« ElőzőTovább »
SUPREME JUDICIAL AND SUPERIOR COURTS
IN MASSACHUSETTS. (CORRECTED 1865.) By an act of the Legislature of Massachusetts, in April, 1859, the Court of Common Pleas throughout the State, the Superior Court for Suffolk County, and the Municipal Court for Boston, were all abolished, and a Superior Court with ten Judges substituted.
SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT OF Mass., SUPERIOR COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS. JURY TERMS.--For Barnstable and Dukes For Essex Co., (civil) at Salem, 1st Mon. Counties, at Barnstable, 1st Tuesday of of June and Dee., at Lawrence, 1st Mon. May. For Berkshire Co., at Lenox, 2d of March, and at Newburyport, 1st Mon. Tues. of May. For Bristol Co., at New of Sept. ; (crim.) at Lawrence, 4th Mon. Bedford, 20 Tues of Nov.; also at Taun- of Oct., at Newburyport, 2d Món. of May, ton, 3d Tues, of April. For Essex Co., at and at Salem, 3d Mon. of Jan, Salem, 3d Tu. of April and 1st Tu. Nov. For Middlesex Co., (civil) at Lowell, 2d For Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 2d Tu. of Mon. of March and 1st Mon, of sept., April. For Hampden Co., at Springfield, at Concord, 1st Mon. of June, and at 4th Tues. of April. For Hampehire Co., Cambridge, 2d Mon. of Dec.; (crim.) at at Northampton, 3d Tues. of April. For Cambridge, 2d Mon. of Feb., at Concord, Middlesex Co., at Lowell, 3d Tues, of 4th Mon, of June, and at Lowell, 3d Mon. April.; also at Cambridge, 3d Tues, of of Oct. Oct. For Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, For Hampshire Co., at Northampton, 1st Tues. of July. For Norfolk Co., at (civil) 3d Mon. of Feb., 1st Mon. of June, Dedham, 3d Tues. of Feb. For Plymouth and 3d Mon. of Oct.; (crim.) 20 Mon. of Co., at Plymouth, 2d Tues. of May. For June and 3d Mon, of Dec. Suffolk Co., at Boston, 1st Tues. of Oct. For Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 3d Mon. and April. For Worcester Co., at Wor- of March, and 20 Mon, of Aug; and Nov. cester, 2d Tues. of April.
For Hampden Co., at Springfield, (civil)
2d Mon, of March and June, and 1st Mon. LAW TERMS OF SUPREME JUDICIAL of Oct.; (crim.) 3d Mon. of May, and 1st COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS.- A law term Mon, of Dec. of the Supreme Judicial Court shall be For Berkshire Co., at Lenox, (civil) 4th held at Boston on the first Wednesday of Mon. of Feb., June, and Oct.; (crim.) January of each year, which term may be 1st Mon. of Jan. and July. adjourned, from time to time, to such pla- For Norfolk Co., at Dedham, 4th Mon. ces and times as may be most conducive to of April, and 3d Mon. of Sept. and Dec. the despatch of business and the interests For Plymouth Co., at Plymouth, 2d of the public; and all questions of law, Mon, of Feb. and June, and 4th Mon. of whether arising upon appeal, exception, Oct. or otherwise, and from whatever court, For Bristol Co., at Taunton, 28 Mon. of shall be therein entered and determined, March and Sept., and at New Bedford, 2d if the same arise in either of the following Mon, of June and Dec. Counties : --Essex, Suffolk, Middlesex, For Suffolk Co., (civil) at Boston, 1st Norfolk, Plymouth, Bristol, Barnstable, Tues. of Jan., April, July, and October; County of Dukes County, or Nantucket. (crim.) at Boston, 1st Mon. of every month.
For Barnstable Co., at Barnstable, Tues. And law terms of said court shall also next after 1st Mon. of April, and 1st Tues. annually be held as follows:
of Sept. At Lenox, for Berkshire Co., 2d Tues. For Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, 1st of September
Mon, of June and Oct. At Springfield, for Hampden Co., 3d For Dukes County, at Edgartown, last Mon, after 1st Tues. of Sept.
