« ElőzőTovább »
What is the object of ploughing? It is to prepare a proper seed bed as the basis of all economical cultivation. We often plough in the fall. Is it merely to get through so much work? It ought to be to lay up the soil to the mellowing influ
ences of the frosts of winter. Properly ploughed, the frequent freezing and thawing have a wonderful effect in making the soil loose and friable for the reception of seed in spring
In our frequent and repeated ploughing in spring, our object is to expose a fresh surface to the air, to be acted upon by the weather, and thus to get the soil into a loose and mellow condition for the growth of plants. We may, at the same time, often effect other and incidental objects, such as extirpating or burying weeds, cov. ering manure, &c.; but the ultimate object is, in all cases, the formation of a proper seed bed.
Every farmer knows the conditions essential to this object. He knows his land must be in good heart, either naturally rich or enriched by manure; he knows it must be mellow en to give free access to ir and water, without which the ma. nures he has buried in it will not decompose in the soil to basten on the germination of seeds.
To form an opinion of the work of two ploughs it would be useless to try them on land already in a tolerably loose and friable condition. Scarcely any plough could fail to do good work on such land, or at any rate there could be no fair and satisfactory test of the capabilities of the iwo implements. We must take them upon sward land, where the form and position of the furrow will be preserved, with the sod as the mould-board left it.
If, as we have intimated, the great point of ploughing is to expose a fresh surface to the air, it is demonstrable that this is effected by laying the land in the form of ribs. The greatest quantity of soilis thus exposed, and the greatest amount of earth is thrown up in ribs, when the surrow-slices are laid up at an angle of forty-five de grees; and this is effected when the depth is to their breadth as 7 to 10. This does not limit or affect the depth of ploughing, but refers to the proportions only, and these depend very much on the make of the plough. If the edges or cutting surfaces : of the implement are so set that the cut surfaces of the sod are at right angles to each other, and the surface of the mould-board where the surrow-slice is given off is at the angle of forty-five degrees to the share, the conditions are in favor of laying the furrow-slice as indicated above.
Naw, for sward land ploughed in the fall, it appears to us of considerable advantage to plough as suggested, so as to give the soil the greatest possible benefit of the long, weathering of winter.' But in some cases it becomes desirable toʻplough and plant sward land in spring. Then the mellow surface left behind the double inouldboard, or Michigan plough, is often very desirable, and by this the surface sod is completely and flatly buried, not to be turned up the same season,
TOADS. It may not be known to everybody that toads are very useful in destroying insects injurious to vegetation, especially such as abound in the night. The more toads you have in the garden the better. Th are not, to most people, particularly agreeable objects to meet; they are not, by any means, remarkable for beauty, but many of their habits are curious, and worthy of careful study. Never suffer them to be destroyed, therefore, but rather give them the range of the garden unmolested.
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. TATS excellent institution, located in the city of Boston, has entered upon its career of usefulness under the most favorable auspices. It is designed to teach the practical application of the sciences to the mechanic, arts, to establish a museumn of practical art, a school of design, a school of mines, and to act as a Society of Arts, Though still young in years, its endowinent, though wholly
inadequate to its future wants and its vast and varied plans of usefulness, already exceeds a quarter of a million of dollars. One wing of its building has been erected upon the Back Bay lands, and it is now ready for occupation by the classes that attend its instructions. The Institute will be in a position to employ the highest scientific talent in the country in the development of our vast material resources. We heartily commend it to the attention and patronage of the public.
THE MASS. AGR. COLLEGE, now located at Amherst, is not yet in a condition to receive students. The buildings are in process of erection on a farm of four huna dred acres, and another year will probably witness the opening of the institution.
NITROGEN. This most important element, or gas, is found in all animals and plants. It is essential to the perfection of plant growth, and to the formation of animal muscle. It is not supposed to be poisonous, but rather inert; and yet it does not support combustion. Put a burning candle in a vessel full of it, and it immediately goes out. It has neither color, nor taste, nor smell.
All substances containing it have a tendency to decay. It easily unites with oxy. gen, by a law of definite proportions. Nitric acid is excessively corrosire, and so it speedily destroys nearly all substances with which it comes in contact. It is one of the most valuable constituents of manure, and is what gives to manure its forcing properties. It is necessary for plants, especially in their early periods of growth, and they can hardly make a rigorous start without it; and unless they find it in the manure, their growth will be stunted and weak.
The action of nitroyen extends not only to the mere vegetable portions of the plant, but also to thu seed. As the seed ripens, a part of the nitrogen passes from the stock, and goes to the formation of the seed. The straw of ripened grain, there. fore, is poor in nitrogen, and the lower part is poorer than the upper.
