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with fears of disappointment and miscarriage, with tremblings and guilt of conscience, with certainty of period and expiration; but clear, holy, constant, unmixed, satisfactory, and proportionable to the compass of the soul,-more gladness than all the world can take in the 'increase of their corn and wine.'
And this joy of the Spirit is grounded upon every passage of a Christian condition, from the entrance to the end. First, The Spirit worketh joy in discovering, and bending the heart to mourn for corruption. For it is the Spirit of grace and supplications which maketh sinners mourn, and loath themselves ".' And such a sorrow as this, is the seed, and the matter of true joy: our Joseph's heart was full of joy, when his eyes poured out tears upon Benjamin's neck. As in wicked laughter the heart may be sorrowful, so in holy mourning the heart may rejoice; for all spiritual afflictions have a peaceable fruit.' This was the first glimpse and beam of the prodigal's joy, that he resolved, with tears and repentance, to return to his father again. For there is a sweet complacency in an humble and spiritual heart to be vile in its own eyes, as to the hungry soul every bitter thing is sweet. Sacrifices, we know, were to be offered up with joy a; and of all sacrifices a broken heart' is that which God most delighteth in ". "There is joy in Heaven at the repentance of a sinner;" and therefore there must needs be joy in the heart itself which repenteth, inasmuch as it hath heavenly affections begun in it. Therefore as the apostle saith, “Let a man become a fool, that he may be wise;" so may I truly say,-Let a man become a mourner, that he may rejoice.
If it be objected, How one contrary affection can be the ground and inducement of another, and that he who feeleth the weight of sin, and displeasure of God, can have little reason to boast of much joy; to this I answer, First, that we do not speak of those extraordinary combats, and grapplings with the sense of the wrath of God, breaking of bones, and burning of bowels, which some have felt; but of the ordinary humiliations and courses of repentance, which are
* Psalm iv. 7. Zech. xii. 10, 11. Ezek. xxxvi. 27, 31. καὶ θρήνοις ἐξγίνεταί τις ἡδονή. Arist. Rhet. a Mal. ii. 13.
1 Εν τοῖς πένθεσι b Psalm li. 16, 17.
common to all. Secondly, that such spiritual mourning and joy are not contrary, in regard of the Spirit, nor does one extinguish or expel the other. As black and white are contrary in the wall, but meet without any repugnancy in the eye, because, though as qualities they fight, yet, as objects, they agree in communi conceptu visibilis;' so joy and mourning, though contrary, in regard of their immediate impressions upon the sense, do not only agree in the same principle, the grace of Christ,-and in the same end, the salvation of man,-but may also be subordinated to each other as a dark and muddy colour is a fit ground to lay gold upon; so a tender and mourning heart is the best preparation unto spiritual joy. Therefore our Saviour compareth'spiritual sorrow unto the pains of a woman in travail.' Other pains, growing out of sickness and distempers, have none but bitter ingredients, and anguish in them; but that pain groweth out of the matter of joy, and leadeth unto joy so though godly sorrow have some pain in it, yet that pain hath ever joy both for the root and fruit of it: and though, for the present, it may haply intercept the exercise, yet it doth strengthen the habit and ground of joy; as those flowers in the spring rise highest and with greatest beauty, which, in winter, shrink lowest into the earth. "I trembled," saith the prophet, "in myself, that I might rest in the day of troubled."
Secondly, The Spirit doth not only discover, but heal the corruptions of the soul; and there is no joy to the joy of a saved and cured man. The lame when he was restored by Peter, expressed the abundant exultation of his heart, "by leaping, and praising God." For this cause therefore, amongst others, the Spirit is called 'the oil of gladness,' because by that healing virtue which is in him, he maketh glad the hearts of men. "The Spirit of the Lord," saith Christ, "is upon me, because the Lord anointed me to preach the glad tidings to the meek; he hath sent me to bind the broken hearted:" and again, "I will bind that which was broken, and will strengthen that which was sick." Now this healing virtue of Christ is the dispensa
e John xvi. 21.
d Hab. iii. 16.
e Acts iii. 8.
g Ezek xxxiv. 16.
f Isai. lxi. 6.
tion of his word and Spirit; and therefore the prophet saith, "The Sun of righteousness shall arise with healing in his wings ";" where the Spirit in the word, by which he cometh and preacheth unto men', is called 'the wing of the Sun,' because he proceedeth from him, and was sent to supply his absence, as the beam doth the sun's: and this Spirit the apostle calleth the strengthener of the inner man *.”
Thirdly, The Spirit doth not only heal, but renew, and revive again. When an eye is smitten with a sword, there is a double mischief; a wound made, and a faculty perished: and here though a surgeon can heal the wound, yet he can never restore the faculty, because total privations admit no regress or recovery;-but the Spirit doth not only heal and repair, but renew, and re-edify the spirits of men. As he healeth that which was torn, and bindeth up that which was smitten, so he reviveth and raiseth up that which was dead before': and this the apostle calls the renovation of the Spirit, whereby old things are not mended and put together again (for our fall made us all over unprofitable and little worth "), but are done quite away, and "all things made new" again: the heart, mind, affections, judgment, conscience, members, changed from stone to flesh, from earthly to heavenly, from the image of Adam to the image of Christ P. Now this renovation must needs be matter of great joy; for so the Lord comforteth his afflicted people 9.