Mon, of May and Sept. At Northampton, for Hampshire • and For Worcester Co.,
(eivil) at Worcester, Franklin Cos., Mon. next after 2d Tues. 180 Mon. of March, Mon. next_after 4th of Sept.
Mon. of Aug., and 2d Mon. of Dec.; and At Worcester, for Worcester Co., 4th at Fitchburg, 20 Mon. of June and Nov.; Tues, after 1st Tues. of Sept.
(crim.) at Worcester, 3d Mon. of Jan., 2d At Plymouth, 3d Tues. of Oct.
Mon. of May, and 3d Mon. of Oct.; and At Taunton, 4th Tues, of Oct.
at Fitchburg, 2d Mon, of Aug.
PROBATE AND INSOLVENCY COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
JUDGES. (CORRECTED 1865.) Suffolk Co., Isaac Ames, Boston.
Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable. Essex Co., Geo. F. Choate, Balem. Nantucket Co., Edw. M. Garduer, Nant, Middlesex Co., W.A. Richardson, Lowell. Dukes Co., Th. G. Mayhew,
Edgartown. Worcester Co., Henry Chapin, Worcester. Hampden Co., John Wells, Chicopee. Franklin Co., Chas. Mattoon, Greenfield. Hampshire Co., Sam. F. Lyman, Northam. Bristol Co., Edm. H. Bennett, Taunton. Norfolk Co., Geo.White, Quincy. (Berksh. Plymouth Co.,Wm.H.Wood, Middleboro'. Berkshire Co., James T. Robinson, West
The Courts for Probate business to be held as now provided by law (see p. 33 of this work); and for Insolvency business to be held in the shire towns of the several counties, and at such other places and at such times as decided by the Judges. Both
PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
COUNTY OF SUFFOLK. - At Boston, July, and 2d Tues. of Nov.; at Great Barcvery Mon, in each month, except July, rington, Wed, next after 1st Tues. of Feb.
and May, next after 3d Tues. of July, and COUNTY OF Essex. - At Salem, Ist next after 20 Tues. of Nov.; at LanesTues, of each month; at Lawrence, 2dboro', 20 Tues, of Jan. and Oct., and Tues, of each month, except April, May, 4th Tues. of April and July; at Adams, July, Aug., and Oct.; at Gloucester, 3d Wed, next after 20 Tues. of Jan. and Oct., Tues. of April and Oct. ; at Newburyport, and next after 4th Túes. of April and 3d Tues. of each month, except March, July, May, Aug., Sept., and Nov.; at Haverhill, 3d Tues. of May and Nov.; at Ips- COUNTY OF NORFOLK. - At Dedham, wich, 3d Tues. of March and Sept. 1st Tues. of every month; at Quincy, 4th
Tues, of Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.; at COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX... At Cam Roxbury, every Saturday, except the 3d, bridge, 20 Tues. of each month, except 4th, and 5th Sat. of July, and the 1st and July, and 4th Tucs. of Jan., Feb., March, 20 Sat. of Aug.; at Wrentham, 3d Tues. April, Aug., Nov., and Dec.; at Lowell, of May, Aug., and Nov.; at Medway, 34 1st Tues. of Feb., April, June, Sept., and Tues. of Feb., June, and Oct. Dec.; at Concord, 1st Tues. of Jan., Mar., May, and Oct.; at Groton, 4th Tues, of COUNTY OF BRISTOL. - At Taunton, 1st May and Sept.; and at Framiugham, 4th Frid, of March, June, Sept., and Dec.; at Tues. of June and Oct.
New Bedford, 1st Frid. of Feb., May.