But to render the nitrogen, found in all good manure, fit for the food of plants, it must putrefy, and thus pass into ammonia or into nitric acid. In this new form it is readily absorbed by plants, both by the roots if it is found in the soil, and the pores of the leaves if it is found in the air. If hone dust, or any animal excrement, or any animal urine, is first fermented and decomposed, it is absorbed all the more rapidly. and the action of the manure is what is called quick. Ammonia, it will thus be seen, is putrid nitrogen. The time when the plant most requires manure is during its most vigorous growth. After that has passed, no manure, however rich, can help it. In guano, soot, or ammoniacal salts of any kind, this putrefactive action has already taken place, and hence those manures act quickly.
HOW MUCH MANURE DO WE USE ON AN ACRE ? An acre of land contains 43,560 square feet, 4,840 square yards, or 160 square rods. By those who have used guano, it is said 300 pounds is sufficient to manure anacre: 332) pounds would give just one ounce avoirdupois, to the square yard. One cubic yard would give a trifle over one cubic inch to the square foot. A cubic yard of highly concentrated manure, like night soil, would, if evenly and properly spread, manure an arre very well. A cubic yard of long manure wilt weigh about 1,400 pounds; a cubic foot, not far from 50 pounds. A cord contains 128 cubic feet; a cord and a quarter would give about a cubic foot to the square rod. If liquid manure be used, it would take 170 barrels to give one gill to a square foot upon an acre, which would be equal to about 50 pipes or large bogsheads. It would be quite useful if farmers would be a little more specific as to the amount of manure applicd.
BIRDS. We know of nothing more cruel and heartless than the wholesale slaughter of the small birds, so common in many of our towns. The farmer owes more to birds than he is apt to admit. They destroy innumerable insects wbich would prey upon his fruits and injure his crops. If the robin, the cherry-bird, the cat-bird, or any other, is disposed to make a dive at the strawberry bed or the cherry tree, there arc modes of preventing them from taking all. If they want a few, better let them have them than to kill them. Few farmers are sufficiently alive to the importance of protecting these birds. They destroy some varieties of caterpillars in immense numbers. M. Trouvelot, who is raising worms, that feed on our native forest trees, for the manufacture of silk, in the town of Medford, Massachusetts, has great difli culty in protecting them from the birds. Of two thousand worms which he placed upon one oak tree near his door, the birds destroyed all but six.
BATS. DON'T destroy the bats. They do an untold amount of good in catching the nightAying moths, some of which are the parents of the most destructive
worms and insects. Nor do they do any harm. There was a time when we, in common with most other boys, made a practice of striking down every bat we saw, with a sort of feeling that we were doing a good thing. It was a mistake, and we are sorry to have a single bat on our conscience. Bats do good, and only good, and the farmer and
POETRY, ANECDOTES, &C.
THE NATIONAL REJOICING.
VIGILANCE AND ENERGY.
A distinguished general in the U.S. army, 0, who that shared them ever shall forget
in his order respecting the contest over Fort Th' emotions of the spirit.rousing time,
Steadman, said, Two lessons cau be learned When, breathless in the mart, the people met, from these operations - one, that no furtiEarly and late, at evening and at priune
fied position, however strong, will protect an When the loud cannon and dhe merry chime army from an intrepid aud audacious enemy, Hailed news on news, field on field vas unless vigilantly guarded ; the other, TRAT won!
NO DISASTER OR MISFORTUNE IS IRREPARABLE When Hopo, long doubtful, soared at length WHERE ENERGY AND BRAVEKY ARE DISPLAYŁ.) sublime,
IN THE DETERMINATION TO RECOVER WHAT IS And our glad oyes, awake as day begun,
LOST, and to proúiptly resume the offensive.” Watched Joy's broad banner rise, to meet the rising sun!
HYMENEAL POETRY. 0, those were honi's when thrilling joy repaid
MINISTER. A long, long course of darkness, doubts, and This woman wilt thou have, fears!
And cherish her for life? The heart-sick faintness of the hope delayed, Wilt thou love and comfort her, | The waste, the woe, the bloodshed, and the
And seek no other wife?
That stands beside me now;
Aud bave no other frow.
And for your husband will
• You take this nice young man ? LOOKING UP AND LIFTING UP.
Obey his slightest wish,
And love him all you can ? It is horrible for a man to envy and writhe
SHE. when he regards those above him, scorn and l'll love him all I can, loathe when he regards those beneath him.
Obey him all I choose, Alas, for the man who hates upward, instead If when I ask for fando of revering; despises downward, instead of
He never does refuse. commiserating! Gazing on our superiors,
MINISTER. we ought to admire and aspire; gazing on
Then you are nian and wife, our inferiors, we ought to pity and help.