Fourthly, The Spirit doth not renew and set the frame of the heart right, and then leave it to its own care and hazards again; but being thus restored, he abideth with it to preserve and support it against all tempests and batteries. And this farther multiplieth the joy and comfort of the church, that it is established in righteousness,' so that no weapon which is formed against it, can prosper'. Victory is ever the ground of joys; and the Spirit of God is a victorious Spirit. His judgment in the heart is sent forth unto victory'. "And before him, mountains shall be made a plain, and every high thing shall be pulled down, till he bring forth
Eph. ii. 17. 1 Pet. iii. 19. n Rom. iii. 12. Prov. x. 20. q Isa. liv. 11, 12, 13.
t Mat. xii. 20.
h Mal. iv. 2.
m Tit. iii. 5.
Eph. iii. 16.
1 Hosea vi. 1, 2. P Ezek. xi. 19.
• Isa. ix. 3.
the Head-stone with shoutings.' "" X To Stephen, he was a Spirit of victory against the disputers of the world: to the apostles, a Spirit of liberty in the prison: to all the faithful, a Spirit of joy and glory in the midst of persecutions a.
Fifthly, The Spirit doth not only preserve the heart which he hath renewed, but maketh it fruitful and abundant in the works of the Lord; and fruitfulness is a ground of rejoicing. Therefore they which are born of God, cannot commit sin;' that is, they are not épyátai tñs ádixías ', ' workers' or artificers, or finishers of iniquity,' because they have the seed of God, that is, his Spirit in them, which fitteth them (as seed doth the womb or the earth) to bring forth fruit unto God: partly by teaching the heart, and casting, as it were, in the mould of the word, fashioning such thoughts, apprehensions, affections, judgments, in the soul, as are answerable to the will and spirit of God in the word; so that a man cannot but set his seal, and say 'Amen' to the written law;-partly, by moving, animating, applying, and most sweetly leading the heart unto the obedience of that law, which is thus written therein.
Lastly, Those whom he hath thus fitted, he sealeth up unto a final and full redemption by the testimony of their adoption, which is the handsel and earnest of their inheritance: and thereby begetteth a lively hope, an earnest expectation, a confident attendance upon the promises, and an unspeakable peace and security thereupon; by which fruits of faith and hope there is a glorious joy shed abroad into the soul, so full, and so intimately mingled with the same, that it is as possible for man to annihilate the one, as to take away the other. For according to the evidence of
* Ezek. iv. 6, 7. y Acts vi. 10. ■ Acts xvi. 25, 26. a 1 Pet. iv. 13, 14. b Gal. v. 22. Rom, vii. 4. c Ἐπεὶ δὲ φίλαυ]οι πάντες, καὶ τὰ αὑτῶν ἀνάγκη ἡδέα εἶναι πᾶσιν, οἷον ἔργα, λόγους, διὸ καὶ φιλότεκνοι· αὐτῶν γὰρ ἔργα τὰ τέκνα, Arist. d Isaiah liv. 1. e 1 John iii. 8, 9. f Mat. vii. 23. Luke xiii. 27. The whole phrase, άuapllav wolv, is as much as the Latin "operarius iniquitatis,' one that maketh a trade of sin, or professeth iniquity, whose service is altogether incompatible with the profession or hope of a Christian. Doctor Jackson of Justif. Faith, sect. 2. cap. 8. g John xiv. 26. 1 John ii. 20. Isa. liv. 13. Jer. xxxi. 33. 2 Cor. iii. 3. Τὸ μανθάνειν ἡδό. h Vid. Beza Annot. in Rom. vi. 17. Jer. xxxii. 39, 40. Ezek. xxxvi. 27. Rom. viii. 14. Ephes. iv. 30. Gal. iv. 5, 6. Ephes. i. 14. 1 Pet. i. 3. Rom. viii. 19, 23. Rom. ix. 23. 2 Cor. v. 4. Phil. iv. 7. 1 Pet. i. 8. John xvi. 22. 24. 'Exπigovles xaípovoi. Arist.
hope, and excellency of the thing hoped, must needs the joy, therefrom resulting, receive its sweetness and stability.
By all this which hath been spoken of the mission of the Spirit in such abundance after Christ's sitting at the right hand of God, we should learn with what affections to receive the gospel of salvation,-for the teaching whereof, this holy Spirit was shed abroad abundantly on the ambassadors of Christ; and with what heavenly conversations to express the power, which our hearts have felt therein, to walk as children of the light, and as becometh the gospel of Christ, to adorn our high profession, and not to receive the grace of God in vain. Consider, first, that the word, thus quickened, will have an operation, either to convince unto righteousness, or to seal unto condemnation; as the sun, either to melt, or to harden; as the rain, either to ripen corn, or weeds; as the sceptre of a king, either to rule subjects, or to subdue enemies; as the fire of a goldsmith, either to purge gold, or to devour dross; as the waters of the sanctuary, either to heal places, or to turn them into salt-pits. Secondly, According to the proportion of the Spirit of Christ, in his word revealed, shall be the proportion of their judgement who despise it. The contempt of a great salvation and glorious ministry, shall bring a sorer condemnation. "If I had not come and spoken unto them," saith our Saviour, "they had not had sin." Sins against the light of nature are no sins in comparison of those against the gospel. "The earth which drinketh in the rain that falls often on it, and yet beareth nothing but thorns and briers,-is rejected, and nigh unto cursing."" Thirdly, Even here God will not always suffer his Spirit to strive with flesh; there is a day of peace, which he calleth "our day;" a day wherein he entreateth and beseecheth us to be reconciled: but if we therein judge ourselves unworthy of eternal life, and go obstinately on till there be no remedy, he can easily draw in his Spirit, and give us over to the infatuation of our own hearts, that we may not be cleansed any more, till he have caused his fury to rest upon us."
We see likewise by this doctrine whereupon the comforts of the church are founded; namely, upon Christ as the first
1.Ezek. xlvii. 11.
m Heb. vi. 7,8.
k Heb. ii. 2, 4.
1 John xv. 22.
n Ezek. xxiv. 13.