Aug., and Nov.; at Fall River, 1st Frid. of COUNTY OF WORCESTER. — At W. Jan., April, and Oct., and 20 Frid. of July. Brookfield, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; at Clinton, 3d Tues. of May and Oct.; at COUNTY OF PLYMOUTH. - At Plymouth, Templeton, Thurs. next after 3d Tues. of 20 Mon, of every month, except July and May and Oct.; at Barre, Friday next after Aug, ; at Wareham, 4th Mon, of Oct.; at 30 Tues. of May and Oct.; at Milford, 4th East Bridgewater, 4th Mon, of Feb. and Tues. of May, and Wed. next after 4th Dec.; at Hingham, 4th Mon. of Jarch; at Tues. of Oct.; at Uxbridge, 4th Tues, of Middleboro', 4th Mon, of April and Jan., Oct.; at Fitchburg, Wed. next after 31 and 2d Mon. of July; at Abington, 4th Tues. of May and Oct.; and at Worces- Mon, of May, Aug., and Nov.; at South ter, 1st Tues, of every month.
Scituate, 4th Mon. of June; at Bridge
water, 4ih Mon, of Sept. COUNTY OF HAMPSHIRE. -At Northampton, lot Tues. of every month; at COUNTY OF BARNSTABLE. - At BarnAmherst, 2d Tues, of Jan. and Aug.; at stable, 2d Tues. of Jan., Feb., March, Aug., Belchertown, 20 Tues. of May and Det.; Sept., and Dec., and 3d Tues. of May and and at Chesterfield, 3d Tues. of May and Junc; at Sandwich, 21 Tues. after 1st Oct.
Mon. of Nov.; at Falmouth, 20 Wed. after
1st Mon. of Nov.; at Harwich, 3d Mon. COUNTY OF HAMPDEN. - At Spring of April and last Mon. of Oct.; at Brewsfield, 1st Tucs. of Jan., Feb., March, April, ter, Tues. next after 3d Mon. of April: May, June, July, Sept., Nov., and Dec., at Dennis, Thurs. next after 21 Tues. of and 4th Tues. of April, Aug., and Sept. Oct.; at Orleans, Wed. next after 3d Mon. at Westfield. 3d Tues. of March, June, of April, and Tues, next after last Mon. of Sept., and Dec.; at Monson, 2d Tues. of Oct.; at Wellfleet, Wed. next after last June; and at Palmer, 20 Tuos, of Sept. Mon. of Oct.; at Truro, Thurs. next after
3d Mon. of April; and at Provincetown, COUNTY OP FRANKLIN.- At Greenfield, Frid. next after 3d Mon, of April, and 1st Tues. of every month except Nov.; at Thurs, next after last Mon, of Oct. Northfield, 2d Tues, of May and Sept. ; at Orange, 20 Tues, of March and Dec.; Dukes COUNTY. - At Holmes' Hole vilat Lock's Village, in Shutesbury, 2d Tues. lage, in Tisbury, on the 3d Mon. of April, of July; at Couway, 3d Tues, of May; at and 1st Mon, of Sept., at Edgartown, 3d Charlemont, 4th Tues. of May; at Shel. Mon. of Jan. and July, and 1st Mon. of burne Falle, 2d Tues, of Feb., and 4th March and Dec.; and at West Tisbury, Tues, of Oct.
1st Mon, of June, and 3d Mon, of Oct. COUNTY OF BERKSAIRE. At Lenox, COUNTY OF NANTUCKET, - At Nan. 1st Tues.of Jan., Feb., March, April, May, tucket, on the Thurs. next after the 20 June, Sept., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tues. of Tues, of every month.
THE PERMANENT MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COUNTRY will be organized on the following basis: General officers - one general, five lieutenant-generals, fifty major-generals, and seventy-five brigadier-generals. Tie strength of the army will be nearly as follows: Regular infantry, 45,600; regular cavalry, 14,400; regular artil. lery, 12,000; colored troops, 50,000; Hancock's corps, 30,000; veteran reserve corps, 25,000. Total, 177,000 men.