And buppy may you be; Then our mood and posture in society will
As many be your years redeemingly sublime and soften into the
As dollars be my fee. twofold attitude of looking up to those better off than we, and lifting up those worse off than we.
BY JOSH BILLINGS.
The poshun that skeuel heouses aro cheap.
er than staits prisons. Daniel Webster once remarked, “Small is the sum that is required to patronize a enough kant be governed by anybody but
The nosbun that a people who have brains newspaper, and amply rewarded is its pa themselves. tron, I care not how humble and unpretending the gazette which he takes. It is next raise than anything else.
The noshun that men are a better crop to to impossible to fill a sheet with printed matter without putting into it something think az you do, try and make him do az you
The posliun that if you kant make a man that is worth the subscription price. Every think. parent whose son is away from home at
The noshun that the United States is liable school should supply him with a newspaper. at euny time to be donbled, but ain't liable I well remember what a marked difference at enny time to be divided. there was between those of my schoolmates
The noshun that Unkle Sam can thrash who had and those who had not access to his own children when they need it. newspapers. Other things being equal, the
The poshun that the Yankees are a foreorfirst were always superior to the last in de dained rase, and kant be kept from spredbate, composition, and general intelligence.”
ding and striking in, enny more than tar
pentine when it wunce gets luce.
THE SICK DYER.
My patrons all, both far and nigh, There is a remedy - or there's none:
Wish I may longer live to dye; If there is one, try and find it;
When well, to them my work I'll give If there isn't, never mind it.
For I must dye that I may live.
ODE FOR THE BURIAL OF PRESIDENT
LINCOLN In the Pacific Monthly we find the follow. ing idea prettily expressed by Geo. Cooper :- At tbe great meeting in New York, the Another little private
following ode, written by William C. Bryant, Mustered in
was read by Rev. Dr. Osgood :-
O, slow to smite and swift to spare,
Gentle, and merciful, and just,
Who, in the fear of God, didst bear
The sword of power, a nation's trust,
In sorrow by thy bier we stand,
Amid the awe that bushes all,
And speak the anguish of a land
That shook with horror at thy fall.
Thy task is done; the bond are free;
We bear thee to an honored grave,
Whose noblest monument shall be
The broken fetters of the slave.
Pure was thy life; its bloody close
Hath placed thee with the sons of light,
Who perished in the cause of right. The following peculiar "notis ” was found posted in a little town in Delaware :* REWARD. - Lost or strade from the Pre
Soon after the death of the poet Wordomuse of the subscriberr, a sheepe all over worth, a man met a farmer of the neighborwhite, one leg was blakk and half his body, hvod,' and said to him, “ You have had a All pursons shall receive five, dols to bring great loss! Why, you have lost the great him back. He was a she goat,"
poet!” “0, ay,” said the farmer, “he is Homes are more often darkened by the dead; but ah hev no doubt t wife will carry continual recurrence of small faults, than by on t'business, and make it as proficuable as the actual recurrence of any vice. These
ivver it was." evils are apparently of very dissimilar mag.
“ Missis," said a little red-haired girl, with nitude; yet it is easier to grapple with one
å png nose and bare feet, " mother says you than the other.
will oblige her by lending her a stick of fire“My brethren,” said Swift in a sermon,
wood, filling this cruet with vinegar. putting " there are three kinds of prido, namely, of
a little soft soap in this pan, and please not birth, of riches, of intellect. I shall not let your turkey gobblers roust on our trees.' speak of the latter, none of you being liable
The 49th Ohio Natiopal Guard, commandto that abominable vice."
ed by Colonel De Wolf, were ordered to report A young lady was heard to declare that at Johnson's Island. One of the companies, she couldu't go to fight for the country, but upon disembarking, was ordered to fall in she was willing to allow the young men to
and march off by their captain, who did not go. and die an old maid -- which she thought know a sinzle çonimani, in this wise : was as great a sacrifice as anybody could be
“Choose partners, gentlemen, get in two called upon to make.
rows, and march endways, as you did yes
terday.” A Frenchman was asked his opinion of the Derby races. He s vread his palms, shrugged
At a school for contra band children in his shoulders, raised his eyebrows, and said,
Northern Alabama, the teacher used the " Here dey come, dere dey go: pay me one
phrase " common sense." and asked what hundred pounds. Mau foi, voilà tout !” (My sive from a boy of ten: “ Not to steal, to be
it meant. The reply was prompt and decifaith, that's all.)
have yourself, and not to cuss and swear." A contemporary speaks of wedded bliss in the following poétic strain :
A farmer wbo lives in “Hardscrabble." “ Heaven bless the wives; they fill our hives drought and poor land together, his grass
Contral New York, says that owing to the With little bees and loney;
was so short he had to lather it before be They ease life's shocks, they mend our
could inow it, and when it was dry, to rake socks, But don't they spend the money!”
it with a fine tooth comb. “ Colonel W.is a fine-looking man, an't he?". said a friend." Yes," replied another.' “I
LITTLE THINGS. was taken for him once." “ You? Why, Hearts good and true hare wishes fow, you're as nigly as sin!” “I don't care for that In narrow circles bounded; I was taken for him. I indorsed his note, and And hope that lives on what God gives, was taken for him - by the sheriff !”
