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THE CULTURE OF FRUIT. Fruits are too often considered a luxury rather than a necessary of lifo. The fact is now becoming known that they are among the most health. ful of all articles of food, and ought to be far moro extensively usod.
The annual market value of the apples, pears, cherrios and other fruits of Massachusetts, in 1855, was no less than $1,315,000. The next census will probably raise it to more than two millions. In the last three months of 1858 and the winter of 1859, no less than 120,000 barrels of apples were exported from Boston, four-fifths of which were Baldwins. The pear trop of Massachusetts exceeds $100,000 a year.
A farmer in Dorchester, Mass., from thirteen acres of land, devoted to apples, pears, peaches and currants, gets on an average from $2,500 to $3,000 a year for his crop. A fruit-grower in Roxbury has one acre de.
voted to the pear. The oldest trees are 18 years ; more than balf of them quite young. From two trees, a Dix and a Beurré Diel, he has realized more than $100 a year, and for the whole crop over $1,000 a year. Another fruit-grower near Boston raises from one acre and a half of pear-trees from $600 to $900 a year of marketable fruit. A strawberry cultivator in Belmont raised and sold, in 1858, from two-fifths of an aore, 2,115 boxes of strawberries. This is at the rate of 165 bushels to the acre, and the market value per aore would be at least $1,300.
Wo say, then, cultivate fruit. Set out an orchard, and, if you expect success, do it well. Merely sticking down a tree here and there, without regard to fitness of soil and proper after-culture, will never pay; and, if you can't make up your mind to do it in the best manner, so as to receive the largest and most satisfactory results, don't attempt it, but leave the profits and pleasures of fruit-culture to others who are willing to do the thing right. The eminent success of those who make a specialty of this or any other farm or garden produce, furnishes a striking comment on our common practice of farming more acres than wo have means to farm well.
But what are the essentials of success in fruit-raising?
1st. Thorough drainage. This is indispensable to complete success. The Hon. Marshall P. Wilder, bigh authority in horticulture, says truly :
“We might as well expect to promote the comfort and health of a man by seating him at a luxurious table with his feet plunged in ice-water, as to look for a healthy developicent and longevity of a fruit-tree when planted in a wet and uncongenial soil. The foliage may perform its functions, elaborating and maturing the sap under a genial sky and salubrious air, but the temperature of such a soil below will counteract all the propitious influences above."
If drainage will pay anywhere it will pay in the fruit-orchard. Don't excuse yourself by saying, my soil is bigh and dry, and don't need drain. ing. Try the experiment on any soil, except a light sand, and you will find the fruit of better quality, the trees healthier, thriftier, and freer from diseases, such as spotting of the leaf and fruit, canker, fungi, mosses, and decay of the bark, on the drained than on the undrained soil.
2d. Deep and thorough cultivation. When an orchard is young, and the trees set well apart - say thirty, or better thirty-three feet - some other crops may be grown without much if any injury to the trees; but when the trees are larger, and in bearing condition, any secondary crop, ercept, perhaps, some of the smaller fruits, as raspberries, blackberries or curants is inexpedient. It won't pay to starve your trees to feed a less valuable crop.
Many people, baving trees standing in grass land, will spade up a cirele of two or three feet around the tree, with the idea that they are doing it good. If the tree is very small, it may in some cases be of service ; bat the rootlets of a grown tree are at a much greater distance from the trunk, and a circle dug around it at a distance of the average length of the branches would be far more useful, if not spaded so deep as to cut off and injure the roots. Never more the soil under trees more than four inches deep.
3d. Selection of the best varieties. A few varieties are better and more profitable than many. Get the best, and make a speciality of them; that is, devote yourself to raising them to the highest quality.
The pruning of fruit-trees, the preservation of fruits, and other points conneoted with this subject, will be treated of in our number for 1862.
The tides given in the Calendar pages are for the Port of Boston.
The following table contains the difference between the tune of high water at Boston and several other places.