ELEVATE YOUR CALLING . THERE is a very mistaken notion prevalent in some farming communities that any other calling is more respectable than theirs. The hard handed farmer looks up to the retailer of tapes and teas, to the petti fugging lawyer dabbling in politics, to the mechanic delving at hủs bench or bis forge, as if he were a superior being, gifted with powers or talents greater than his own.' This idea works down from father to son, and as the farmer 18 willing to send his son, the son is willing to go, to run on errands from behind the counter, to copy briefs at the lawyer's desk, to do any of the lowest drudgery of any inechanical einployment, rather than stay at home and share in the fabors and the protits, the toils and the pleasures, of the paternal acres. It is this impression that fills our academies and colleges with youth who might far belter devote their time to a sensible course of reading and studies relating to the nature of soils, the principles of growth, and the best modes of cultivation, than 10 think of graduating, hal educated, with a diploma on which they are to base their respectability and fame.
There are of course many who possess a peculiar talent for some particular pur Buit. Que will have a skill in drawing, which will enable him to meet with emident success as an architect, another will manifest ability in argument; a third possesses a remarkable memory, which will enable him to acquire languages with facility, or a peculiar quickness in mathematics. All these natural and strong inclinations are to be taken into consideration.
But the question comes home to the farmer with peculiar force, What is be to do? How is he to elevate himselfHe has much to do. Let bim first gam and feel a proper degree of self-respect, and a just appreciation of his calling. Begin on the farm itself. Begin by making improvements, and think and study modes of cultiva tion best adapted to your particular soil and position. Don't disdain to take advan tage of the experience and observation of others. In a word, educate yourselves for your calling by reading the best books and the best papers, and if you don't believe in book knowledge, prove to the world that your own way is best, by calling the at tention of the makers of books, the agricultural committees, to your own farm, and let them see that these things, which are conned and written iu a book, are after all inferior to your own unstudied and practical labors.
Thus will you elevate your calling in the eyes of the community.
POULTRY. TAE poultry upon the farms of New England, insignificant as it seems to be, forms no mean part of our wealth, while it contributes largely to our comfort and prosperity. It pays better, in a small way, in proportion to the cost of food consumed, than any other stock on the farm. It would be well to exercise more care in the selection and management.
What kind of fowls shall we keep? That depends on circumstances. If the object is to get the largest amount of eggs for market, there can be no doubt that we should select the everlasting layers, those that show a constant inclination to lay, and little desire to sit. Such are the Black Spanish, and all the varieties of the Hamburgs. Now, as there must be some to sit and to continue the race, suppose you keep one of these fine breeds to do the laying, and buy a few good Brahmapootra pullets in the fall to bring up broods the next spring. You would then get a fine lot of eggs from them by midwinter or very early in spring, and they would manifest an inclination to sit by the time the Black Spanish got ready to f)} their nests with eggs.
But if you are 80 situated as to prefer to raise chickens and poultry for sale, the Dorkings present themselves as the most desirable for early sales. They are full and deep in the breast, furnishing a great amount of fine-grained white and delicate meat, with less offal or waste than any other breed.' Besides, they attain a greater weight in proportion to the food consumed. The speckled or gray Dorkings are a little bardier than the white.
Either of these breeds, the Black Spanish or the Dorking, would pay better in the long run than our chance fowls, a mixture of little of every thing. The larger Asi atic breeds are not very remarkable as layers, as a general rule, though some of them, like the Brabmas, will lay through the winter better than many other varieties. They come often, but not uniformly, to early maturity; that is, they begin to lay younger than some other breeds.
The game fowls are also superior table birds, pretty good layers, and, on the whole, profitable to keep, if it were not that they are so pugnacious that even the chickens will tear each other's eyes out if they can.