Is Christian hope well founded. A week filled up with selfishness, and the Small things are best; grief and unrest Sabbath stuffed full of religious exercises, To rank and wealth are given; will make a good Pharisee, but a poor Chris But little things, on little wings, tian.
Bear humble souls to heaven 1
OUR COUNTRY'S FLAGE 3
My 7. 2, 12, 11, 15, 5 is the butcher-tird. Dlazoned in song and illumined in story,
My 23, 12, 11, 23, 4, 16 is the popular namo Wave o'er us all who inherit their fame.
of several species of birds allied to the Holmes.
thrushes. All day long that free Flag tossed
My 23, 24, 4 is the popular name of a group Over the heads of the rebel host;
of nocturnal accipitrine birds. Ever its torn folds rose and full
My 12, 5, 22, 8, 10, 11, 4 is a bird allied to the Ou the loyal winds that loved it well.
Whittiør. My 12, 23, 4, 4, 3, 12 is an insessorial or O, raise the glorious ensign high,
perching bird. And let the nations see
My 17, 9, 16, 11, 12, 24, 18, 1, 5, 12 is a The « lag for which our fathers fought
web-footed water-fowl. To make their country free!
My 19, 13, 3, 24 is a migratory aquatic fowl,
Anderson. My 12, 21, 11, 4 inhabits the margins of rivThe shot whereby the old Flag fell
ers and ponds. From Sumter's battered citadel,
My 20, 14, 24, 15 is a rapacious bird. Struck down the lines of party creed,
My whole is a true saying. And made ye Que in soul and deed.
I one day went to dine
With an old friend of mine,
One always kind and hearty;
I met there a thrung
of old and of young On, brothers, on, for the Flag that is peer
In fact, a first-rate party. less!
the sky; When the dinner was o'er, Striped from the rainbow, and starreil from
My friend brought from his store OA, with a sturily step! Dauntless and fear
Wines fit for king or queen ;
But my surprise was great
When I saw on a plate
A single fruit for dessert! Fling out your field of azure blue!
This fruit they all admired,
And to possess it desired;
This statement cannot be denied ;
But, to prevent a dispute,
He took one fifth from this fruit,
And thus the wants of all supplied ! We follow the Flag that oft has led us
To victory in the d:tys now gone;
A steamboat, fastened by a hawser to a Apon. point on the shore, is urged by the wind
perpendicular to the current with a force of
60,000 pounds, and down the stream by a ANSWER TO PROBLEM X.
force of 80,000 pounds. Determine the tenGeese, 57, cents.
sion upon the hawser, and what angle does Ducks, 311a “
it make with the current ? ANSWER TO PROBLEM Y.
There are three numbers in arithmetical First rope, 50 feet.
progression, such that the product of the Second 70.5.“
first by the third is eqnal to the square of Third 86.5
the second, minus one half of the third ; and Fourth "
four times the quotient arising from dividing ANSWER TO PROBLEM Z. the third by the common difference, is equal 2 and 3.
to the first. What are the numbers ?
PROBLEM C. ANSWER TO POUTICAL ENIGMA:
Suppose a pole t0 feet in length (npon the A Wedding Ring.
top of which a squirrel is perched) to stand ANSWER TO CHARADE.
perpendicular to and at the centre of a circu
lar plain 40 rods in dianieter; suppose also, Worm-wood.
ihat two men, A and B, stand npon opposite
sides of this plain, in a right line passing CHARADE.
through its centre, with that part of the
barrels of their guns which is 6-12 foot from We are airy little creatures,
the muzzle resting upon its circumference, All of different form and features; and having exact aim at the squirrel; then One of us you'll find in fat,
suppose the pole to fall toward A until its And a second is in jct;
top has passed through two thirds of the But a third is set in tin,
aistance it would have to pass through in And a fourth a box is in ;
order to reach the plain. and rest there; bow And the fifth, if you'll pursue, far would each be obliged to lower the It will never fly from you.
muzzle of his gun to shoot the equirrel ?