When the sign is prefixed to the bours and minutes, in the table, the time must be subtracted from the Boston time ; and when the sign + is pretisod, the time must be added to the Boston time. h. m. A. m.
k.m. Albany, +4 12 Charleston, - 4 16 New London,
-2 36 Bay, Buzzard's, - 3 60 Fryingpau Shoals, - 6 00 Newport,
- 3 50 “Narraganset, -3 63 Georgetowo Bar, - 4 30 Norfolk,
-300 " St. Mary's, - 200 Harbor, Amelia, - 3 00 Philadelphia, Bermuda Inlet, -4 30 Island, Block,
-3 53 Plymouth,
0 00 Cape Ann, 0 00 Pr. Edward, 1 00 Portlanı,
-045 * Charles, Rhode, 4 45 Port Campbell,
-330 000 Marblehead, 0 00 Port Jackson,
. 3 30 3 30 New Bedford, - 3 53 Providence,
3 50 Newbury port, -0 16 St. Salvador, u St. Mary,
2 30 New Haven, -1 14 Sandy Hook,
+ 2 67
SOUTHERN RAILROADS. -The following statistics of Southern Railroads, brought down to the close of the year 1859, may afford matter of reflection to those who are ia the habit of speaking with contempt of the enterprise and resources of that section of the country : State. Length. I op:
State. Length. In op. Cost. Virginia, 8.158.5 1.525.7 843,069,360
2,687.0 244.6 $7.578.943 North Carolina, 1,020.0 770.2
701.3 88.5 1,1:31,110 South Carolina, 1,138.0 807.3 19,033,343 Missouri,
31,771,116 Florida, 730.5 289.8 6,865,619
1,434.4 1,162.3 27 348.141 Gheorgia, 1,617.2 1,241.7 25.687.220 Kentucky,
108.5 13,852,064 Alabama,
1,822.4 798.6 20.975,039 Mississippi, 43.1 365.4 9,034,1H
16,828.1 8,796.8 35,960,842 Louisiana, 1,160.0 419.0 16,073,270
The New VALUATION OF Maine. — The table which follows shows the new valuation of the State of Maine, by counties. The Portland Advertiser, from which we copy it, says that although the valuation" is much more correct than that of 1850, yet it is not up to its just and full value throughout the State. Portland returnel her property at full ralue, and had all other places made similar returns, the dlate valuation would nave buen, we think, up to two hundred millions of dollars.” 180. -1860,
-1800. Polls Estates, Polls. Estater.
Polls. Emnter. Polls. Edates. Androscogʻn, 4. 64.152,502 8.551 68,31,892 Piscataquis, 2,844 61,841,1183 3,343 $2,705,:228 Aroostook,
$57.183 2.(198 1.353,237 Sagadahoc, 4,074 3,578,75 4,0 19,051, +34 Cumberld, 11,759 16,777,064 15,038 36,361,3 Sonnerset, 6,154 1,035,697 7,307 1,1355444 Franklin,
8,805 2,793,433 4.380 4,5.443 Waldo, 8.789 6.86,1 10,497 9.64.147 Hancock, 6.451 5.844,33 7.810 6,5:20,5.4 Washington, 7,207 5.92,01 8.312 8.45 Kennebec, 10.277 12,143.980 11,684 15,273.355 York, 10,509 12,390,346 13,138 19,135,618 Lincola,
9,142 8.179,197 11,343 13,478.147 Oxford, 6.0 4.638,876 8,286 7.834,162
106,490 100,037,809 128.869 164,714, 108 Penobscot, 12.024 9,109.666 14,438 14,524,337
The locrease of polts is 23,634, and of estates 84,676,199 dollars.
How to SECURE THE RETURN OF LETTERS XOT CALLED FOR. --Thousands of letters, unisdirected, or not called for at the post-office, annually find their way to the deal letter office at Washington - a bourn from which very few misguided missives ever return. The law, however, recently enacted, provides a way for the return of letters to their writers. It is lawful to request the postmaster at the office to which the letter is directed, to return it unless called for within thirty days; and when this request is made it becomes the duty of the postmaster to return it to the writer withcut expense to him. This request can be printed on the flap of an envelope, and would read as follows: PosTMASTER OF
Please return to the undersigned unles called for within thirty days This arrangement will commend itself to business men who have an extended correspornicnce, and without doubt be generally mlopted.