We need to take more pains with poultry in the winter. A good warm shelter, with a glass front open to the sun, and the floors well supplied with sand and loam, often renewed, will make them do better than it allowed to shirk for themselves in the barn. A little fresh meat, potato skins, oyster-shells, &c., are eaten with avidity, and induce an earlier laying than the ordinary mode of treatment. Fresh, pure
INSECTS INJURIOUS TO VEGETATION. ONE of the greatest drawbacks to success in farming is the immense loss to which we are subjected from the ravages of insects. It is seldom that they are so numerous or so destructive as they were last year; but they are a source of great annoyance and injury every year. In many cases we could guard against them by well-known means of prevention. That it is for the farmer's interest to use overy means in his power to protect himself, no one will deny; and yet, from laziness, in. attention, or ignorance, many neglect to use the proper means at the proper time, and hence the loss of crops which would be a source of great profit and satisfac tion. One of the most common of our insect enemies is
THE TENT CATERPILLAR. It makes its nests upon the apple tree, and especially upon the wild cherry. It should be followed up with the utmost care, first by searching for its eggs near the ends of the small branches and twigs. They are easily seen, any time during the late falt and winter to the end of April, in little round bracelets encircling the iwigs, to which they are glued on by a kind of water proof varnish. Each cluster contains a great many eggs, three or four hundred, and when found, as it can be without difficulty in young orchards, the twigs should be taken off and burned. The advantage of this mode is, that it may be done at a leisure season, when other work is not pressing. If you want to get familiar with these clusters of eggs, look for them first on any wild cherry by the roadside, and then go and examine the orchard trees.
The next method is to destroy the nests, which are begun soon after the apple and cherry trees put forth their buds, early in May. Take a long pole and fix a brush upon the end of it, dip the brush into common rock oil, or crude petroleum, aud twist off the nests. To do this effectually, watch the habits of the young worms, so as to take them when they are in their nests, which is early in the morning, usually about noon, and just at night. They go in also during a shower. Sometimes this has to be repeated two or three times, but it pays to do it thoroughly. In many places the trees suffer beyond measure from
THE CANKER-WORM. This insect is rapidly spreading. It appeared last year in many places where it had not been observed before, and whenever it gets hold of a section, wide spread destruction is sure to follow. It is more difficult to attack than the caterpillar, from the fact that it is more minute, and peculiar in its habits. To understand it fully, it should be borne in mind that the female insert, which lays the eggs, is wingless, and that she comes up out of the ground to ascend the trunk of the tree. The male moth is winged, and flies about the tree to meet his mate. The first and surest mode of attack is to prevent the ascent of the tree by the female. If this can be done you may be sure of your fruit.
There are various ways invented (some of them patented) for effecting this. The most common is that of tarring the tree around its trunk. The objection to this is, that it requires to be frequently renewed. A cold night so stiffens the coating of tar that the insect can walk over it. But if begun in season, and followed up, it is efectual. The failures in this mode, if there have been any, arose from not beginning till the insect had begun to run up, or from doing the work imperfectly.
A cheap and simple mode would be to take a strip of sheepskin, with the wool on, and tack it around the trunk, then moisten it occasionally with rock oil or crude petroleum. The oil would require to be renewed every few days, and after a smart rain. It should be applied as early as the middle of October, perhaps as early, some years, as the first, and continued till the cold weather in December, then again from about the middle to the end of March. This mode of protection might cost twenty-five cents a tree. I would strongly recommend its careful application.
The time when the insect comes out of the ground varies somewhat according to the season, but usually the middle of October will be quite early enough,
Of the patent trec protectors, some propose to use a grooved inverted glass gutter, extending around the tree; others to furnish a trough, to be filled with some fluid,
like bitter water obtained in evaporating salt water; and one of the best, a simple square box around the tree, with plain horizontal glass jutting out around the top:
Most of these modes, if applied in season and followed up, will perfectly protect the trees, and ought by all means to be resorted to. After planting å tree, and nursing and tending it for years, till it comes into bearing, it is poor economy to neglect to protect it from the ravages of insects and the destruction of fruit.
But the eggs can be found and removed, like those of the caterpillar, by searching in the winter or in April. They are glued on to the small branches near the ends, not in bracelets extending round the twig, but in round clusters, each containing about two hundred eggs. Search for these and remove them, if you have neglected to prevent them from being laid.
ASHES AS MANURE. UNLEACHED wood ashes contain a larger amount of potash and other alkaline salts than leached, but in leaching a certain proportion of lime is used, and they likewisc contain a considerable percentage of alkaline salts, and nearly all the phos. phoric acid which they originally held. We have always regarded leached ashes as less active and efficient, and ofcourse not quite as valuable for farming purposes as unleached.
