and normal occurrence. Aphis gave rise not merely to a single living There is for instance, a plant—the Carlo offspring, but to fourscore! More than this bogyne ilicifolia—discovered at Moreton Bay, -one of these young, treated in the same in Australia, some twenty years ago, and way, yielded like results. Its isolated progeny thence sent to the Royal Botanic Gardens at again exhibited the same faculty; and as long Kew, where it has grown and flourished, and as Bonnet kept up his observations—viz., for may be seen in full vigor. Like the rest of nine successive broods, the power of agamic the order (Euphorbiacea) to which it be production showed no symptoms of exhaus- longs, the Cælobogyne is direcious—that is to tion.
say, the stamens and pistils are not only situThe Aphides make their appearance early ated in different flowers, but these flowers are in spring. The number in each family, and borne by distinct plants. The pistil-bearing the time required for the maturity of its or female plant is the only one which has members, vary with the temperature and the hitherto been discovered, and yet, year after supply of food; but on an average it may be year, the Cælobogyne las formed its fruit and safely assumed that there are a hundred fertile seeds to all appearance as well as if its Aphides in a brood, and that a newly-born staminiferous mate were blooming in the next Aphis requires not much more than a fort- parterre. Nor must it be supposed that the night to attain to full propagative capacity. vagrant pollen of some nearly allied plant During the warm months, cherefore, thirteen has, in
substituted for that of or fourteen broods may be reckoned upon, and the lawful partner. The seedling Coelobogyne supposing all the young to come to maturity, exhibits no trace of hybridism, and microthe number of Aphides which may thus pro- scopic investigation shows clearly that the ceed from a single ancestor is past all concep- seed has been formed without the influence of tion. We might calculate it mathematically any pollen. for the reader, but he will gain just as real a The isolated female Daphniæ, or "waternotion of the quantity, and save our type, by fleas,” produce brood after brood of young;
several kinas of butterflies have been observed That separate individual existence which we to be endowed with the same marvellous fac- call a man or a horse is the total product of ulty; and the remarkable observations of Von the development of a single egg. If we are Siebold have, it would seeni, established the to apply the term “individual” with the same fact, that, among bees, the drones are always meaning to the Aphis, then all the millions produced from eggs which have been sub- which are developed from one Aphis in the jected to no influence but that of the maternal course of a spring and summer are, in physiparent. These facts so obviously tend to bring ological strictness, but the equivalent of a the masculine sex into contempt—as at most single man or horse. They are, so to speak, an grnamental excrescence, and by no means independent fragments of the one physiologian essential ingredient in the order of nature cal individual; and when we look closely into --that we almost wonder they have not been the matter, we find that these independentlyseized
upon and turned to account by some of existing fragments are developed in precisely the strong-minded. The doctrine of “no pa- the same way as those portions of an organism ternity” might appropriately find a place be- which always remain connected together, side that of “free maternity” already advo- The germ of erery living being is a mass withcated on Transatlantic platforms by masculine out distinction of parts; and all that we term females - probably transmigrated Aphides. organs, limbs, viscera, leaves, flowers, and so But, in truth, the argument would be some- forth, are produced by the budding of this what one-sided and its application hasty. mass, and the gradual modelling of the buds Even among the blight-insects, nature, with into the form required. all her aberrations, shows a fondness for old In the highest animals and plants the vafashions. True it is, that the Aphis born in rious buds remain united—the co-operation spring may give rise, in vestal seclusion and of each being more or less necessary to the innocence that cannot fall away, to countless efficient action of all its fellows; but in the millions of winged or wingless successors. lower forms of life, whether vegetable or aniTrue it is, also, that under favorable circum- mal, no such“ natural piety” unites the parts stances, there would seem to be no limit to the of the germ, or even of the adult; and hence continuance of this mode of reproduction. But portions of its substance may become deit is no less certain that, under ordinary con- tached and assume an independent life. Thus ditions, as the cold weather approaches, or as portions of the tissue of the Liverwort, or of food falls short, broods of males and ordinary the bulbiferous lily, grow out and eventually females are produced. While the viviparous separate themselves as free organisms. Thus Aphides were either winged or wingless, these the common fresh-water polype thrusts forth true females (with possibly an exception) from the walls of its body prooesses which benever possess wings and never bring forth come new and independent Hydræ. But living young, but lay eggs, and then, like the these independent buds are in no respect, save males, die. The eggs, hidden in cracks of their separation, distinct from those which the bark of hardy plants, or protected by the united together, form the tree or the branched covering scales of their buds, pass through the zoophyte; and a long series of insensible winter in security, and when the returning gradations connects those organisms whose warmth of spring rouses their latent life, they components, as in the zoophyte, are united by are hatched, and give rise to the viviparous the slightest tie of interdependence with those agamic young. Thus, under ordinary condi- whose constituent buds are wholly incapable tions, the Aphides pass through a sort of of continued separate existence. cycle of changes. The egg hatched in the The apparently anomalous reproduction of spring produces either winged or wingless the viviparous Aphis reduces itself to a case forms, which give rise spontaneously to either of budding. In the terminal chamber of the winged or wingless living young. This process tubes which, in the viviparous form, represent is repeated, without known limits, until the the ovary of the true female, bodies precisely temperature or the supply of food falls below resembling young ova are contained ; and à certain amount; then oviparous, wingless these, becoming successively detached, gradufemales, and winged, or wingless males are ally develope within the body of the parent produced, and give rise to eggs, like those in into young Aphides, which are eventually which living beings in general take their ori- born alive. The process is precisely similar gin.