FRACDOLENT NOTICES OF MARRIAGES, ETC. - The following is among the acts passed by the Legislature of Massachusetts at the session of 1860 :
An Act concerning Praudulent Notices of Births, Marriages and Deaths.
Any person who shall wilfully send to the publishers of any newspaper, for the purpose of publication, a fraudulent notice of the birth of a child, or of the marriage of any parties, or of the death of any queryon, shall, upon conviction thereof, be pupjisbed by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars. Approved April 4, 1860.;
TABLE OF SIMPLE INTEREST, AT 6 PER CENT.
So arranged that the interest on any sun may be at once ascertained. Princi-139. Week 1 Month.j1 Year.|| Princi- 1 Day. 1 week. I Month. 1 Year.
pal. D. X. 1).c.m.D. c. m. 1.c.m. piul. ID.c.m.n.c.m. D.C. m. D. c. m. Cts. 20 0 0 0 000 10 12 Dol.700 1 20 8 7 0 35 0
3000 00 0 0 0 0 10 1 81 800 1 3 0 10 0 0 40 0 SO
9010 0 0/0 0 1 0 0 40 5 4 50010 8 3 0 62 5 2 50 30 ) Dolls. 10 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 50 60l 600 0 10 00 15 0 3 0 0 36 )
2 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 12 0 700 0 11 5 0 87 5 3 50 0 42 ) 30 0 00 0 210 1 50 18 ON 8000 13 3 1 000 4 0049 0 40 0 10 0 410 3 0 0 24 01 900 0 14 8 1 12 5 4 50 64 0 B0 0 10 0 50 2 5 0 30 0 1000 0 16 4 1 25 0 5 0 0 60 0 610 0 10 0 60 3 010 36 0 20000 32 9 2 50 0 10 0 0 120 0 70 0 10 0 7 0 3 50 12 01 30000 49 3 3 75 0.15 0 0 180 0 810 0 10 0 904 0 48 이 4000,0 65 8 500 0 20 0 0'240 910 V 10 1 0 0 4 50 54 0 5000 O 82 26 25 0 25 00:300 0 100 0 20 1 10 5 010 60 ON 60000 98 71 7 50 0 30 0 0,360 0 2010 0310 2 50 10 0 1 200 7000 1 15 18 75 035 004200 300 050 370 15 01 80 01 80001 31 510 000 100 0 480 0 400 0 70 5 010 20 0,2 40 01 9000 1 48 011 25 0 45 0 05-400 500 0 806 20 25 013 00 0 10000 1 64 412 50 0 50 0 0 600
6010 i 007 510 30 0/3 60 120001 97 315 00 0600 07:20 0 Where the interest is at the rate of seven per cent. the year, add one sixth to the procluct, -- of eight per cent., add two sixths, &c. Where at the rate of five per cent., deduct one sixth, - of four per vnt., deduct two sixths, &c.
d Short and Evy Method of Casting Compound Interest, at 6 per cent. RULE. — Multiply the given sum, is, For 2 years, by 1.1:236
For 7 years, wy 1.503630
For 8 years, boy 1.593848
For 9 years, hy 1.689478
For 10 years, by 1.7908-17
For 11 years, boy 1.898298 NOTE. - This will give the annount of principal and cemenijouni interest for the given number of years. Subtract the principal from the amount, sout it will show the comfwand interest. Any sum of money ai compound inwrest, ut six per ænt. per year, will double itself in eleven years, ten mouths, and twenty-two days.
POST-OFFICE REGULATIONS. (1860.) Letters - A letter not exceeding half an ounce, three cents, pre-paid, under 3000 miles; but over that distance, ten cents, pre-paid.
“A letur, when conveyes wholly or in part by sca w or from a foreign sountry, over 2500 mniles, 20 oưnts; and under 2500, 10 cents, except all cases where the postages have been or shall be adjusted at different rates by postal treaty or convention."
Drop letters, one cent. Advertised letters, one cent in addition to regular postage.
Valuable letters may be registered at the oflice, on payment of regular postage and ire cents additional.