It is for their mineral or inorganic constituents that we apply ashes at all. They furnish these constituents in a form easily accessible to plants, and the most obvi. ous rule in their application is to put them upon lands which already abound in organic substances, or else to apply them in connection with organic manures.
On old grass lands, or on lands newly broken up, they have a very marked ef. rect, especially on grain crops. They help restore the proper balance between the mineral and organic constituents of the soil. But in practice it is probable that it is more judicious to use them in connection with, and as an auxiliary to, other ma. pures. They mix readily with boncs, night soil, plaster, and other similar manures, and are highly beneficial. For reclaimed peat and swale lands abounding in vegetable mould or humus, they are most excellent.
Ashes are good when applied to all soils. Being made up of the inorganic or mineral constituents of plants themselves, they are easily rendered soluble by the influence of various salts with which they come in contact in the soil, or the air, and by the vital power of plants, so that they are rcadily taken into the circulation, and again do the service which they have already done in the plants from which they came ; but they act less perceptibly on soits which contain already a supera bundance of mineral in proportion to the organic constituents of plants.
Leached ashes are good on all the soils where unleached may be used to advantage. The diference in their action is one of degree, and not of kind. Like pure wood ashes, they possess the power, to some extent, of neutralizing the free acids in the soil. This is due to their alkalıne constituents. They bave the effect also of rectifying the excess of vegetable matter in rich soils, and of acting, to some extent at least, as absorbents of ammonia. Their mechanical effects upon the soil must be very similar.
In practice it is generally of greater economy to buy leached than unleached ashes. But then it is important to know, if possible, the kinds of wood from which they are made. The ashes of different kinds of wood differ widely in composition and value. Made from the burning of beech wood they yield nearly a fifth part of their whole weight of phosphates, while those made from oak contain only four or five per cent. of these valuable ingredients. Every scusible farmer can see that there must be a very great difference in their value as manure. The amount of phosphates in pines and firs is from niuc to fifteen per cent., while the percentage of these constituents in the poplar is about seventeen. In a hundred pounds of the leached ashes of the beech there are as many phosphates as there are in four hundred pounds of fresh human excrements or night soul; that is, there are enough for the growth of four thousand pounds of grain.
We believe the farmer is too apt to overlook the great difference in the real value of ashes. If he buys ashes, they are ashes, without much question as to what kind of wood they come from. Now see what this difference amounts to. You put on, say twenty bushels of pine ashes, and in them you add to the soil about 21 pounds of potash, 27 pounds of phosphoric acid, and 22 pounds of sulphuric acid. Now put on the same quantity of beech ashes, and you add to the soil 221 pounds of potaslı, 56 pounds of phosphoric acid, and 70 pounds of sulphuric acid. This makes a vast difference in the crops. If, therefore, only pine ashes are accessible, they should be used in far larger quantities to effect the same results.
We would say in conclusion, apply ashes, leached or unleached, on soils full of organic matter, if they are to go alone, or else in connection with other and ammo. niacal manures. The farmers of Westphalia have a proverb. tlvat" He pays double who buys no ashes.". If there is any thing in this, no farmer can afford to sell his ashes, as too many of our farmers do. Let him put them as a top dressing upon his oats, or his clover and grass crop, not on clays, but on lands which have been previously manured with barnyard or other coarse manures, and he will find that he pays dearly in the loss of his crops who sells ashes to go off his farm,
WASTE OF MANURES. MANURES may be lost by direct washing or leaching. The most precious ingre. dients of manures are lost in this way, such as potash, phosphoric acid, and am monia. Salts of lime and soda, especially sulphates and chlorides, are readily washed out; hence they are found in all well waters. The loss by leaching is, there. fore, small, except in the lightest and gravelly soils. By chemical change manure may be lost, or become inactive. Boussingault found that in the soil or his garden, which had been highly manured for about six centuries, and which contained a large proportion of nitrogen, abont ninety-six per cent of this ingredient was in active. He limed his garden, and thus rendered a portion of this nitrogen active.