in principle to that by which the bud of a lit into contact with that element, and it will plant is developed, and, as in the plant, re- by and by become a young Aphis-leave it quires for its completion nothing but warmth to itself, and it will eventually be resolved and nourishment.
into its constituent particles. Truly this is a So much the microscope and the scalpel re- marvellous difference, but not more wonderveal to us in all cases of agamogenesis—in all, ful or more mysterious than that which obthe young animal is formed by budding from tains amidst the homogeneous elements of the old. But if the question is asked, why the germ itself, and which determines that, certain animals and certain parts of animals of two masses undistinguishable by any test possess
, and others do not, physiology is silent. The another a liver, and another a heart. When most careful scrutiny of the rudiment of the physiologists have found an explanation for egg in the oviparous Aphis fails to detect any these common and every-day phenomena, lifference between it and the germ of the they may try their hands with some chance of young of the viviparous Aphis; but there is success upon such secrets of nature as Agamonevertheless a strong constitutional tendency, genesis. of it may be so called, impressed on each, and In the meanwhile, let us rejoice in the vast impelling it to a widely different course from field of inquiry opened up for us by the reverthat followed by the other. The one, as we ent investigation of one of the humblest and have seen, spontaneously passes into a living lowest of created things; and let us candidly young-the other increases in size, but other- acknowledge that there was method in the wise remains almost unchanged, except by be- madness of the French savan, when he procoming enveloped within a hard case, specially posed to call the decennium marked by Bonperforated for the admission of the one ele- net's discovery “ l'Epoque des Pucérons." ment which is wanting to its activity. Bring
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German Equivalents for English Thoughts. By i would be found, for instance, that his prophecy
, Madame Bernard.
would not rest upon those men who are called A COLLECTION of some eight thousand Eng
eccentric. Eccentricity more frequently depends lish words or phrases, rather in common than on a disregard of public opinion in trilling and literary use, with their equivalents in German. nonessential matters than upon any twist or The arrangement is alphabetical ; the primary perversion in the mind of the individual
. The object seems to be to familiarize the student with eccentric man is often a large-hearted and a colloquial expressions, for the book is not de courageous man, and, as such, one of the last signed as a conversation, though many of the to become insane. The ominous forethought of phrases can be used for question or reply. The the physician would rather rest upon the iman author forestalls an objection that some of the over susceptible concerning the good opinion examples may be “too familiar, by which she cious and timorous man, who hears scandal be
which others may entertain of him ; the suspidoubtless means phrases like " die game, of the gab,” &c. If such terms were presented for it is spoken, and apprehends the commenco in English, it would have been better always to has not at bottom of his heart a sincere liking
ment of every possible mischief; the man who mark by an explanatory note the precise force for his fellow creatures, but who is querulous of the German equivalent.—Spectator.
and contentious, and who perpetually finds him
self in disaccord with the world. This is the Symptoms of INCIPIENT INSANITY.-An type of man whom predisposing and exciting alienist physician of judgment and experience causes are most likely to plunge into insanity. would be able to point out, in the circle of soci- Psychological Medicine. ety with which he is acquainted, nearly all the men who are very likely to become insane; but The following simile, contained in one of were he imprudent enough to make known this Tobin's comedies, is said to have been levelled invidious prescience, it would be found that his at Cumberland : _“He sits there in his closet judgment differed widely from the opinions on expecting inspiration, like an old rusty conductor this subject which are current in the world. It waiting for a flash of lightning."
No. 746.—11 September, 1858. -Enlarged Series, No. 24.
Correspondence-First Atlantic Telegram-New
Times, N. Y. Courier, N. Y. Journal
North and South.