Newspapers, Periodicals, Unnealed Circularm, &c., nut over ð oz., 1 ct. each, to any part of the U. States, or ct. if paid quarterly or yearly in advance.
Newspapers, &c., not over one and a hall ox., half the above rates, if sent within the state where published
Newspapers, papers, and pamphlets, not over 18 pages, 8vo, in packages of not less than eight ounces to one address, one half cent an ounce; though, if separate pieces, the postage may be more.
All transient matter to be pre-paid, by stamps.
Bookno bound or unbound, not over 4 pounds each, 1 cent an ounce under and 2 cents over 3000 miles ; to be pre-paid.
Weekly newspapers free in the county of publication, when transmitted by mail.
Bills and receipts for payments of money for newspapers may be enclosed in subscribóry? papers.
Exchanges between newspaper publishers, for one copy from each office, free.
Newspapers, &c., to be so enclosed that the character can be detrmined without removing the wrapper ; to have nothing written or printed on the paper or wrapper, beyond the lirection, and to contain no enclosure other than the bills or receipts inena Lionel. - To these rules we would adil, always sign your paine, and also direct all letters, &c., sent by mail, p ainly and distinctly ; and use the folded sheet, io pref erence to envelopes, as this saves separating the post-mark from the letter.
LIST OF STATE AND COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES
Bliddlesex Suulli, Jas. w. Brow'l, Fram-
ingham. Sortt. Aroostook, Juel Bean, Presque Isle. Middlesex North, Geo. Stevens, Lowell. Norti Frankihi, J. M. Kempton,
Worcester, llenry R. Kelih, Grafton. Port Keunevec, Jow. Percival, Water- Worcester West, Char. Briniblecom. Barre
Worcester North, William G. Wyman, North Penobscot, John S. Patten, Spring Fitchburg. teld.
Worcester South, David Wight, Jr., SturNorth Somerset, William H. Russell, Bing bridge. hain.
Worcester South East, J. J. Metcall, MenOxford, Elliot Smith, Norway.
Stark weather, Northamptoti.
Norfolk, H. O. Mildreth, Dedham.
Bristol, Lemuel T. Talbot. Taluton.
. Plymouth, Williams Latham, Bridgewater. State Society, Aaron Young, Dover.
Barnstable, S. B. Phimney, Barnstable.
Nantucket, Jas. M. Bunker, Nantucket.
Martha's Vineyard, Henry L. Whiting,
Aguldueck, George Brown, Newport.
State Agricultural Society, Henry A. Dyer,
Hartford, James T. Pratt, Rocky Hill.
New Haven, Washington Webb, New
Litchfield, Dr. J. G. Beckwith, Litchfeld.
Middlesex, D. Barnes, Middletown.
IN YASSACHUSETTS, WITH THE NAMES OF THE SECRETARIES. Amesbury, Geo. Turner. Hingham, T. T. Bouve. Shrewsbury, S. A. Cush'ng. Amherst, H. A. Marsh. Holliston, Austin G. Fitch. Sonthboro, J. S. Savage. Ashfield, Wm. F. Ba-sett. Hopkinton, wulam A. Lin. Shelburne, D. O. Fisk. Belchertown, S. W. E. God coln.
Sonth ladley. H. W. Juuld. dard. Lee, J. A. Royce.
Sterling. Wzra Sawyer. Bernardston, 1. W. Cush-Leominster, James Bennett. Stockbridge, M. Warner. mian.
Lexington, R. Holmes. Sunderland, J. M. Smith.
METEOROLOGICAL. TIE ATMOSPHERE, GASES, DEW, RAIN AND CLIMATE. The following extracts from a Manual of Agriculture, for the use of families and scliouls, now in preparation under the direction of the diassachusetts State Board of Agriculture, for the purpose of promoting a knowledge and love of the subject among the preople, by George B. Emerson and Charles L. Flint, will be found interesting to our numerous readers.
The air furios a coat about us, which we'tity of vapor which air can hold depends call the atmosphere, which extends up- upon the warmth of the air. Wind blowwards to the height of forty or fifty miles ing from the son is always saturated with from the surface of the earth. It is that moisture. If it blow upon low land warm. which we breathe, and by which we are er than itself, it becomes warmer, and reconstantly surrounded. It is very thin tains all this moisture. If upon land and light, and yet has some weight. colder, and gradually or rapidly higher, it
The wind is air in motion. We feel it, is cooled, and parts with its moisture, and we may feel the still air when we move which descends in the form of rain. our hand rapidly through it, and we feel If air full of moisture is met by air and hear it when we move a stick swiftly much colder than itself, the sudden cool. through it. The air is springy or elastic, ing causes the moisture to be precipitated and is essential to burning or combustion. in torrents of rain. Without air a candle would be extin- Electricity is always evolved during guished, and tire would go out. It is not evaporation, and a cloud formed by evapless necessary to the life of man and other oration must be full of electricity. When animals, and to plants.
a cloud so charged meets another cloud, The air is composed of, first, a thin fluid or a mass of air charged with the opposite or gas, called oxygen (producer of acids), electricity, the opposite electricities unite and, second, another gas called nitrogen in a lightning flash, and the moisture, (producer of nitre), or azote (not sustain- which had been held suspended by the acing life). The air also contains, third, astion of electricity, is precipitated to the gas called carbonic acid, and, fourth, a ground in rain. small quantity of watery vapor, and it But the subject of rain is imperfectly commonly has floating in it smoke and understood. No person can yet predict dust.
with certainty whether next inonth or next Oxygen is the most vital part of the air, week will be dry or rainy. No signs are that which is essential to our life and to entirely reliable. When the sun sets in a combustion. It is invisible, and has no mass of clouds, rain may be expected withtaste por smell.
in a night or a day. But it may not come. Nitrogen does not siistain combustion, When the swallows often dip their wings nor the life and respiration of animals. * * in the water over which they are flying ;
Carbonic acid is the gas which rises in when the crow cries louder and more frethe form of bubbles in the fermentation of quently than common; when the waterbeer, &c., and is formed by the combina- fowl are very active and noisy ; when dogs tion of oxygen and carbon or charcoal. * * appear unusually sleepy and dull; when
Every place occupied by a living being, pigs run about and look uneasy ; when the particularly by night, ought to be venti- croaking of frogs is uncommonly loud and lated ; that is, it ought to have a commu- general, and earth-worms are seen in great nication, by means of a chimney flue, or numbers on the surface, some people exin some other way, with the pure open pect rain. But no prognostics are sure. air. Neither the body nor the mind of a Careful and intelligent observation of person who has to breathe night after the barometer will often enable a person to night the close, foul air of an ill-ventilated foresee rain for some hours, or a day, or room, can remain healthy. **** possibly longer, before it comes. It is only
By daylight, and especially in the sun- of late that precise and systematic observshine, plants absorb carbonic acid. This ations have been carried on, upon a large gas is a compound of oxygen and carbon scale, to discover the laws of storms. or pure charcoal. Plants decompose it, These are found, in America, to con.e from convert the carbon into the substance of the west, and travel rapidly eastward; the wood, stem, leaves, and other solid and, hereafter, we may know certainly the parts, and throw back the oxygen into the approach of a storm many hours before it air.
reaches us. There are other atmospheric phenom- As, in New England, we are liable, in epa, which it is important for the hus- some years, to long droughts in spring or bandman to be acquainted with, such summer, and in others to excessive rain, as dew and hoar frost, which occur during it should be the aim of the farmer to renthe night, when the sky is clear ; snow, der his fields, as far as possible, indepenwhich is frozen rain; hail and hurricanes, dent of variations in the amount of moistwhich are attributed to the action of a ure. A rich soil, rendered rich and melparticular cause called electricity. low by judicious ploughing and thorough
Dew depends upon a property which all cultivation, and by a wise system of under. solid substances have, in a greater or less draining, is the best preventive to the degree, of radiating heat.
consequences of drought which the farmer RAIN. -Water is, from its nature, al- can provide. The saine measures are also ways disposed to evaporate, and the quan- most effectual against excessive rain.
* * * *