Telegraph, Liverpool Times, Liver
pool Journal. 4. Half Hour with a Fighting Man, 5. A Tale of the Foreign Office, 6. Chateaubriand, 7. Edward's Personal Adventures,. 8. A Wife by Advertisement 9. The Expected Great Comet, .
POETRY.—The Cable, 845. She is not Listening now 845, The Patter of Little Feet, 845.
SHORT ARTICLES.– Voice of the Last Prophet, 816. Charity, 816. Suiting the Action to the Word, 816. Little Attention, 816. Good Idea, 816. Wives of Clever Men, 816. Mammon Worship, 816. The Future a Sealed Book, 816. Patience, 816. Love and Judgment, 816. Excellency of Christ, 825. The Sabbath, 825. Copyright in Europe, 844. Teaching of Physical Science, 849. Mr. Thackeray Described, 849. Unwilling Ferryman, 849. Woman's Love, 852. Jeremy Taylor, 871. Judicial Humor, 871. Canonical Books of the New Testament, 871. Translations from the German, by Carlyle, 877. Novels and Novelists, 877. Insect Physic, 877. Life, 877. Story of a Boulder, 880. Christian Island Discovered, 880.
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From The New York Courier, 27 Aug. It is a seal, avouching, as it would seem, the
pleasure of Heaven that the aspirations for
human concord and brotherhood which the lavVALENTIA, August 25. A Treaty of Peace has been concluded ing of this cable has so marvellously evoked, with China, by which England and France shall not return void; and so we should recogobtain all their demands, including the nise it if we had half the free full faith of the establishment of embassies at Pekin, and old Pagans. With what new life would such indemnification for the expenses of the war. events and accompaniments have invested the
The first news despatch of the Atlantic Cable stately shapes of old mythology, and with what is an announcement of PEACE. Every thing new glory invested them ! seems to combine to inaugurate this co-linking of the two worlds with happiest omens. It was THE TELEGRAPH IN FRANCE.—The news of no common coincidence that the semi-centennial the successful laying down of the Atlantic cable celebration of nearly the oldest theological in- scarcely excited any attention in France. They stitution in the land, and one which has proba- do not appear to appreciate the magnitude of bly had a wider influence than any other upon the event, nor do they comprehend for a moits religious history—that this occasion which ment the value of this enterprise to themselves brought together an almost unexampled multi- even. The news is just seven days old, and not tude of those whose business it is to preach the a single journal has yet contained an editorial gospel of peaco, should have been signalized on the subject. Their notices are confined to and forever made memorable, by the advent, at the short dispatches that came to them from the very height of its exercises, of such start-Valentia in the columns of the London jourling intelligence; it was no common coincidence nals. From the Paris correspondence of the New that the same intelligence should have reached York Commercial Advertiser. the sovereigns of England and France just when they had met, on one of the most memor- The tameness of the English rejoicings over able occasions of their reigns, to renew to each the Atlantic Telegraph is in marked contrast other most solemn pledges of peace and friend with the jubilant character of the American ship, and alliance. And it is now no common demonstrations in honor of the great event. coincidence that the very first business service This is due to two causes; the English do not rendered by this mighty agent is to herald peace make near so general a use of the telegraph as -to herald it, when it was unlooked for, and the Americans. The press and the people emfrom the only spot on the globe where inter- ploy it much less, the rates are higher, and the national war existed. A peace too of mightiest habits of the people are less accustomed to the import, for with it comes the entrance of the go-ahead notions which the telegraph represents. oldest Empire of the world into the family, of Another reason is that the masses of the English nations, and the throwing open, to the march people concern themselves much less with pubof civilization, gates behind which lie a third of lic matters. Those who understand the telethe human race. China is no longer to be an graph know all about it, and know very little isolated land ; ambassadors from the civilised about any thing else. The people are more Powers are now to take up their residence in phlegmatic and not so easily aroused to a sense her capital; and perfect freedom of intercourse of the importance of the work, or to any great is henceforth to be her established law. The enthusiasm over it, even if its importance were habits of ages are to be broken up; the arro- fully appreciated. Moreover the space devoted gance which treats the rest of the world as out to the accounts of the celebration by the teleside barbarians is to disappear; and the Chinese graphic despatches here, spread the news simulare now also to join in the wonderful march of taneously all over the land, and the euthusiasm the nations towards unknown, unlooked-for, in one place kindled it in another, till the whole destinies. The conclusion of this treaty of country blazed with fire works and rung with peace with China forms an epoch in the history the reverberating echoes of cannon. In Engof the Eastern World ; and it is a sublime fact land they care much less about it; and they that the first commission of that wire which take with more coolness the things that they do flashes intelligence to the Western World is to care about.-Providence Journal proclaim that epoch. It is an augury for good.
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